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Manning Index of South Australian History
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    Place Names of South Australia - N



    Buildings and Factories

    Further information on the district is in G.H.Manning's -- A Colonial Experience

    Also see Adelaide - Factories and Mills.

    The Norwood and Stepney Institute is discussed in the Register,
    12 February 1857, page 3d.
    Information on a proposed Institute is in the Express,
    21 August 1872, page 2g,
    24 August 1872, page 11b.

    Also see 27 December 1873, page 8b,
    18 September 1875, page 10e,
    27 December 1884, page 39b,
    15 January 1876, page 11c,
    30 May 1883, page 7a,
    12 June 1884, page 3f,
    26 July 1887, page 3f,
    27 August 1897, page 3f.

    A sketch of the Institute is in the Pictorial Australian in
    April 1876;
    a photograph of office holders is in the Chronicle,
    12 September 1903, page 42.
    A presentation to L.H. Sholl, honorary secretary of the Institute, is reported in the Register,
    25 November 1911, page 13b.

    "Norwood and Kensington Institute - A History of 52 Years" is in the Register,
    3 October 1924, page 11e; also see
    The News,
    4 August 1927, page 6f.

    "The Norwood Institute Outrage" is in the Register,
    29 October 1901, page 5a,
    2 November 1901, page 31b.

    The Norwood Institute

    (Taken from Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    The genesis of the modern-day Norwood Institute is with the Norwood and Stepney Institute which was founded in 1856 when its elected officers were Charles Bonney, President; J. Whiting, Treasurer; Mr Pulford, Librarian; Messrs E.M. Martin, J. Wells. D. Harwood, J.W. Lewis, J. Carter and W. Townsend, Committeemen.

    During its first year of operations it was able to effect much at a very small outlay from being favoured, gratuitously, with the use of Mr Holdsworth's school and classrooms and, later, the Congregational Church schoolroom. During that first 12 months there was 'a periodical delivery of lectures' and the library consisted of nearly 200 volumes.

    At a meeting in the Norwood Town Hall in August 1872 several speakers adverted to the many benefits arising from such institutions and opinions were also expressed 'favourable to the introduction of chess and draughts, etc., as a amens of entertainment, in which many who were found loitering in the streets of an evening might be induced to engage.'

    The enthusiasm of those present was intense and it was decided to take the matter in hand at once. Concerts, bazaars and personally solicited subscriptions, all helped to raise the necessary funds. In one year the committee was able to purchase a fine block of land at the western corner of Osmond Terrace and The Parade. Plans and estimates were made for a stately structure which would occupy the whole frontage, but funds would not permit of the committee undertaking the outlay.

    Mr W.H. Abbott, the Government Architect, who gave his labour and talents gratis to the institute, prepared plans for a smaller building and, to raise money, the eastern half of the land was sold to the government and on it now stands the Norwood Post and Telegraph Office. The money from this sale, together with the subscriptions collected and proceeds from various entertainments, formed a fair sum. Parliament granted £750 from public funds and the work was begun in earnest.

    In May 1875 the revised plans were adopted and tenders were then called fro the erection of the long-desired institute. However, the committee considered the prices asked were far beyond their means and, not wishing to hinder the project, decided to build the front portion only - this consisted of an entrance hall and a committee room on the ground floor and a library and reading room upstairs.

    The tender for this from A.G. Chapman for £1,358 was accepted. On 10 September 1875 the foundation stone was laid by the Governor, Sir Anthony Musgrave. The stone portion, as it now stands facing The Parade, was completed in less than twelve months at a cost, including extras, of £1,585 and on 21 December 1876 the first meeting of members was held.

    In February 1877 the reading room was opened for the use of subscribers and furnished with a few newspapers and magazines. Then followed the library with 25 books and 27 subscribers waiting to read them. Mr W. Burn was appointed librarian and held office until he resigned in 1900.

    The institute's activities grew so rapidly that by 1882 the committee considered the time propitious to finish the building according to the original plan. Tenders were called and that of Messrs W. Pett & Sons was accepted. A large lecture hall (62 feet by 32), a lodge-room, retiring rooms and caretaker's quarters were built at a cost of £3,188.

    From time to time the children of the Norwood Public School were instrumental in raising large sums of money toward the building fund and, in May 1883, the new hall was opened with a concert given by the school children. In 1885 the debt on the building and grand piano amounted to £1,200 and was the source of great worry to the different committees over ten years. In 1893, however, by the generosity of Sir Edwin Smith, the debt was wiped off.

    By 1885 the library had grown to such an extent that the committee decided to refrain from letting the main hall, from which they received considerable revenue in rent, and remove to it the books in the rooms upstairs and equip the hall as a joint library and public reading room. The step was a success for what was lost in rent was made up amply in funds gained from the increase of subscribers; in one year alone the extra numbering 146.

    Information on the first town hall, is in the Register,
    23 November 1897, page 5d,
    22 January 1898, page 5a,
    22 January 1898, page 29,
    of a new town hall in the Register,
    18 April 1882, page 5a,
    7 July 1882, page 6e,
    22 April 1882, page 36b.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Town Hall is reported in the Register,
    28 September 1882, page 6a - this article also has a history of the town; also see
    29 September 1882, page 6a,
    30 and 31 July 1883, pages 5c and 6a,
    4 August 1883, page 3e,
    4 August 1883, page 6f (first concert).

    Information on a new hall appears in the Register,
    12 and 16 August 1913, pages 6e and 14g,
    20, 23, 26 and 28 January 1914, pages 10h, 5i, 7b and 9g,
    24 February 1914, page 6f,
    26 January 1914, page 4e,
    9 November 1914, page 3f,
    9 November 1914, page 9h,
    1 September 1915, page 6h.

    A report on the starting of a new Town Hall clock is in the Register,
    1 July 1890, page 5c,
    3 November 1890, page 7b,
    16 April 1891, page 3d; also see
    1 March 1890, page 7c,
    18 February 1890, page 2g,
    11 July 1890, page 4a,
    22 October 1890, page 7d,
    3 November 1890, page 2f,
    16 February 1897, page 2b.
    Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Clocks and Time.

    A housing subdivision in the town in 1883 described the area as a place "where sleepless nights are never known" -
    see Register, 27 October 1883, page 7e.

    Hall & Sons Cordial factory is described in the Advertiser,
    31 October 1884, page 2a (supp.),
    29 November 1884, page 6c,
    10 March 1890, page 7e,
    23 September 1897, page 5b.
    A fire at the premises is reported in the Observer,
    4 October 1890, page 29e.
    An obituary of Henry Hall is in the Register,
    6 August 1924, page 14h.

    Information on St Mary's Hall is in the Express,
    16 July 1888, page 4b,
    19 November 1888, page 4e,
    21 July 1888, page 6d,
    24 November 1888, page 34e.
    Information on Reedy and Koster's Pottery is in the Register,
    22 January 1889, page 5b,
    26 January 1889, page 35b;
    photographs, etc., are in The Critic,
    4 May 1901, page 32.
    Also see Adelaide - Factories and Mills.

    Concerts at the town hall are reported in the Express,
    27 July 1896, page 4d,
    3 August 1896, page 3f.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Masonic Hall is reported in the Register,
    7 February 1898, page 6a,
    7 February 1898, page 2e,
    12 February 1898, page 16c.
    Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Freemasonry.

    A proposal for public baths is reported in the Register,
    12 August 1902, page 4h; also see
    26 August 1902, page 4g,
    10 September 1902, page 6c.

    Information on W. Woodroofe Ltd is in Register,
    25 October 1902, page 9h,
    The News on
    21 November 1927.
    Also see Adelaide - Factories and Mills.

    "A Consumptive Hospital" is in the Register,
    2 June 1903, page 6f.
    Also see South Australia - Health - Consumption.

    Cottage homes for the poor are discussed in the Express,
    31 May 1904, page 2c,
    26 July 1904, page 3i,
    27 June 1905, page 4g,
    11 July 1905, page 4f,
    5 September 1905, page 8h,
    29 January 1906, page 4e,
    20 March 1906, page 4f,
    14 July 1906, page 9h,
    21 August 1906, page 4g,
    5 September 1906, page 6e,
    28 February 1907, page 7f.

    "Municipal Cottage Homes" is in the Register,
    14 June 1904, page 4e,
    9 and 11 August 1904, pages 4f and 6i,
    10 February 1905, page 4e,
    5 September 1905, page 8h,
    21 August 1906, page 4g.
    Historical information on cottage homes is in the Register,
    22 July 1911, page 8g.

    Photographs of a cottage homes fete are in the Observer,
    30 November 1907, page 30,
    9 March 1907, page 30,
    22 November 1913, page 29,
    15 November 1913, page 35b.
    "The Scarfe Homes" is in the Express,
    24 October 1905, page 1g,
    14 July 1906, page 9h.
    "Cottage Homes Big Fete" is in the Register,
    28 February 1907, page 7f,
    photographs are in The Critic,
    6 March 1907, pages 13 and 16; also see
    13 November 1913, page 3f.
    Also see Adelaide - Housing, Architecture and Ancillary Matters - Cottage Homes.

    Information on "Norwood House" in William Street in the 1850s is in the Register,
    11 January 1908, page 7c.

    Information on the Domestic Helpers' Home is in the Express,
    4 November 1912, page 3h;
    a photograph is in the
    28 June 1913, page 31.
    Also see South Australia - Social Matters - Domestic Servants.

    Information on Cresdee & Sons Boiling-Down Works is in the Register,
    19 March 1914, page 9d.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Farming - Boiling Down.

    North Adelaide - Nympsvale
    Place Names



    "Some Old Churches" is in the Register,
    27 November 1902, page 4g.

    Information on and laying of the foundation stone of St Bartholomew's Church is reported in the Register,
    26 October 1855, page 2h,
    26 July 1856, page 4h.
    Its history is in the Register,
    29 December 1923, page 12.

    A bazaar at St Bartholemew's Church is reported in the Observer,
    15 November 1873, page 8c.
    Information on the school is in the Express,
    29 July 1878, page 3a.
    A history of the church is in the Observer,
    25 June 1927, page 60b.

    A history of the Church of Christ is in the Register,
    22 March 1924, page 6,
    The News,
    18 December 1928, page 10c;
    "70 Years of Progress" of the former is in the Advertiser,
    11 June 1927, page 16d; also see
    The News,
    20 December 1927, page 8f.
    An obituary of a church stalwart, Alfred Weir, is in the Observer,
    16 November 1901, page 22d.

    A proposed Church of England is discussed in the Register,
    5 January 1855, page 2h,
    30 March 1855, page 2h,
    "New Church at Norwood" appears on
    1 February 1855, page 2f.

    Information on a Congregational Chapel is in the Register,
    16 April 1856, page 3e.
    A meeting held in the "former Congregational Chapel", re the formation of an East Torrens Institute, is reported in the Register,
    13 May 1856, page 3e; also see
    3 and 7 June 1856, pages 2f and 3g,
    17 and 21 July 1856, pages 3e and 3e,
    21 August 1872, page 3c.

    Information on Clayton Church is in the Register,
    14 April 1863, page 3h.
    The laying of the foundation stone of the Clayton Church schoolroom is reported in the Register,
    13 March 1875, page 6f;
    for its opening see Express,
    15 September 1875, page 3c. See
    10 January 1883, page 6e for the laying of the top-stone of the church.
    For its opening see
    18 May 1883, page 6g.

    A jubilee of Clayton Church is reported in the Register,
    18 and 23 May 1906, pages 5d and 6f,
    23 June 1906, page 4c and
    its history on
    27 October 1923, page 5; also see
    18 and 23 May 1906, pages 4c and 5d,
    The News,
    29 May 1928, page 6d.
    A photograph of the church choir is in the Observer,
    23 April 1910, page 30,
    of the laying of the foundation stone of the Clayton Institute on
    27 May 1911, page 29;
    for its opening see Register,
    2 October 1911, page 10h.

    Information on the Baptist Church is in the Register,
    1 March 1869, page 2h,
    16 April 1869, page 3d - also see
    11 January 1870, page 6c.
    31 December 1870, page 6d.
    A history of it appears on
    20 October 1923, page 5.

    The opening of St Ignatius's Church is reported in the Register,
    8 August 1870, page 3e;
    31 December 1870, page 6c;
    its history appears on
    31 May 1924, page 4; also see
    The News,
    21 August 1928, page 8f.
    Photograph of the winners of a literary competition are in The Critic,
    10 July 1907, pages 14 and 15.
    Also see Place Names - Norwood - Schools.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Primitive Methodist Chapel is reported in the Observer,
    26 October 1872, page 5c.
    The diamond jubilee of the Methodist Sunday School is reported in the Register,
    8 May 1911, page 8e.
    The diamond jubilee of the Wesleyan Church is reported in the Register,
    31 October 1911, page 8f.
    A photograph of the laying of the laying of the foundation stone of the Methodist Church Hall is in the Chronicle,
    5 July 1924, page 38.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Wesleyan Church is in the Register,
    7 March 1878, page 6a; also see
    12 October 1878, page 11c,
    20 April 1883, page 7c,
    8 November 1901,
    31 October 1911, page 8f.
    Its history is recorded on
    12 January 1924, page 14.
    Information on the Sunday school is in the Register,
    9 June 1926, page 5g.

    The Catholic refuge is reported upon in The Irish Harp,
    6 December 1872, page 7c,
    29 May 1874, page 5b,
    28 October 1876, page 6e,
    30 September 1882, page 34a,
    19 September 1885, page 11f,
    9, 10 and 11 August 1886, pages 5b, 5d and 7h,
    17 September 1886, pages 4f-6d; also see
    25 September 1886, page 33e,
    20 September 1887, page 6e,
    20 September 1887, page 4b,
    4 October 1888, page 2b,
    11 December 1895, page 3e,
    22 September 1897, page 2e,
    26 July 1898, page 2c,
    7 November 1913, page 2e.
    Photographs of the convent are in the Observer,
    18 November 1905, page 28.

    The Roman Catholic Refuge at Norwood

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning A Colonial Experience)

    In 1868 the Reverend Julian Tenison Woods, with some assistance from benevolent persons, established, under the sanction of the Bishop, a refuge for fallen women, the establishment being placed under the management of the Sisters of St Joseph. A pamphlet issued in the 1870s says: 'A house was taken for the purpose in Franklin Street, but it was soon found ill-adapted both in size and arrangement for carrying out the objects of the institution. Early [in 1869] it was removed to Mitcham and subsequently to Norwood...' This property comprised a large house and outbuildings, once owned by Mr E.J. Peake, SM, also a two-storey section a little distance away, and a smaller house containing five or six rooms.

    Although they have done much in reclaiming persons, who had devoted themselves to evil lives, much more could be done in the same direction if they had sufficient means. For a long time after the refuge was founded the inmates did not earn sufficient to cover the expenses of the house and the Sisters were indebted to many friends, Catholic and Protestant, for substantial aid.

    I might mention that no one who applies for admission is refused. Religion is made no test of fitness; all that is required is orderly conduct and conformity to the rules of the house. The nuns in charge (generally eight) are with the inmates at all times, day and night, so that contamination is reduced to the smallest amount.

    The work performed is principally washing and ironing, but some are instructed in needlework as far as the conveniences of the establishment allow. The refuge has no endowment and the premises are occupied, with a right of purchase. At one time the nuns received some inmates whose friends contributed to their support. It was found necessary, however, to discontinue the practice, because in some cases those who were paid for did not consider themselves bound to share in the routine work, and so interfered with or interrupted the general discipline of the institution.

    One problem encountered was the conduct of certain youths and men who were in the habit of prowling about the premises at all hours of the night, whistling, uttering obscene language and making other signals with a view of enticing the inmates to come out to them. Some of the intruders even went as far as to climb over the fence and call certain persons by name.

    It was well known to the Sisters that the task of reforming women who had betaken themselves into an abandoned course of life was, under the most favourable of circumstances, an exceedingly difficult one, and the conduct of those who endeavoured to obstruct the pious work seemed nothing less than diabolical.

    The ruffians were warned by public notice that if the annoyance continued a vigilance committee would be formed and 'some fine evening they may suddenly find themselves in the hands of a few stalwart Irishmen, in which case they will not want for a belabouring or a good sousing in the creek which runs through the neighbourhood... If the scoundrels are wise they will take this hint and transfer their night ramblings to "fresh woods and pastures new".'

    I have written elsewhere of the primitive drainage facilities at the Catholic Female Refuge and tragedy was to strike in August 1886 when a 15 months old boy, son of an inmate, was drowned in a drain on the premises. At the time soapsuds and waste water were conveyed into pits about 30 feet long, three feet wide and about three feet deep. When one pit was full earth was thrown in together with a quantity of carbolic acid and lime and a fresh pit was dug in another portion of the enclosure. The excavation into which the child fell was full of soapsuds and by no means free from unpleasant odour.

    It was said that the health of the inmates had always been remarkably good and that the system of drainage was the only one they could adopt as they were, very properly, not allowed to drain into the creek. At the inquest Dr Hayward stated that the drains were most dangerous owing to the number of children in the refuge, but was undecided as to whether they were injurious to health.

    The newspaper report published by the Register of the tragedy was considered to be most 'ungenerous' by the Church hierarchy and suggested it had been made 'without the slightest enquiry as to the facts of the case...', while one individual 'slandered the whole community' but, fearing the law of slander apologised the next day. As for the newspaper, it regretted it had been 'made use of by a juror', but the Church was left wondering as to why it had not sought out the Sisters at the refuge and 'seen for themselves' before penning such a 'venomous slander as the sub-leader.' A spokesman for the Church said that this was the first time he had found fault with the press in regard to their institutions and hoped it would be the last.

    An obituary of Mrs John Harvey, manager of the William Street refuge, is in the Register,
    8 July 1902, page 5c,
    12 July 1902, page 31c.
    A history of the refuge is in the Register,
    28 September 1904, pages 4f-6h; also see
    1 November 1912, page 8g,
    9 November 1918, page 10e.
    Biographical details of a matron, Miss Annie Ellis, are in the Register,
    2 July 1908, page 4i.
    The opening of a laundry at the refuge is reported in the Register,
    24 November 1911, page 9g.

    An AGM of the SA Refuge is reported in the Register,
    30 September 1910, page 10e; also see
    2 June 1917, page 6f,
    16 and 26 November 1927, pages 11a and 18g.

    The Refuges of Norwood

    Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning A Colonial Experience

    A mother, deserted by her husband and unable to find work, went 'on the streets' and 'sold her soul' for the sake of her three children. A Christian Police Court... rewarded her with 21 days imprisonment and took her babes from her... Why bother a heart and torture a mind... Is there no room for mercy?...
    (Advertiser, 18 April 1921, page 5.)


    Until the late 1850s the journals of the mother-country teemed with articles on what may be called the especial evils of great towns and cities and upon the means by which the evil could be corrected. The evil still continued to exist and may be said, perhaps, to have been abated very little.

    Like occult diseases of the human frame, it is reached with great difficulty and, when reached, is most difficult of remedy; and the more clearly it is detected the more resolutely it strives to hide itself from notice and from remedial means. Notwithstanding this, Christian feeling and, indeed, the commonest benevolence, will not rest from effort to extricate those who are, in the first place, often the thoughtless and, at a further stage, very frequently the repentant, as well as the reluctant, victims of the evil in question.

    And many are the cases in which those who were lost to virtue, to self-respect and to all real happiness, have been reclaimed and become valued and respected in the positions in which they were placed. Unfortunately, South Australia has not been free from this blight and curse of older countries. Adelaide was, and is, marked by the same great evil, not perhaps in the low form in which it has exhibited itself in lands more peopled and less affluent. By the late 1850s public feeling was stirred to its profoundest depths in Victoria in relation to this matter. Meeting upon meeting was held, leader after leader appeared in the public journals; correspondence, column upon column, was inserted in the daily newspapers as to the magnitude of the evil and the means by which it might be removed. While this public agitation was going on so near at hand, with but little practical result, South Australia opened, within the precincts of Adelaide, an institution projected by benevolent persons and supported by voluntary public subscription.

    The Norwood Female Refuge

    The catalyst for the foundation of the Norwood Female Refuge was a letter written by Archbishop Augustus Short in July 1856 in which he said:

    On 8 July 1856 at a meeting attended by many influential colonists it was resolved that 'an institution be formed for the reception and reformation of fallen women'. This was followed by a public meeting on 4 August 1856 at the Female Immigration Depot, where Governor Richard MacDonnell occupied the chair in the presence of representatives from 'every denomination in the colony.'

    In the course of a speech, His Excellency intimated that there 'could be no greater claim on the sympathies of man than the claim of poor women degraded and reduced by the misconduct and selfishness of man.' He went on:

    The following resolution was carried: 'That the management of the Institution be entrusted to a President, Vice-President and a committee of twelve laymen and that His Excellency the Governor-in-Chief be the President, the Lord Bishop of Adelaide, Vice-president, and the following gentlemen form the committee - G.F. Angas, N. Blyth, Captain Bagot, Sheriff Boothby, Dr Duncan, W. Giles, Dr Gosse, Dr Moore, Dr Moorhouse, Major O'Halloran, G. Tinline and Dr Wooldridge; and all ministers of religion who subscribe to the Institution be ex-officio members of the Committee.'

    The South Australian Female Refuge

    'To raise the fallen and by placing them in healthy surroundings of an institution controlled by Christian influences lead them into paths of probity.' This is the main object for which this refuge was inaugurated. It came into existence in 1856 when property was acquired in Norwood at the corner of William Street and Sydenham Road. This served requirements until 1892 when a substantial and up-to-date structure was erected adjacent to the old building at a cost of £800.

    Towards the close of 1856 furniture was procured, Mrs Birt installed as Matron and the first inmates admitted on 19 December. In the first twelve months twenty females sought asylum, seven of whom were under 20 years and two under 17 and in the first annual report it was said:

    By 1870 the refuge was 'languishing for want of funds', while the need for it to continue its work was evident by the fact that there were between 200 and 300 prostitutes operating in Adelaide and suburbs:

    By April 1870 the refuge had 19 inmates, inclusive of two infants, and no more could be taken in and even those in the house could no be maintained while a heavy debt of £100 existed. Indeed, it was to be regretted that no more than 67 citizens could be found to help maintain the refuge.

    Since the opening of the facility 70 women had been restored to society of whom 14 had married respectable workmen; four returned to their parents in England; seven to parents in the colony, while five left to join relations in Melbourne. Several had left for domestic service in other colonies while, to the best knowledge of officers of the refuge, none of the others who had left had returned to the way of life which they had forsaken.

    With the advent of 1873 the refuge was continuing its good work in an unostentatious manner. Of course it was a deplorable fact that the form of vice known as the social evil had attained huge proportions in the city - not more huge, perhaps, as compared with the population in other cities of Australia, but still large enough to awaken the grave concern of the moral and benevolent portions of the community:

    It is not necessary to enlarge upon the various ways in which the ranks of street-walkers were replenished, but perhaps in this colony there were special circumstances tending to promote this form of vice. The absence from many homes of proper restraint and training and the unwatched liberty allowed to girls too young to have learnt discretion was, and still is, the cause of improper intimacies, which led to the saddest consequence.

    The factory system, then extending in the colony, helped to increase the number of our social outcasts or, at any rate, there was a danger of doing so. The work was comparatively light and attracted many young girls who were thrown together without any effective moral supervision. 'Among so many there were some of doubtful purity, whose example under the surroundings of factory life spread contagion - the wages were not high but the love of dress developed unhealthily. The practice of girls under such circumstances taking rooms and living together, without the protection of a staid companion, was also decidedly dangerous.'

    Therefore, the first care of the philanthropic was to endeavour to check the evil at its source - to place safeguards around and elevate the moral tone of the class so peculiarly liable to be led astray from the paths of virtue. Seeing that the streets were filled with unfortunates it was highly desirable that the Norwood Female Refuge continue to receive those outcasts who became weary of their degenerate lives.

    Indeed, the refuge has gladdened many a home by restoring an erring daughter to the family hearth, has rescued many a poor unfortunate from a career of confirmed viciousness, and reclaimed even some of the lowest of the low from their life of wretchedness to the path of honest industry. With singularly limited means it accomplishes a fair measure of practical good.

    After twenty-one years of operations the refuge had taken in 522 members of the unfortunate class and a large proportion of them had been reclaimed. Yet the resources of the society were small for, during that year receipts totalled only £570, of which £191 was derived from work done by inmates; public subscriptions amounted to only £203. When considering the wealth of the city and the extent of the evil, which the society endeavoured to mitigate, its exertions were not supported as they should have been.

    In respect of prostitution in the late 1870s, police raids were made from time to time and magistrates could only imprison offenders for two or three months and when their terms expired they returned to their old haunts. In many instances their conduct was so bad that even the owners of houses in which they lived could not endure their conduct and drove them homeless into the streets.

    None of them could be taken into the Destitute Asylum and none of them would avail themselves of the refuges. Consequently, they resorted to the 'Willows', a haven for ruffians on the banks of the River Torrens contiguous to the gaol:

    By 1883 it was disheartening for those actively engaged in promoting the reclamation of fallen women to be informed that the funds of the refuge had dwindled down to £18, the cause being attributed mainly to the depression which had become general and prevented many friends of the institution from making their customary contributions. An application to the government for financial assistance was refused.

    In September 1885 I called at the refuge when the matron reminisced as to how it carried out its work on behalf of 'fallen women':

    Enter the Salvation Army

    In August 1885 the Salvation Army intimated that it intended to establish a 'Rescued Sisters' Home' at Norwood and many deprecated divided effort and suggested it would be wiser to set apart a building for a temporary retreat in the city. At the time there were two refuges in the suburbs and one of them had done very good work in the past.

    The Salvation Army's appeal, written by Major Henry Thurman is worthy of reproduction:

    I have alluded previously to the Roman Catholic Refuge at Norwood which had also been the means of rescuing some of the fallen sisterhood and of directing them aright. But all had not been done that might have been done. The Protestant body had decided upon increasing the accommodation offered at their retreat and that in itself showed that there was room for further effort.

    This effort to be successful had to be united and there should have been no importation of sectarian prejudices into an undertaking which was purely philanthropic. Perhaps Major Thurman of the Salvation Army could have brought his 'Home' at Norwood into connection with the 'Retreat' at Walkerville, for the religious differences were not so great as to preclude the presence of a Salvation Army Major on the Board, which included representative men of all Protestant bodies.

    However, there was a question outside of the establishment or enlargement of refuges in the suburbs. The recent successful endeavour of a band of noble women to bring together some of the unfortunate brought to light the inadequacy of the existing system and the potentialities for a system which would include the institution of a 'shelter' in the strongholds of vice.

    Those good women should have been able to say to the fourteen members of the sad sisterhood who gathered around them: 'Come away from your wretched life and sad associations. You have far to go. There is a shelter close at hand where you may escape the temptations of the night.' I would have been the last to make little of the effects of prayer and religious teaching, but something more was needed.

    By all means let the unfortunate be told of the higher life in the next world but, if practical good was to be done then lift them out of their miserable way of life here. It must have been hard to send those, in whom sympathetic words may have recalled memories of better days, and of a purer life, back to the evil which then pressed on them.

    The momentary impressions which earnest words can make must fade away when the girl to whom they are addressed knows that if she will not be homeless that night she must continue on her evil course. The jeers of companions and the seductions of drink will drown the better feelings and the woman, who might easily have been persuaded to enter a 'Shelter', but has but sunk lower in the depths of moral and physical degradation.

    At the time opinions were ventured that the citizens of Adelaide would come forward readily to help in any scheme aiming at rescuing the victims of the social evil. Dr Mayo, who was always forward in the cause of philanthropy, promised £100 towards the establishment of a temporary refuge in the city for victims but, of course, it was absolutely necessary for the public to understand clearly the aims and objects of such an institution.

    I quote from a newspaper of the day:

    Next morning the fallen woman could be taken to the refuge in the suburbs and placed in a way of living honest lives, be taken in hand by ladies too sympathetic to treat them with harshness and too wise to repel them by a parade of patronage, or ill-timed efforts at proselytising. We are satisfied that much more can be done in luring those who have fallen back into virtuous paths by providing them with the nearest possible approach to the comforts and varied occupations of well-ordered home life where, as a necessity, the routine of duty is monotonous. William R. Andrews, the Honorary Secretary of the SA Female Refuge at Norwood, addressed the question in an open letter to the local press:


    While all those connected with the founding of the home of refuge have passed away, the inspiration for service still remains and that which I feel to be a work for God and humanity is still carried on with, sometimes discouragement, but also with gleams of success which are heartening. In no spirit of self-glorification would those in charge speak of what has been accomplished, for their only desire is to exercise a tender ministry of helpfulness to those who claim their aid and who give the opportunity of being led into ways of virtue and usefulness.

    Reformation is the object of the refuge and the teaching and training given is with the earnest desire that not only those sheltered be taught the domestic arts satisfactorily, but that restored characters shall be developed and Christian lives evolved that shall stand the test later on.

    Finally, I would be remiss if I did not mentionf Mrs John Harvey, a matron of the refuge since 1864, who died in office in July 1902, aged 71 years. She was born in Scotland and shortly after coming to South Australia married the late John Harvey. While yet a young wife she lost her partner and, on the recommendation of Bishop Short, the then Bishop of Adelaide, she took charge of the refuge.

    Her influence over the inmates and those she sought to rescue to a better life was great and she will always be remembered with affectionate regard. It is not too much to say that hundreds in the colony during the long course of her efficient and sympathetic management of the refuge, have reason to bless her memory for help and the encouragement afforded them in their time of need.

    A presentation to an organist, G.F.H. Daniel, is reported in the Register,
    31 January 1882, page 5c.
    His wife's obituary is in the Register,
    5 May 1904, page 4i.

    An organ recital at the Baptist Church is reported in the Register,
    3 April 1882, page 5b,
    8 April 1882, page 35a.

    Information on the Presbyterian Church is in the Register,
    22 August 1883, page 5c.
    The laying of the foundation stone of St Giles Presbyterian Church is reported in the Register,
    23 September 1889, page 7a.

    "The Tote and the Norwood Baptists" is in the Express,
    24 and 26 August 1886, pages 4b and 4b.
    Also see South Australia - Social Matters - Gambling - Totalizator.

    The opening of St Mary's Hall is reported in the Register,
    19 November 1888, page 6f.

    An obituary of Mrs Alfred Weir, "the first person immersed at the Norwood United Baptist Church - now Church of Christ...", is in the Observer,
    4 January 1896, page 12a,
    of Stuart Leaman, church organist, in the Register,
    18 September 1902, page 5d.
    Information on its Sunday School is in the Register,
    3 November 1913, page 3f.

    Biographical details of Rev Matthew Johnston are in the Register,
    4 May 1904, page 4g (obit. 8 March 1909, page 5a),
    of Rev Charles Bright on 7 June 1905, page 5a.

    The reminiscences of Canon W.B. Andrews are in the Register,
    27 June 1905, page 6d.

    Information on the Norwood Mission Band is in Register,
    27 November 1908, page 7f,
    on the Norwood Mission Charity Band is in the Register,
    5 December 1911, page 10d;
    The News, 4 June 1930, page 4b.

    Biographical details of Rev A.W. Bean are in the Register,
    24 May 1918, page 6h.

    Biographical details of Rev Henry Holmes are in the Register,
    22 November 1923, page 9h, 27 June 1925, page 5d (obit.).

    North Adelaide - Nympsvale
    Place Names


    Civic Affairs

    Sanitation in Early Norwood

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning A Colonial Experience)


    I have spoken of the malodorous condition of Adelaide in the 1840s and now take the reader to the year of 1873 when the 'Health of Towns' became the subject of parliamentary debate until, finally, it was realised that the public health was paramount and that no private interests ought to stand in the way of extensive reforms.

    At that time Adelaide and environs were the scene of fetid gutters, putrefying rubbish heaps, stagnant pools, stinking cellars, noxious trades and disease producing food. Further, many of our school rooms were ill-ventilated, while many dwellings were unsuitable for the climate, for they protected their inmates neither from winter cold nor summer heat.

    The strongest objection against sanitary reforms was the cost, for they could not be accomplished without considerable expenditure, which meant increased taxation. Unfortunately, people had a great impatience of taxation and, undoubtedly, this was the one reason above all that prevented the carrying out of some grand scheme of drainage in Adelaide and suburbs.

    The ratepayers dreaded the cost and, so long as disease and death kept a distance, they were willing to stand on the brink of danger that could break out at any moment, rather than tax themselves to a moderate amount to avert that danger. It was well known that nothing was more expensive in a family than sickness and the cost of one attack of fever might be more in pounds than a sanitary rate would be in pence. For the public to shut their eyes, generally, to remedial action was the greatest of all follies.

    The best system for Adelaide was a matter for experts and professional men to determine, but the consensus of opinion at the time was for the implementation of a system of deep drainage, than with mere scavenging. All other systems were dirty and offensive, but any would have been an improvement over the apology for the one then operating.

    It was difficult to conceive anything more stupid or reprehensible than the cesspits in the east Park Lands for, within a stone's throw of the Botanic Gardens, and some of the most important streets in the city, the council had established manufactories of manure from the refuse of houses and offensive trades. They were carried on from month to month, and from year to year, to the annoyance and disgust of people dwelling in the neighbourhood. By a great stroke of genius the council had fenced in with five-feet palings these choice industries, intending, it was supposed, to confine the miasma within the limit of a few square yards.

    For years the importance of sanitary improvement was impressed upon the people, together with the fact that the soil upon which houses and shops were built was being permeated and poisoned by noxious refuse which, instead of being removed, was allowed to sink into the earth. Accordingly, it was to the credit of the government in 1873 that the question was taken up for there was not a more important question to claim the attention of the legislature.

    Events in Norwood

    By the late 1850s parts of the village of Norwood were being shunned instead of being sought after by persons wishing to live outside the city of Adelaide. There were slaughterhouses to be met with which were merely wooden sheds and which had not been cleansed for years past. Yet they abutted upon streets used by residents and discharged their impurities, without gutter or drainage of any kind, upon the public roads. Pigsties were also to be seen in the same unwholesome state and there were localities where, on account of these causes, property was considerably depreciated in value.

    There was no excuse for such nuisances because land existed in the vicinity that was readily available for the proper carrying on of every trade and where no one needed to be a source of trouble and inconvenience to his neighbours. But, since there were persons who would not do this, it was necessary for the corporation to interfere and thus prevent the neighbourhood from obtaining a bad character in sanitary matters and to prevent continued injury to the inhabitants.

    Accordingly, in June 1862 the corporation arranged for new by-laws to be placed on the table of the House of Assembly; these regulations contained suitable provisions for the maintenance of cleanliness on the part of persons who carried on trades likely to become offensive.

    From that time until the late 1870s the suburban towns contained within the municipality bore a 'very favourable character' but, in December 1879, a deputation waited upon the Local Board of Health with the object of bringing to under notice a nuisance existing in Queen Street. Comprehensive statements were indulged in which tended to convey the impression that there had been a serious outbreak of diphtheria, typhoid fever and other zymotic diseases.

    Unfortunately, deaths of several children had occurred in the neighbourhood from those causes but, on investigation, it seemed probable that they were owing to conditions other than those referred to by the deputation. The enumerated causes were three in number. It was thought by several that soapsuds and other waste water, which was allowed to flow into Second Creek from the Catholic Refuge, stagnated there and caused the nuisance.

    Another theory, said to be supported by the strongest olfactory evidence, affirmed the nuisance to be caused by the extensive use of nightsoil in Smith's market garden adjoining the refuge, while a third party thought the matter should be laid to the account of C.C. Scarfe's piggery and boiling-down works on The Parade. It was remarked by several gentlemen that the nuisance had become so alarming that they would be compelled to leave their houses without delay.

    The Chairman of the Board of Health, Mr D. Packham, expressed his sympathy with those members of the deputation who had suffered bereavement or sickness in their families and promised energetic steps would be taken by the board to deal with the matter. Two independent reports were submitted at a later date which exonerated the alleged 'nuisance makers' and it was apparent, therefore, that special efforts would have to be made to trace the origin of the abominable odours complained of so bitterly.

    In order that no intimation might be obtained of the board's intention to perambulate the town, the time and place of meeting was not divulged. The first place visited was the Catholic Refuge in Queen Street. In this institution were between 30 and 40 inmates, exclusive of two sisters in charge, who were chiefly employed in washing during the greater part of the week. The whole of the soapsuds produced flowed into the creek and being unable to flow away on most occasions, they stank abominably and were declared to be a most pronounced nuisance.

    To obviate this health hazard it was decreed that, in future, the effluent was to be drained away in small trenches amidst the neighbouring vineyard. This plan was fairly successful as the ground was of a very porous nature. The inside of the refuge was also inspected and the board was loud in its praise of its scrupulous cleanliness.

    The board then inspected houses of several of those gentlemen who formed the deputation. The surroundings of W.A. Abbott's house received a large amount of time and labour and, at first sight, it seemed as if the search for any nuisances would be in vain. On proceeding to the rear of the house a disagreeable smell was detected coming from an ash-pit and in a little back enclosure a pool of dirty water was giving forth its pestiferous exhalations.

    The pit had evidently been sunk to catch the house and surface drainage, in complete misapprehension of what it would result in. When it became full it discharged its surplus fluid on to the adjacent land that appeared to be quite saturated. It was the opinion of the board that this nuisance accounted for the fatal outbreak of disease in his house.

    Smith's gardens, the locality of the alleged application of nightsoil, was the next place visited. Mr Smith was the nightman for the corporation as well as the proprietor of a large garden, the chief product of which were cabbages and turnips. The soil barges were the first objects of attention, but not the slightest smell could be detected, great care evidently having been exercised in their deodorisation with slaked lime.

    A member of the board thoughtlessly kicked a semi-decayed cabbage which rendered further lingering about that spot unpleasant and unnecessary and quite justified the complaints of the residents. It seemed that the odour arising from decaying cabbages was mistaken for nightsoil.

    The premises of C.C. Scarfe were next visited. The piggery was bedded down with clean straw and in other respects was carefully attended to, but notwithstanding these precautions, a faint smell was discernible, giving promise of what the place would be if neglected. The boiling-down was also very clean, but it could not be doubted that it would have been much better for all thickly populated districts if this trade was carried on in the country.

    Mr J.O. Cahill lived in a house adjoining these works and was one of the deputation that waited on the board. On visiting the rear of his house a privy was found against the wall of the kitchen and an open drain extended from the back verandah to an earthenware extension that took the waste water to the garden.

    A communication having been received from the Lunatic Asylum and Botanical Gardens authorities complaining that drainage from the Kent Town brewery discharging into a creek flowing through their land was causing a deal of pollution, the board visited the wells connected with the brewery drainage system.

    These wells were three in number and situated on a vacant piece of land on the edge of the creek behind the Royal Hotel, Dequetteville Terrace. The fluid was conveyed to them by an iron pipe after percolating through three charcoal pits. Formerly, it was allowed to discharge into the creek and, when the water was high, no objection was made to that arrangement, but as soon as the creek ceased to run the fluid collected in a series of pools, which emitted a very bad smell, and was followed by numerous complaints. It was deemed more than probable that it would be impossible to provide effectually for the brewery drainage until deep drainage was installed in the district.3 I might add that this was not the first complaint in respect of the brewery as evidenced by the following injunctions from local residents:

    The corporation itself was not without dishonour for it was accused of being a despoiler of the environment:

    As for the Botanic Gardens the following 'eye-witness' accounts are an indication of the pollution fed into creeks flowing through Kensington and Norwood:

    For many years a malodorous cloud of sickening proportions wafted over Norwood and environs from the vicinity of Mr Mehrtens bone mill at Dulwich and, in 1871, the Suburban Nuisance Suppression Society was formed and hastened to declare that it had the said mill in its sights. Mr F. Wurm came to Mr Mehrtens' defence and proclaimed:

    Unperturbed, and with a measure of sardonic wit, two Norwood councillors responded:

    Nuisances of the 1880s

    By the early 1880s the town of Kensington and Norwood had a population of 10,000 and there were about 2,150 houses. The scavenging was done on contract and each house was called upon once a fortnight but, unfortunately, many householders were in the habit of throwing refuse into their yards, where decomposing vegetable scraps and the like became offensive to both sight and smell.

    There was a licensed nightman in the town where the cesspools were required to be deodorised before being emptied and the soil removed to a distance outside the boundary of the local board of health. There remained a few earth closets in fair condition, while a few cesspits were merely holes in the ground.

    Household rubbish was emptied into an old pughole on Mr Cox's premises where, at all times, one would be met with an offensive effluvium. The site was most unsatisfactory for many dwellings stood nearby. In many places were to be seen filthy liquids, house slops, soapsuds, etc., draining into the public streets and as there were no means to carry them away it stagnated and became a nuisance.

    The two creeks running through the municipality were the receptacle for impure liquids and rubbish of every description; kitchen slops, old boots. kerosene and other empty tins were thrown into them and, in one place, there was a closet built on the edge of a creek. The cesspool of this closet had an opening at the back so that the soil, if allowed to overflow, would run into the creek.

    Most cowyards and stables were paved indifferently and insufficient attention was given to drainage, for the stones used were uneven and irregular in size, having large spaces between, where offensive liquids lodged and soaked into the ground. An inspection in 1884 resulted in 125 places having defects which required remedial action.

    All this was simply intolerable in the presence of disease that was traced directly to preventible nuisances. It was assumed that the quickened vigilance and activity of the officers of the board of health would be effective in abating such nuisances, and in repressing the careless and oftentimes thoroughly dirty tendencies of householders, whose nostrils would seem to be proof against the most searching stenches. Hence it was clear that such centres should be subjected to close, and ongoing, surveillance.

    Personalities entered into the debate in 1884 when 'A Ratepayer' of Marryatville took umbrage at the alleged 'vindictiveness' of Lavington Glyde, MP:

    In this environment a debate was set in motion and throughout this decade the pros and cons of a deep drainage system were canvassed.

    The Deep Drainage Debate

    In 1882 a resident of Beulah Road contended that 'the absence of a proper drainage system has been the source of terrible risk' and that the sooner all such dangers were obviated the better. He was also of the opinion that the money proposed to be spent on a new Town Hall would be much more usefully employed in improving the defective arrangements which prevailed:

    Alfred Wigg, also of Beulah Road, expressed his concern at the 'accumulation of filth and slime near Engel's Corner' and castigated the council for the lack of an adequate 'water table':

    The debate entered the council chamber in October 1884 when Councillor Lyons, in responding to a flattering invitation to stand for the Mayoralty of Kensington and Norwood, was very careful to guard himself against what he called the 'charge' of having favoured the extension of deep drainage to Norwood and Kensington:

    W.C. Buik also gave his testimony against deep drainage and called attention to the fact that he had elicited from the government a disavowal of any intention to provide for the extension of the system to our district.

    Yet, even on the admission of Mr Lyons, some of the residents of the town had to 'swallow up their own drainage in a backyard about the size of a room.' But this was only a small part of the evil that was brought about by the lack of proper facilities. Not only typhoid fever but diarrhoea, dysentery and numberless slighter, but insidious diseases, were brought about by this saturation of the soil, while wells and underground tanks were frequently contaminated.

    A deep drainage system had been partially supplied to the city of Adelaide, but to judge from the results attained there was little doubt it was a healthier place on account of its sewage being disposed of by underground pipes. The smells, that were so strongly objected to earlier in 1884, had all but disappeared and hundreds of citizens lived with much easier minds. In my opinion, at this time neither Councillor Lyons nor Mr W.C. Buik had any reason to plume themselves on their opposition to a solitary provision for promoting public cleanliness and health.

    In April 1885 an 'anti deep drainage' meeting was held in the Norwood Town Hall and speakers from the council asserted that deep drainage was not a success in Adelaide and that the sanitary state of Kensington and Norwood rendered such a system unnecessary and a motion to this effect was passed unanimously. The local press were not 'quite sure whether it ought to laugh at or grieve over the speeches made at Norwood last evening.' It was evident that the prospect of deep drainage disturbed the equanimity of the residents and there was no doubt that, when the speakers saw their remarks in print, they would have regretted that they allowed their prejudices and fears to run away with their judgement. Indeed, a little more reason, and a little less wholesale condemnation, would have been a welcome relief. But when the members of the corporation set such a bad example, their constituents could have pleaded the precedent they set in extenuation of their own strong and ill-judged remarks.

    I entered my protest against the apparent apathy of our council when I wrote to the local press:

    With the onset of winter in May 1886 complaints were levelled against the amount of pollution carried by the creeks into the River Torrens resulting in the 'benefit of refuse' to the city. A month later it was evident that the Local Board of Health had left no stone unturned to secure a postponement of sewerage works for an indefinite time. It had passed resolutions, sought and obtained the co-operation of the ratepayers, procured reports from its inspector designed to show that there was no justification on sanitary grounds for the enforcement of deep drainage, appealed to the government to take its part, and importuned the Central Board of Health to let it alone.

    It was noteworthy that in a meeting with that body the Mayor and his colleagues spoke, comparatively, 'with bated breath and whispering bumbledom.' They made no attempt to challenge the question of pollution of the River Torrens, but simply represented the source as trifling, but did not deny that the need existed for better supervision and they undertook, solemnly, that this supervision should be exercised.

    The Chairman of the Central Board of Health showed no disposition to give the deputation any quarter. He put it plainly that the issue was between the public health and the local pocket and showed, conclusively, that the attempt to minimise the cost of converting the water courses into ducts for the local drainage proceeded upon utterly false premises.

    Another public meeting was held in October 1886 to consider the actions of government 'in forcing the deep drainage into the municipality in opposition to the wishes of the burgesses.' A deputation to the Commissioner of Public Works proved to be abortive. There the matter rested until March 1887 when, at another 'protest' meeting, Councillor Lyons said that ratepayers should reject candidates who might endeavour to thrust upon them taxes for deep drainage, not of necessity, but merely because one section of the community were requiring labour. He concluded by saying that such an idea was 'monstrous in our colony'. Finally, a motion was passed that 'this meeting form itself into a monster deputation to await upon the Commissioner of Public Works and the Mayor invite volunteers to canvas the town for signatures to a memorial.'

    A month later a 'very large and influential' deputation of property owners and ratepayers descended upon the office of the Commissioner and as to its outcome the press said 'It was a great pity that the government did not take a decisive stand. Indeed, in view of strong representations emanating from the Central Board of Health if the government remained passive it would cripple the Board's effectiveness.'

    The Government Acts

    Tiring of the procrastination of the local corporation and its satellites, in late 1889 the government finally 'grasped the nettle' and gave notice to the corporation that 'three months from the 5th September 1889 the extension of sewers to Kensington and Norwood [will] commence.' Defiant to the last, after a long discussion it was agreed, by four votes to three, to surrender to the demands. In March 1890 it was declared that work would commence on Magill Road and in October 1891 the Central Board of Health advised that 'a marked improvement had been effected in the general sanitation of the town, due chiefly to the deep drainage system.'

    By the end of 1891, 730 premises were connected to the system and 'owners of premises not yet connected were anxious to have the connections made.' A large number of street water channels had been paved and drained, while some of the butchers' premises and cowyards had undergone improvement in regard to paving and drainage. There was evidence of the necessity for more frequent lime washing and cleansing for some of these premises.

    However, an inspection of the town at this time revealed a considerable number of nuisances of a more or less serious character. On the premises of R.T. Bansemer, the butcher, the condition of the piggery was filthy, the stench being sickening. At the Catholic Female Refuge the privies were in a bad state and one of them was overflowing, while the yard space was saturated with soap suds and other drainage.

    The urinals at the State school, where there was an average attendance of 940 children, had not received proper attention and were in a foul condition. At St Bartholomew's Day School the urinals were similarly offensive. Privy cesspools, where still in use, were in fairly good order, while nightsoil was disposed of in an olive plantation near Beaumont. The creeks were in a much better state, but a good deal of impure matter still found its way into them from stables, cowyards and other places situated on the banks.

    The Situation in 1903

    In September 1902 several articles appeared in the local press in respect of sanitation in the city and suburbs and dealt with, in particular, the benefits accruing from systematic inspections organised by the Medical Officer of Health, Dr T. Borthwick. However, enquiries made during the ensuing twelve months revealed that no more than barely ordinary attention was given to health matters and, excepting the County Board and Port Adelaide, nothing in the way of regular and systematic inspection or organisation was attempted.

    Individual action by separate bodies did not conduce to the best results and in this connection the East Torrens County Board of Health could be taken as an example. This body is limited in its operations, but in so far as the councils of which it is formed act together, it does its allotted work more effectively than could possibly be hoped for without its existence.

    The inspection of slaughter houses is carried out under the County Board and the carcases of large cattle examined and passed before being allowed to go out for sale. Every diseased carcass is destroyed by steam under proper supervision. Dairies are also under proper supervision and the officers make an examination of all premises within his control.

    From the question of insanitary conditions it is but a step to that of infectious diseases. Adelaide's immunity from serious illness is proverbial. The excellent deep drainage system, which is being extended gradually in the thickly populated suburbs, is responsible for the present good condition of affairs. But we must not trade on past records. Plague and smallpox have threatened our doors, while fevers have attacked us mildly.

    How many officers employed by Local Boards of Health are scientifically qualified to act in emergencies? The advent of the trained nurse has filled a small corner of this void, but much remains to be done. One of these ladies acts under the East Torrens County Board and the Saint Peters Board, so that her district extends practically from the Hackney Bridge to beyond Athelstone, south along the foot of the ranges to Glen Osmond, north-west down Glen Osmond Road to the Parkside Hotel corner and north to the bridge - in all, a total of 68 townships with an area of more than 24 square miles and a total population at the 1901 census of 31,683. She might almost sing a revised version of Corsair's song:

    It cannot be said that there is efficient supervision. The distance from one end of the district to the other precludes the possibility of such a suggestion. One nurse can do what is necessary under the infectious diseases clauses of the Act for 30 or 40 thousand people provided she has not to travel too far, and devotes all her time to those causes only.

    In respect of disinfection procedures, ten of the councils in the metropolitan area have no appropriate apparatus and the whole equipment for the population of 103,945 outside the City of Adelaide consists of four or five formalin lamps and less than half a dozen sprayers. This really means the authorities are trusting to chance.

    Thanks to the Building Act and section 123 of the Health Act the unsightly clusters of small insanitary cottages in some areas are being demolished, but these provisions apply only to municipal corporations and, consequently, any kind of houses may be put up in areas controlled by district councils.

    They may be badly ventilated and lighted and easily become the source of future trouble. How this affects the people may be calculated that some thickly populated suburbs such as Prospect, Walkerville, Mile End, Woodville, Eastwood, North Kensington, Rose Park, Knightsbridge and Keswick are beyond the pale of existing legislation.

    General Notes

    An obituary of Joseph Edmunds, "the originator of [the] municipality..." is in the Register, 23 October 1890, page 5b, Observer, 25 October 1890, page 30a;
    also see Register, 30 May 1918, page 4f under "Early Norwood" and 15 May 1919, page 4f.
    Also see Adelaide - Miscellany - Local Government.

    The reminiscences of Sir Edwin Smith are in the Observer,
    9 April 1910, page 38c.
    A proposal to grant Sir Edwin Smith the "freedom" of Kensington and Norwood is discussed in the Observer,
    17 February 1912, page 49d; also see
    15 June 1912, page 46a.
    Also see Kent Town .

    "Waterworks in Norwood" is in the Register,
    9 and 11 November 1861, pages 2g and 3e,
    information on water supply is in the Express,
    18 February 1896, page 3d.
    "Water for Norwood" during a drought, is in the Register,
    25 August 1914, page 6d.
    Also see Adelaide - Water Supply.

    A pig nuisance is discussed in the Register,
    14 April 1862, page 2h and
    other "sanitary" matters on
    26 June 1862, page 2f; also see
    16 March 1880, page 1b (supp.).
    Also see Adelaide - Public Nuisances - Dogs.

    Local flooding and its aftermath is discussed in the Register,
    13 and 20 August 1862, pages 2d and 2h,
    3 September 1862, page 3g,
    5 July 1873, page 6c.
    "[Flood] Havoc at Norwood and Kensington" is in the Register,
    18 April 1889, page 5e.
    Information on local flooding is in the Express,
    24 February 1896, page 3d,
    20 August 1909, page 3g; also see
    12 July 1873, page 5f,
    3 June 1893, page 12b,
    24 February 1896, page 5h.
    A discussion on the problem of storm waters is in the Express,
    18 June 1901, page 4d.
    The contol of floodwaters is discussed in the Register,
    6 April 1904, page 4f.
    "The Alma Corner Storm Waters" is in the Register,
    17 May 1904, page 4e; also see
    6 March 1925, page 7d,
    10 March 1926, page 11e.
    Also see South Australia - Natural Disasters - Floods.

    "Bathing in Public Places" is in the Register,
    21 September 1865, page 2h.

    "Wanted a Mayor" is in The Irish Harp,
    21 November 1873, page 4d,
    "Councillors versus Ratepayers" on
    3 April 1874, page 4b,
    "Municipal Elections" in the Express,
    2 December 1884, page 3f.
    "Municipal Elections" is in the Register,
    20 November 1906, page 6e.
    "Tampering With Electoral Rolls" is in the Register,
    18 and 19 January 1907, pages 2h and 10g.
    Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Local Government.

    A testimonial to the retiring town clerk, J.E. Moulden, is reported in the Register,
    20 July 1878, page 5d; also see
    26 October 1878, page 6b.

    Comments on the municipality are in the Observer,
    16 November 1878, page 21b.
    Mr Wigg's campaign for the mayoralty is discusses in The Adelaide Punch,
    30 November 1878, pages 3 (poem) and 11.

    A presentation to S.D. Glyde, a former Mayor, is reported in the Register,
    15 February 1879, page 5c,
    to David Packham on
    25 February 1881, page 5c,
    8 December 1890, page 5c,
    to T. Caterer on 24 April 1883, page 4g.

    "Sanitary Matters in Norwood" is in the Chronicle,
    6 December 1879, page 8d.
    Information on the Board of Health is in the Register,
    19, 21 and 31 July 1883, pages 6c, 5a and 6g,
    5, 7, 9 and 16 May 1884, pages 3d, 7e, 3b and 2c-3f; also see
    7 August 1894, page 4b.
    "The Health of Kensington and Norwood" is in the Register,
    26 November 1895, page 6g.

    The sanitary condition of the town is discussed in the Register,
    18 December 1883, page 6f.
    27 May 1886, page 3e,
    22 October 1891, page 4a.

    "The Mayoralty of Kensington and Norwood" is in the Register,
    5, 10 and 11 November 1884, pages 7c, 7f and 4c.

    "Municipal Elections" is in the Register,
    19 and 20 November 1884, pages 6f and 6c.
    "Electioneering at Norwood" is in the Express,
    11 April 1891, page 2c.
    Also see South Australia - Politics - Elections.

    An inspection of the town by councillors is reported in the Register,
    10 January 1885, page 7a,
    10 January 1885, page 3d,
    12 January 1887, page 3g.

    Deep drainage is discussed in the Register,
    10 and 25 February 1882, pages 6c and 6f,
    20 October 1884, page 5a,
    2 and 11 April 1885, pages 5a-d-6e and 4h-6g,
    26 March 1886, page 7g,
    27 May 1886, page 4h,
    17 June 1886, page 4h,
    26 and 30 October 1886, pages 7f and 7e,
    16 February 1887, page 7c,
    10 March 1887, page 7b,
    2 April 1887, pages 5a-6e,
    31 October 1889, pages 4h-5b,
    10 September 1889, page 5a.

    Also see Observer,
    4 April 1885, page 29d,
    2 April 1885, page 3g,
    11 May 1886, page 4c,
    15 June 1886, page 4c and
    suburban drainage in the Observer,
    29 May 1886, page 39b,
    19 June 1886, page 34c,
    25 August 1888, page 29d,
    17 June 1886, page 7b,
    5 March 1887, page 7a,
    1 and 10 March 1887, pages 3e and 3g,
    2 April 1887, page 3e,
    17 March 1890, page 2e.

    A presentation to an ex-Mayor, K. St Barbe-Miller, is reported in the Register,
    7 February 1885, page 5e.
    An obituary of K. St Barbe-Miller, land agent and a former Mayor of Norwood, is in the Observer, 19 November 1892, page 29e.

    "The First Mayor of Norwood" is in the Register,
    5 December 1885, page 5d,
    4 January 1886, page 5b.

    A municipal inspection of the town is reported in the Register,
    13 January 1886, page 7f.

    The emptying of a cesspit was the cause for complaint by a citizen - see Register, 11 February 1887, page 6b:

    A mayoral banquet is reported in the Express,
    28 November 1890, page 3g,
    22 November 1892, page 4a and
    a Mayor's social on
    20 October 1893, page 3e,
    2 November 1893, page 3f,
    4 October 1894, page 2g.

    On 22 May 1891 at page 7d of the Register a resident complained of a public nuisance:

    "Christmas Cheer in Norwood" is in the Observer,
    19 December 1896, page 21c.
    Christmas cheer for children is discussed in the Express,
    9 and 24 December 1891, pages 5e and 2c,
    24 December 1894, page 3d.
    Also see South Australia - The Colony - Christmas in South Australia.

    A rubbish tip which had been "burning for 30 years" is reported upon in the Advertiser,
    1 July 1913, page 8f.

    A banquet to Councillor Threlfall is reported in the Register,
    8 March 1892, page 7f,
    Express, 8 March 1892, page 4a.
    The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs R.K. Threlfall is reported in the Register,
    23 February 1907, page 7a;
    biographical details of Mr Threlfall are in the Observer,
    8 February 1896, page 12a,
    31 January 1914, page 35b,
    5 February 1916, page 32d,
    Register, 29 January 1912, page 6g,
    his obituary is in the Register, 8 September 1916, page 4h, Observer,
    16 September 1916, page 22b.

    A presentation to an ex-Mayor, G.E.C. Stevens, is reported in the Register,
    9 April 1889, page 5b and
    an obituary on 21 September 1907, page 9a.

    Biographical details of a Mayor, Thomas White, are in the Observer,
    27 January 1894, page 16a (obit. in Register, 21 December 1901, pages 9b-11e),
    of M. Kingsborough on 30 June 1894, page 39e,
    of S.D. Glyde on 29 January 1898, page 28d,
    of Alfred Binks on 26 February 1898, page 16a, 31 December 1898, page 16a,
    of W.H. Story on 25 January 1902, page 33a.

    "Norwood Corporation Taking a Holiday" is in the Register,
    1 October 1892, page 7d.

    A satirical piece on local streets, etc., is in the Observer,
    8 December 1894, page 26d.

    A report on the Art Gallery is in the Register,
    7 and 8 February 1896, pages 4h and 7c.
    "Art Gallery for Norwood" is in the Express,
    19 March 1907, page 3g.
    Also see South Australia - Entertainment and the Arts - Art.

    A gathering of old colonists is reported upon in the Register,
    23 October 1896, pages 5b-6e.

    The Queen's diamond jubilee celebration ball is reported in the Observer,
    3 July 1897, page 29c.

    An outbreak of typhoid fever is reported in the Register,
    23, 24, and 29 November 1897, pages 5i, 7d and 7f,
    1, 15 and 22 December 1897, pages 7a, 10f and 4g.
    "Health of Kensington and Norwood" in the Express,
    24 November 1897, page 2d.
    Also see South Australia - Health - Fevers - Typhoid.

    A discussion of an eastern suburbs half-holiday is in the Express,
    23 January 1899, page 2h.
    The early closing of shops on Saturdays is discussed in the Express,
    8 January 1901, page 2b.

    Information on the corporation's seal is in the Observer,
    18 March 1899, page 33e.

    "A Civic Excursion" is in the Register,
    17 February 1900, page 8h.

    A proposal for the introduction of electric lighting is in the Express,
    13 March 1900, page 4b; also see
    28 August 1900, page 2c,
    11 February 1901, page 4g.
    Street lighting is discussed in the Advertiser,
    1 January 1920, page 4f:

    "An Eastern Suburb" is in The Critic, 4 May 1901, pages 28-30 (includes photographs).
    Information on street lighting is in the Register,
    7 April 1914, page 8c.
    Also see Adelaide - Lighting the City and Homes.

    "A Bold Municipal Project" to extend Norwood Parade to the city is discussed in the Register,
    28 February 1902, page 7h; also see
    6 May 1902, page 4f,
    1, 15 and 19 July 1902, pages 7i, 7h and 8i,
    24 July 1906, page 9c.
    22 January 1907, page 4e.
    "The Norwood Parade" is in the Express,
    6 May 1902, page 3b,
    1 July 1902, page 3f.
    A photograph is in The Critic,
    19 April 1902, page 13,
    2 March 1904, page 16.

    "Dusty Norwood Parade" is described in the Register on
    16 February 1909, page 4g.

    A proposal to publish a history of the town is traversed in the Register,
    18 August 1903, page 4e; also see
    20 October 1903, page 4f,
    2 November 1903, page 4g,
    22 December 1903, page 4g,
    7 November 1903, page 1h.
    Also see Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience

    "Norwood's Jubilee" is in the Register,
    7 November 1903, page 8f.

    An obituary of John Bennets is in the Observer,
    13 June 1903, page 21c,
    of G.E. Stevens on 28 September 1907, page 40b.

    A proposal to a change of name for the district council is in the Express,
    22 January 1904, page 4g.

    Tree planting is reported upon in the Register,
    31 May 1904, page 4e,
    "Treeplanting at Norwood" is in the Register,
    5 September 1905, page 5a,
    15 November 1905, page 6g.
    Also see Arbor Days.

    "Vandalism at Norwood" is in the Register,
    17 June 1904, page 6c:

    "The Municipal Poor" is in the Register,
    31 May 1904, page 4e.

    A photograph of members of the Kensington & Norwood corporation is in the Chronicle,
    13 February 1904, page 43,
    4 March 1905, page 23,
    The Critic,
    25 December 1907, page 25,
    15 January 1919, page 17.

    "Greater Norwood - Will It be the Third City" is in the Advertiser,
    26 July 1904, page 7c; also see
    16 and 30 August 1904, pages 6e and 9i.
    "Another City Proposed" is in the Register,
    9 August 1904, page 4e.

    "An Historic Gift [from Sir Edwin Smith]" is in the Register,
    1 November 1904, page 4f.
    A farewell to Sir Edwin Smith is reported in the Register,
    3 April 1907, page 5g.

    "Milk Adulteration - Raid at Norwood" is in the Register,
    1 April 1905, page 8g,
    "Cows in the Street" on
    12 March 1912, page 6f.
    Also see Adelaide - Public Health - Milk Supply.

    "Paying for Its Antiquity" is in the Register,
    4 April 1905, page 4e.

    A ratepayers' soiree is reported upon in the Register,
    3 and 5 August 1905, pages 4i and 7a.

    An obituary of Charles H. Gooden. assistant town clerk, is in the Register, 11 November 1905, page 6i, Observer, 18 November 1905, page 38e,
    of G.W. Gooden on 19 January 1907, page 38b,
    of Councillor Alfred Binks on 8 January 1910, page 37b,
    of Alderman J.H. Mattingly on 24 August 1918, page 19b.

    The silver wedding of Mr & Mrs H.J. Holden is reported in the Register,
    7 April 1906, page 7c.
    Biographical details of Mr Holden are in the Register,
    1 December 1913, page 8f and
    an obituary in the Observer,
    5 December 1914, page 43c.

    "Beautifying Norwood" is in the Express,
    25 July 1905, page 4d.

    "Municipal Church Parade" is in the Register,
    11 December 1905, page 6f.

    "Trying to Annexe a District" is in the Register,
    24 July 1906, page 4f.

    "Novel Municipal Enterprise" is in the Register,
    24 July 1906, page 6d.

    "In Praise of Norwood" is in the Register,
    18 September 1906, page 4g,
    18 February 1909, page 4e.

    "Town Band at Norwood" is in the Register,
    13 November 1907, page 4i.

    "Fusion of Norwood and Adjacent Suburbs" is in the Register,
    26 November 1907, page 6h.

    "Norwood's New Council - A Troubled Meeting" is in the Register,
    10 December 1907, page 9a.

    "Tiff at Norwood - Cross Words in Council Meeting" is in the Register,
    3 March 1908, page 8f,
    "Squabble at Norwood - Peculiar Council Meeting" on
    7 July 1908, page 6d,
    "The Norwood Bear Garden - More Quibbling in Council" on
    16 March 1909, page 6d,
    "Tweedledum and Tweedledee" on
    30 March 1909, page 6h.

    "Motors and Dust" is in the Register,
    14 April 1908, page 4e.
    Also see South Australia - Transport - Motor cars and Cycles.

    "Progressive Norwood" is in the Register,
    13 November 1909, page 6d.

    An obituary of Councillor Alfred Binks is in the Register,
    6 January 1910, page 5e.

    Biographical details of Alderman J.H. Mattingly are in the Register,
    2 February 1910, page 4h.

    "Cattle in Streets" is in the Register,
    11 October 1910, page 4e.

    "White Gloves at Norwood" is in the Register,
    22 November 1910, page 4d.

    "Annual Perambulation" is in the Register,
    14 December 1910, page 10d.

    "Lurid Reports - A Mayor's Grievance" is in the Register,
    20 June 1911, page 5g.

    Information on James Coombe, "a pioneer surveyor", who was involved in bridge construction in the district, is in the Register,
    25 July 1911, page 9b.

    "Honouring Eminent Citizens" is in the Observer,
    28 October 1911, page 34e.

    "Norwood and Land Values Assessment" is in the Register,
    27 September 1911, page 8h.

    "A Relic of Old Norwood", an 1852 painting of "Stainsbury House" occupied by Charles Draper, is in the Register,
    10 October 1911, page 6e.

    "Honouring Eminent Citizens" is in the Register,
    23 October 1911, page 6d.

    "Norwood Civic [Church] Service" is in the Register,
    18 December 1911, page 3i.

    The council's concern at new home building methods being used in Foster Street are discussed in the Register,
    16 January 1912, page 6e.

    The granting of the freedom of Kensington & Norwood to Sir Edwin Smith is reported in the Register,
    13 February 1912, page 5a; also see
    11 June 1912, pages 7a-8i.

    "The Two Norwoods" is in the Register,
    24 April 1912, page 6h.

    "Municipal Memories" is in the Register,
    11 June 1912, page 8i; also see
    11 June 1912, pages 8g-10f.

    "An Advertisement for Norwood" is in the Register,
    30 July 1912, page 6h.

    Comments on the Mayor's annual report are in the Register,
    26 November 1912, page 8e.

    A Mayoral Ball is reported upon in the Register,
    17 July 1913, page 5d.

    "Norwood Children Entertained" is in the Register,
    18 July 1913, page 6e.

    "Municipal Loyalty - Norwood Corporation's Tribute" is in the Register,
    11 August 1914, page 10g; also see
    21 August 1914, page 11d.

    Biographical details of Edgar H. Limbert are in the Register,
    2 and 4 December 1916, pages 8h and 8h,
    Observer, 9 December 1916, page 47c
    (obit. 31 January 1920, page 12d).
    A photograph of a former Mayor, David Packham, is in the Chronicle,
    13 April 1912, page 44a.

    An obituary of a former Mayor, Edgar H. Limbert, is in the Register,
    23 January 1920, page 6g.

    A proposed war memorial is discussed in the Register,
    17 March 1920, page 10e,
    13 September 1921, page 6g and
    its unveiling on
    2 and 4 June 1923, pages 8f and 9c.
    "A Memorial Plantation [on Osmond Terrace]" is in the Register,
    10 September 1920, page 6g.
    Also see South Australia - World War I - Memorials to the Fallen.

    A photograph of council members is in the Register,
    25 January 1928, page 10.

    Information on the Council's incinerator is in The News,
    29 January 1930, page 4e.

    North Adelaide - Nympsvale
    Place Names



    See Adelaide - Destitution.

    "A distressing case of destitution is reported in the Observer,
    16 March 1878, page 11d.

    Information on the appointment of local medical officers for the destitute poor is in the Express,
    21 October 1884, page 3c.
    "The Sick Poor" is in the Observer,
    31 October 1896, page 27a.

    Information on family destitution is in the Register,
    28 July 1906, page 4i,
    30 August 1906, page 7e.

    "Distress at Norwood" is in the Advertiser,
    28 May 1929, page 15g.
    A photograph of a carnival sponsored by the Norwood Unemployed Association is in the Chronicle,
    20 August 1931, page 32.
    See South Australia - The Depression Years - 1930 to 1936.

    North Adelaide - Nympsvale
    Place Names


    Entertainment, Social Clubs

    Also see South Australia - Entertainment and the Arts - Music. and Adelaide.

    The formation of a Volunteer Corps is discussed in the Chronicle,
    23 July 1859, page 6e.

    The first concert of the Norwood Philharmonic Society is reported in the Register,
    22 July 1861, page 3h; also see
    22 October 1861, page 3e.
    The formation of a choral society is reported in the Express,
    19 August 1870, page 2c,
    15 December 1870, page 2e; also see
    2 and 9 September 1871, pages 2f and 3a; also see
    21 January 1874, page 2d,
    21 September 1881, page 2e,
    7 December 1892, page 4c,
    6 December 1893, page 4c,
    16 September 1895, page 3f,
    18 October 1895, page 3e,
    6 December 1895, page 4d.

    Information on a glee and madrigal society is in the Express,
    27 November 1883, page 2c,
    4 August 1885, page 2c,
    1 June 1886, page 2c.

    Information on "penny piece shooting" at the Norwood Arms Hotel is in the Observer,
    22 June 1850, page 3c.

    Illegal trading at the Old Colonist Hotel is reported in the Register,
    7 July 1855, page 2h.

    A report on a Christmas tree exhibition at the Town Hall is in the Observer,
    27 December 1862, pages 4g-7g.
    Also see South Australia - The Colony - Christmas in South Australia.

    The breeding of pigeons and poultry by Mr J.T. Gray is reported in the Advertiser,
    2 March 1867, page 2g.

    A report on the activities of the Norwood Young Men's Society is in the Express,
    5 May 1869, page 2d.
    Also see Adelaide - Clubs, Societies and Associations - Young Men's Christian Association.

    Information on a parliamentary club is in the Express,
    3 August 1872, page 2f.
    A photograph of a "model parliament" is in the Chronicle,
    29 January 1910, page 31.
    Also see South Australia - Politics.

    Information on local hotels is in the Observer,
    10 January 1880, page 72b.
    The serving of "adulterated liquor" at Crampton's Hotel is discussed in the Register,
    22 March 1880, page 6e
    Also see Adelaide - Hotels and Lodging Houses.

    The inaugural meeting of the Blue Ribbon Army is in the Express,
    2 April 1883, page 2d.

    A draughts match against Southwark is reported in the Express,
    19 April 1888, page 2d.
    Information on a draughts' club is in the Chronicle,
    23 March 1889, page 16a,
    17 August 1889, page 16b,
    26 October 1889, page 15f,
    14 December 1889, page 16a.

    The formation of a chess club is reported in the Advertiser,
    5 June 1890, page 7c; also see
    11 and 19 August 1890, pages 6c and 3g,
    20 June 1892, page 7c,
    21 and 23 June 1890, pages 4h and 6e,
    7 July 1890, page 5b,
    27 April 1891, page 7d,
    4 May 1891, page 7h,
    12 June 1891, page 6d,
    28 March 1892, page 3d,
    23 September 1890, page 2d,
    30 November 1893, page 4f,
    10 February 1894, page 16c,
    8 and 15 March 1895, pages 4a and 4b,
    6 January 1896, page 2g,
    5 May 1897, page 4c,
    15 April 1898, page 4e,
    3 May 1898, page 2d.
    Also see Adelaide - Entertainment and the Arts - Chess.

    A proposed canary and pigeon society is discussed in the Express,
    16 April 1890; also see
    26 July 1890, page 3f.

    Information on a literary society's annual competition is in the Express,
    5 September 1891, page 2e.

    T.W. Lyon's concert is reported upon in the Express,
    20 January 1894, page 6c.
    29 December 1900, page 4b.
    Also see Adelaide - Entertainment and the Arts - Music.

    A photograph of an eastern suburban band is in the Pictorial Australian in November 1894, page 180.

    Information on the Norwood Scout Group is in the Register,
    21 July 1909, page 5c,
    The Mail,
    4 August 1928, page 12d,
    3 November 1928, page 30f and
    on the Sea Scouts on
    19 January 1929, page 25b.
    A photograph is in the Observer,
    12 November 1927, page 37.
    Also see Adelaide - Boy Scouts.

    A children's dance held in the town hall is reported in the Observer,
    27 August 1910, page 6a.
    Also see South Australia - Social Matters - Dancing and Other Sins.

    The formation of a Girl Guides' Branch is reported in the Register,
    6 May 1921, page 6a.
    Also see Adelaide - Girl Guides.

    North Adelaide - Nympsvale
    Place Names


    Fire Brigade

    Also see Adelaide - Fires and the Fire Brigade.

    The Norwood Volunteer Fire Brigade

    Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning A Colonial Experience

    Following the installation of a water supply, fire plugs were installed one being near the Marryatville Hotel, the second in front of Lavington Glyde's residence, the third near Mr Howitt's bakery and another in front of the Town Hall. They were tested for available water pressure in February 1877 when water was thrown from distances of 30 to 75 feet, while the council was informed that, in case of fire, extra pressure could be laid on by applying to Charles Seymour, the Government Superintendent of Mains, who lived at Valve House on Hackney Road.

    By 1881 fire brigades had been established at Gawler, Kapunda, Port Augusta, Mount Gambier, Glenelg and Glanville and in August 1881 a meeting was held in the Norwood Town Hall to consider whether a local fire brigade should be established on either a voluntary basis or in connection with the government system.

    The former system was decided upon and following several meetings officers and firemen were appointed - Trustees, Messrs E.T. Smith, S.D. Glyde and T. Caterer; Captain, J.A. Thomson; 1st Lieutenant, T.S. Warman; 2nd Lieutenant and Hon. Secretary, R.E. Kippist; Hon. Superintendent and Treasurer, A.J. Diamond; Firemen, Messrs W. Warman, T.A. Caterer, E. Caterer, J. Steed, F. Steed, J.E. Gooden, H. Newbery, R.H. Buttery and Gray. Ten of the men lived within 200 yards of the reel station which was situated in Edward Street close to The Parade, and was erected free of cost by the members of the brigade.

    Mr C.A. Bleechmore was appointed canvasser and collector and through him subscriptions amounting to £150 were received. The plant of the company consisted of one hand-reel of the latest pattern - a drum on the axle, with disconnecting gear, enabled the hose to be wound or unwound at any speed. Additionally, there were a 420 feet of two-inch canvas hose, 60 feet of India-rubber hose, five lamps and lanterns, one double hydrant, five pairs of couplings, two branches with four nozzles, two keys for fire plugs and twelve red and blue uniforms for brigade members.

    The opening demonstration took place on Friday, 28 April 1882 at Osmond Terrace south, where spectators included the Superintendent of Fire Brigades, Mr A.J. Baker, and Mr A. Abrahams, the Mayor of Adelaide, local councillors and leading residents of the municipality. With the exception of one hitch the company performed their duties remarkably well and displayed a large amount of judgement and discretion and the only thing that remained was whether the men, when their services were called into action, would maintain that cool judgement.

    The first two years of the brigade's life were relatively uneventful and its efficiency was not put to the test until March 1884 when a serious fire broke out between Bridge and Chapel Streets at the home of an ex-Mayor, David Packham. The first alarm was given at 7 am and within 20 minutes the brigade was on the spot with their reel and promptly and vigorously set about reducing the flames. In the meantime the horses in the stable were got out with considerable difficulty, one of them being singed about the back. Some wagons were rescued but, by the time the firemen arrived, it was clear that the main sheds and contents were past saving. Had not willing hands been present to beat out every spark which descended on the ground the fire would certainly have spread with disastrous results.

    A few days later Cowell Brothers' timber yard at the corner of the Parade and Sydenham Road was destroyed by fire and as this followed an incendiary attempt about a fortnight earlier, which had been foiled by a passing market gardener, there was little doubt that it was a deliberately planned work. Further, about a month earlier Wallace's woolshed at the corner of Beulah and Sydenham Roads had been incinerated. Two more fires followed the Cowell conflagration when Alfred Clarke's haystack on Sydenham Road and a blacksmith's shop at the corner of Kent Terrace and Magill Road were destroyed.

    The occurrence of five fires within sixty hours occasioned wide-spread alarm and it was reported that 'a perfect reign of terror... existed in the district' and that 'many people dreaded to go to bed at night, and sat in relays watching their premises.' A £200 reward was offered for the capture of the culprit(s), while the normally tranquil streets were patrolled by additional troopers and plain clothes constables, who had been seconded from the city forces.

    It seemed as if some person or persons in Norwood and Kent Town had deliberately set themselves the diabolical task of destroying as many places of business as possible and, therefore, it was assumed that the source of the outrage was to be found in the spiteful revenge of some dismissed employee.

    The courage and determination displayed by members of the brigade during this spate of fires were suitably recognised at the Town Hall in May 1884 when each of the members was given a suitably inscribed gold medal. They were presented by the Mayoress, Mrs K. St.B. Miller, and as each man mounted the platform he was greeted with a round of applause. The Mayor expressed the opinion that Englishmen carried their customs with them wherever they went and one of these was to do their duty, and that was what the brigade had done during the dreadful week of fires.

    By 1893 it was known as Norwood and Saint Peters Volunteer Fire Brigade and was composed as follows: Head Station, on The Parade - Eight active members, one horse reel and appliances, one handreel and appliances and 600 feet of hose, Captain, J.W. Cossey and Lieutenant A. Hope; No. 2 Station, St Peters Branch - six active members, one handreel and appliances and 500 feet of hose, Lieutenant, W. Porter; No. 3 Station, Sydenham Road - Four active members, one handreel and appliances and 650 feet of hose, Lieutenant F.R. Steed. The secretary of the brigade was F. Colliver.

    For many years the district was served by volunteers and did good work but were hampered with inefficient appliances. Finally, the time came to substitute a paid service for unpaid labour. For years the corporation had fought manfully and long to have the municipality connected with the metropolitan brigade, but in vain, and it was only when the local brigade itself became disorganised that the townspeople came round to the view of the members of the corporation who had advocated securing the services of paid men.

    By early 1896 the affiliation had occurred and a new fire station was opened nearly opposite the town hall on 13 May 1896. It was connected by telephone with the Adelaide headquarters and alarms were placed at Allen's Corner, at Cowell's Corner, at the corner of William and Elizabeth Streets and in High Street, Kensington, opposite to the Rising Sun Hotel. Thus, if a fire broke out help would be sent from Adelaide.

    Early in 1899 members of the Fire Brigades Board, which included the Mayor of Kensington and Norwood, Mr A. Binks, paid a visit to suburban stations. Norwood was the first place of call and as the drag jogged on past the station the occupants were somewhat startled by someone thundering forth sonorously, 'Are you there? Call of fire from The Parade'.

    A couple of men were outside painting, but recognising that voice they, with one accord, dropped paint brushes, bells were set ringing, a stable door flew open, a grey horse called 'Sailor' took up place in the shafts of the reel, and ere 15 seconds had elapsed 'Sailor' was galloping in great style to the scene of an imaginary fire.

    Directly he was freed the old grey trotted proudly back to his box and seemed anxious to have another turn out. One or two improvements were suggested and a note was taken. After an adjournment to the Mayor's parlour the horses' heads were turned towards Unley, where another alarm was raised.

    General Notes

    A fire at the Alma Hotel is reported in the Observer,
    20 April 1861, page 4c.
    at Fisher's Wine Store on
    9 and 16 October 1875, pages 2g and 4f.

    A fire at Schroder's carpentry is reported in the Observer,
    20 April 1861, page 4c,

    "Strange Accident Through Kerosine" at the bootmaking shop of E. Robinson is reported in the Register,
    11 January 1867, page 2d.

    Information on the available water supply, etc., is in the Register,
    17 February 1877, page 5c.
    Also see Adelaide - Water Supply.

    A proposed fire brigade is discussed in the Register,
    12 August 1881, page 5c.
    A meeting called to consider forming a volunteer fire brigade is reported in the Register,
    1 February 1882, page 5a,
    1 February 1882, page 2c,
    11 February 1882, page 33d,
    29 March 1884, page 27e.

    Also see Register,
    29 April 1882, page 6a; also see
    17 and 27 January 1891, pages 5d and 6e,
    24 April 1895, page 7e,
    8 March 1884, page 36d,
    19 February 1890, page 5d,
    26 March 1884, page 2d,
    10 and 14 May 1884, pages 3e and 3a,
    15 August 1885, page 3e,
    6 October 1885, page 3e,
    14 and 21 February 1887, pages 3c and 2e,
    19 February 1890, page 3b,
    22 September 1891, page 3c,
    6 October 1891, page 2c,
    24 April 1895, page 4a,
    22 May 1895, page 4c,
    4 June 1895, page 2d,
    15 September 1892, page 2h (supp.).

    A fire at Mildred's carpentry in Grey Street is reported in the Register,
    15 January 1884, page 5b,
    12 January 1884, page 29b; also see
    8 and 15 March 1884, pages 31a-36d and 31b.

    "Another Fire at Norwood" is in the Register,
    6, 11, 12 and 15 March 1884, pages 2c (supp.), 6c, 5a and 2a (supp.).

    Information on the fire brigade is in the Register,
    27 March 1884, pages 4g-2g (supp.).

    "Fire Brigade Medals" is in the Register,
    3 and 10 May 1884, pages 5b and 5a.

    "Fire at Norwood" is in the Register,
    3 November 1884, page 5b.

    The destruction of shops by fire is reported in the Observer,
    17 January 1891, page 35c.

    "A Large Fire at Norwood" is in the Register,
    10, 12 and 13 January 1891, pages 6f, 4f-6f and 4h,
    10 and 13 January 1891, pages 2d and 3d.

    Information on the brigade is in the Register,
    5 July 1893, page 5d.

    "Fire in Norwood" is in the Register,
    19 February 1894, page 6e.

    Information on a new fire station is in the Register,
    14 May 1896, page 6f,
    4 February 1897, page 2c.

    "Serious Charge Against the Brigade" is in the Express,
    13 December 1904, page 4e,
    10 January 1905, page 2a,
    13 December 1904, page 4g.

    A photograph of a fire engine is in the Observer,
    3 June 1905, page 28; also see
    The News,
    29 December 1925, page 6f.
    A photograph of a fireman's funeral is in the Observer,
    7 February 1914, page 31.

    "Fire at Payneham" is in the Express,
    25 January 1907, page 4f.

    "Fire Alarms at Norwood" is in the Register,
    14 December 1910, page 6g.

    A fire at Lill's Oriental Furnishing Company is reported in the Register,
    29 January 1914, page, 6h.

    "Fireman's Funeral [H.B. Hedger]" is in the Register,
    2 February 1914, page 6f.

    A fire at Buttery & Sons factory is reported in the Register,
    9 September 1916, page 9c.

    "A Fire at Norwood [H. Stalley & Co.]" is in the Register,
    1 September 1919, page 7d.

    Information on the brigade is in the Register,
    9 February 1926, page 10e.

    North Adelaide - Nympsvale
    Place Names



    (Taken from Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    Our residence was pleasantly situated near Second Creek and was a small cottage, floored with brick and roofed with shingles (a small board about 18 by 6 inches split from a stringy bark tree). It comprised of two rooms in width, one with a fireplace and canvas nailed to the roof joists as ceilings. The walls were not plastered, but the bricks were washed inside and out. Along the back of the cottage the roof extended some four feet, which formed a sort of piazza. We boarded up one end and a side as a fowl pen. Beyond this was our garden which we cultivated with cabbages, potatoes, peas, turnips, onions, lettuce, mustard and cress, together with a few flowers.

    Our own well, with water equal to any that I have ever drank, was but 19 feet deep and it contained never less than 12 feet of water during the summer months, when it became a repository for butter and cream which was lowered into its cool depths in billy-cans or buckets.

    The frontage of our land was about 100 feet with a depth of 200 feet and, as time went by, we divided it by a neat lattice, arranged diamond fashion about seven feet high and comprised of deal laths. Upon this we grew many 'turning' plants, including a species of Dolichos from northern Australia and bearing seed pods about three inches long, one and a quarter broad, and of a bronzy-red colour.

    The flower beds had broad paths between them laid out at right angles with fine chips obtained from a stone-breaking machine at the Glen Osmond quarries. The paths were level with the beds, so that when they were watered it did not run away on the paths, as it would do if the beds were raised in pyramids, as was often done by some who could not rid themselves of the prejudices for that form of gardening derived from their youthful experience in the sloppy soil of dear old England.

    The soil was of a fine sandy texture and, after watering, sets down smooth and apparently hard but broke up easily. Beneath was a layer of fine gravel upon a ferruginous calcareous clay, which altogether was very favourable for us who had command of copious water, plenty of manure and a disposition to labour. I turn now to another aspect of life in Norwood at a later date.

    Norwood Cottages and Gardens

    In the 1880s there were few of the married working men in Norwood - especially those classes who stand out upon the 'eight-hour system' - who did not occupy a decent house with a nice plot of land attached. It is true they were obliged to pay a high rent for such a place - from 12 to 16 shillings weekly. The man was engaged at a laborious occupation from 6 am until 5 pm, but with an hour-and-a-half interval in the middle of the day, and until 1 pm on Saturdays, on wages of 50 shillings a week; on the average his wife and he were blessed with four children.

    The family home occupied three rooms and was built on a piece of land 30 feet wide, with the yard divided by a fence down the middle. The three rooms occupied about 36x12 feet and the yard about 33x15 feet, while 12x15 feet was enough for the woodheap and washtubs - around these was a clear walking space.

    The remaining 21x15 feet was made into a kitchen garden, except for a six feet square in one corner and a path three feet wide next to the dividing fence - necessarily placed there because his neighbour's children would put their hands through and pull up his plants. Benches and shelves ranged up along the wall of the house upon which many tolls, etc., were placed to economise the space.

    Many would think that such a small piece of land was not worth worrying over, but he was industrious and obtained all the vegetables the family needed from this little patch, besides parsley and herbs, which his neighbours were often pleased to beg from him. Not a foot of soil was vacant for long, for as soon as it was cleared or plants had done their bearing, it was fertilised and readied for a future crop.

    Sometimes he raised a few plants in kerosene cans cut lengthwise and placed on the aforesaid shelves and these plants were planted out as soon as an old crop was cleared. Not far away was a neighbour who had a horse and stable and he was pleased to have our energetic labourer to remove the litter on a barrow.

    All the soapsuds and slops also went into the garden beds, the husband always left a small hole in a suitable place, which was shifted two or three times a week, thus helping to keep the place sweet, clean, tidy and healthy. Probably if he had not kept a garden he would not know what to do with his leisure time. The publican, no doubt, would have rejoiced to have a 'man of spirit' as a customer, instead of peaking of him as a mollycoddle and a milksop!

    The other half of the property would also have been held by a working man - a builder's labourer who worked upon the principle of 'eight hours' work, eight hours' play, eight hours' sleep and eight bob a day.'

    General Notes

    The district prior to closer settlement is described in the Register,
    9 July 1857, page 3f,
    13 March 1878, page 6b.

    A "devastating hurricane" is reported in the Observer,
    15 November 1851, page 5e.

    A trial of Hussey's mowing machine at Muller's Troubridge farm is reported in the Observer,
    23 October 1852, page 4b.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Farming - Farm Implements.

    The postal service is discussed in the Observer,
    14 April 1855, page 5h,
    30 April 1907, page 4f,
    6 May 1907, page 4f.
    Information on postal and telegraph facilities are in the Express,
    14, 22 and 23 December 1874, pages 2g, 3f and 3f.
    A sketch of the post office is in the Pictorial Australian in
    April 1876.
    Information on a proposed telephone exchange is in the Register,
    10 June 1908, page 4d,
    28 July 1924, page 8f.
    Also see South Australia - Communications.

    "Suburban Depredations" is in the Register,
    8 September 1855, page 3f.
    "Night Marauders" is in the Chronicle,
    7 May 1859, page 1f (supp.).

    "Suburban Police" is in the Register,
    5 July 1856, page 2g.
    "Police Protection for Norwood" is in the Register,
    23 May 1860, page 3g,
    22 August 1874, page 3e,
    The Irish Harp,
    10 and 18 September 1874, page 6a and 5a-c; also see
    19 July 1898, page 3e.
    "Charge Against a Police Officer" is in the Register,
    16 and 22 January 1895, pages 3h and 5c.
    "More Police Wanted" is in the Register,
    10 February 1914, page 6e.

    Also see South Australia - Police.

    Police at Norwood

    (Taken from Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    In 1856 the local council applied to the government for the provision of police protection in the township. The reply from the Colonial Secretary was not helpful and intimated that the only assistance could be 'an occasional mounted patrol'. His remedy was for the council to appoint local constables - this reply was the same as that given to a similar request in 1855!

    The citizens and their representatives were not satisfied with the justice of this arrangement; the police were supported out of general revenue and, accordingly, it was only equitable that their services should be fairly apportioned amongst the community. Further, the council pointed out to the government that several towns such as Woodside and Echunga, none of which were superior in population to Kensington and Norwood, had a police station.

    There was no doubt that at the time the lack of a police presence led to acts of dishonesty in Norwood - gardens, shops and stables were pillaged regularly. Few houses in the eastern suburbs escaped and the same victims were honoured with frequently-renewed visits and not a night passed without depredations in one quarter or another. Some rogues were caught in flagrante delicto but escaped scot free.

    One annoyed citizen addressed the Editor of the SA Register in September 1857:

    A system of local police had been authorised in 1852 and gave civic authorities the right to nominate a sufficient number of persons to be sworn in. Disobedience of orders or breach of duty were punishable by a fine, while services were recompensed by a fee payable on account of a particular service in which a constable may have been engaged.

    However, it was clear that neither the District Council Acts nor the Police Acts contained any definite statement of the functions which a district constable might exercise. A code of instructions was issued in 1860, but there was good reason to believe that the directions it contained were ultra vires. For instance, a district constable arrested a man for a breach of the peace and when tried before a special magistrate in Adelaide 'Mr Beddome decided that the law was against him and Mr Downer, on appeal, upheld that decision but only inflicted a nominal fine, as the constable had evidently acted bona fides and without evil intention.'

    Thus with a simple desire to properly discharge his duty, a special constable could make arrests in the manner directed in the semi-official 'instructions' and find himself exposed to the discomfort and loss of an adverse action at law if his authority was called into question.

    From 1867, Inspector Ray, the factotum of the Kensington and Norwood council, supervised vigilantly the workings of the laws and was the terror of evil-doers, his uniform and 'ponderous sword' overawing incipient larrikinism:

    It was woe betide the unfortunate who brought himself within the clutches of the law, as the stern hand of Nemesis would require a visit to the city and return therefrom a wiser, sadder, if not poorer man - Before a Magistrate's Court was established at Norwood he was well known at the City Police Court where sharp debates took place between him and defendants' solicitors.

    Mr Ray's term of office came to an end in 1882 when, in the latter half of that year, a neat structure on Osmond Terrace gave accommodation to an officer, three constables, and a mounted trooper as a patrol, upheld the dignity of the law. Possibly Mr Ray's last duty as the law enforcement officer in the district was that of apprehending larrikins in Kent Town:

    Sergeant Burchell Versus Norwood Larrikins

    One evening in January 1895 Messrs W. Hill, C.J. Gurr and T. Pitman were going homewards after a New Year's Eve party and, like everyone else, were in a joyous mood when they were set upon by Sergeant Burchell and one of them was 'brutally assaulted, being struck by a baton and kicked on the leg.'

    At an ensuing court case Mr Hill denied having committed himself in any way, while his compatriots corroborated his evidence and Mrs Woods, the Sergeant's own witness, contradicted them. It transpired that a few days following the alleged assault Burchell went to Hill's house and apologised for making a mistake 'for he thought he was one of the Magill cowboys', thus adding insult to injury. Sergeant Burchell was adjudged to have 'exceeded his duty' and fined the 'ridiculously small penalty of one pound.'

    Early in February 1895 'A Norwood Citizen of 40 Years' came to Burchell's defence:

    "The Obstruction, Detention and Deviation of [First Creek]" is in the Register,
    2 February 1856, page 4c.
    Also see Place Names - First Creek.

    A meeting of cowkeepers at the Alma Inn is reported in the Observer,
    18 January 1862, page 8d.

    A "novel exhibition" of a Christmas tree is reported in the Register,
    23, 24 and 27 December 1862, pages 2h, 2h and 2d.
    Also see South Australia - The Colony - Christmas in South Australia.

    The trial of a steam thrashing machine is reported in the Register,
    24 December 1862, page 2h.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Farming - Farm Implements.

    Information on the Norwood Young Men's Association is in the Register,
    6 and 10 March 1863, pages 2f and 2g.
    Also see Adelaide - Clubs, Societies and Associations - Young Men's Christian Association.

    A complaint about Aborigines who "stop every winter" in the brickyards is in the Register,
    23 May 1864, page 3g.
    Also see South Australia - Aboriginal Australians.

    Information on the Norwood Juvenile Floral Society is in the Express,
    8 November 1872, page 3d,
    8 November 1873, page 7d.
    Also see South Australia - Agricultural, Floricultural & Horticultural Shows .

    Information on Mr Gillard's wine shop in Adelaide is in The Lantern,
    24 December 1875, page 15a.
    The flooding of J. Gillard's vineyard is reported in the Observer,
    16 March 1878, page 11a.
    Also see South Australia - Natural Disasters - Floods.

    "Suburban Grievances" is in the Register,
    10 February 1877, page 6h.

    A portable cooking machine invented by W.A. Pratt of Beulah Road is discussed in the Observer,
    13 October 1877, page 7e.

    A Chinaman's garden is described in Garden & Field,
    1 May 1878, page 183.

    A Norwood Chinese Gardener

    (Taken from Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience)


    Let those who please revile the Chinese race for I have nothing to say against them. It is laid to their charge that they are immoral, that they gamble, thieve, lie, save money, spend nothing, don't marry and leave the colony as soon as they have gained a few hundred pounds.

    My husband lived among the Chinese on the Victorian diggings, observed their habits and concluded that their general character would contrast very favourably against that of many of our Christian brethren. As a people they are industrious, civil, sober, honest and liberal.

    They are never found in a public house; neither do we find them in the destitute asylum, seldom in gaol, and seldomer in hospitals. They are often brutally insulted and ill-treated by those who make far worst colonists, and very seldom retaliate.

    So far as immoral practices go, I have seen a great deal of wickedness openly perpetrated and boldly acknowledged by Europeans. The Chinaman's gambling is as a bagatelle compared with what is carried on by white men night after night and day after day by professed gamblers. Some Chinese will thieve, so will many Europeans; and as for lying, who is there who can be believed?

    We are all anxious to save money and the Chinaman is not such a fool as to leave his country and work like a horse for nothing. When he has no money he will eat offal rather than accept charity, but with cash in his hand there is nothing too good for him. Does he pay the highest price for these good things? Not if he can help it! His money is too hardly earned to be lightly parted with, and no just person will blame him for getting the greatest amount of good out of it.

    The Chinese Gardener at Norwood

    More than twenty years ago there was a Chinaman's garden at Norwood towards the western end of Beulah Road. The propertycomprised of about an acre of land upon which was erected a house of four rooms and a shed which, at one time, served as a residence for 'John, the Chinaman', as he was known, and his son. They had come from Collingwood in Victoria and arrived from China in 1868; their home and garden was rented and, as they employed two Chinese men to assist them, the need for early rising and diligent employment of daylight hours was very apparent.

    Nearly every inch of the ground was under cultivation and confined almost exclusively to culinary vegetables. Some people, with a wicked prejudice against 'John' and a total disregard for the truth, asserted that he was not clean in his mode of cultivation. From my personal observations he was cleaner than the majority of his European brethren. All of his produce was washed in clean water before being taken off the premises, while turnips, carrots, radishes, etc., were scrubbed with a brush.

    Although the ground they occupied was once pronounced to be incapable of producing anything, on account of its dry, porous nature, it yielded, even in the hottest summer, an abundant harvest. The local European gardeners said, 'Don't water in the middle of the day', but 'John' always did so when the sun was shining.

    Early in the morning on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday 'John' was to be seen in the East End Market with his basket and the invariable bamboo, purchasing those vegetables which he did not grow. These he took home and, after cleaning them, added them to his own produce. Then he started forth on his rounds, carrying a load that would almost break a horse's back. Later, 'John' saw the advantage of wheels and obtained a couple of hand-trucks of European manufacture.

    If my recollection is not at fault there was a time when the Germans and the Irish were spoken of with much contempt, and as many false charges brought against as are now brought against the Chinese. I think it is just as dishonest to steal a man's good character as it is to rob him of his purse; indeed, those who assert that the Chinese are all convicts, that they are all dishonest, that they all lie, cheat and gamble and undersell their labour, excelling their white brethren in everything, and getting rich where others starve, not only tell a number of untruths - wilfully, too - but also undervalue and depreciate the worth, intelligence and industry of those of whom they profess themselves anxious to serve when uttering these untruths.

    'John' doubtless had his faults - grievous faults some of them - but he who has none, let him cast the first stone. Meanwhile, we have just laws; if any one offends, let him be judged by them and not by prejudice.

    Information on a proposed memorial to Dr Benson is in the Express,
    11 and 25 July 1877, pages 2d and 2c,
    8 August 1877, page 2c.
    "The Benson Memorial Fountain" is in the Express,
    10 June 1879, page 2d,
    21 June 1879, page 22a,
    13 September 1898, page 2c.
    A sketch is in Frearson's Weekly,
    21 June 1879, page 145,
    Pictorial Australian in July 1879.

    A public meeting on "The Chinese Question" is reported in the Register,
    15 and 16 January 1879, pages 6c and 1c (supp.).

    The district is described in the Register,
    14 May 1879, page 5e.

    "Attempted Murder at Norwood" is in the Observer,
    24 January 1880, page 147d,
    7 February 1880, page 236b.

    A meeting at the Town Hall in respect of "Sunday Closing" is reported in the Observer,
    31 July 1880, page 188a.
    A cartoon is in The Lantern,
    29 March 1890, page 19.
    Also see South Australia - Religion - Breaking the Sabbath.

    A complaint about local larrikins is made in the Register,
    24 April 1882, page 6d:

    Also see Adelaide - Larrikinism.

    A local option meeting is reported in the Observer,
    15 March 1884, page 34a.
    Also see South Australia - Social Matters - Temperance and Allied Matters - Local Options.

    Local Option at Norwood

    The debate on the matters of temperance, total abstinence and hotel trading hours has raged ever since the European arrived on the shores of South Australia and for this monograph I shall confine my remarks to a local option meeting held at the Norwood Town Hall on 10 March 1884. His worship the Mayor, Mr K. St. Barbe Miller, may have been well advised to 'beware the Ides of March'.

    In opening the meeting he said he had been asked some months prior, to act as an umpire in a debate in the city when he sat next to the Honourable Ebenezer Ward, MP, a known toper, as an arbitrator; the next day a friend and 'total abstainer' said he was sorry to see him on the side of the 'drunks'. He concluded by saying he was 'quite neutral' and that was the position he intended to occupy that evening.

    The Rev J.Y. Simpson said that they were there to do more than simply air their respective views, for it was essential for them to impress upon the public the importance of the 'burning question' of local option polls. He then read a resolution emanating from a local committee:

    The reverend gentleman agreed heartily with the resolution and said that local option would tend to reduce drunkenness, crime and poverty and would prevent the injury to the public health which the sale of intoxicants induced.

    To support his argument he referred to the general sobriety of the men engaged at the Moonta Mines, where there was not a public house. 'It was a great shame that there should be 700 hotels in the colony', he said. 'A man could work as well without beer as with it and this had been proved at the recent fire at Cowell's. The men who had taken tea and such like stood the work and fatigue much better than those who took their beer.' To this rhetorical outburst he was greeted with both applause and vehement dissent.

    Ignoring the rules of debate, the chairman then called upon Rev D. O'Donnell, a self-confessed supporter of the need for 'local option'. In a rambling speech the reverend gentleman berated publicans and their trade:

    This somewhat illogical exposition of commercial economics did not meet with general approval for, at this stage of proceedings, a fire alarm was raised in the hall, a stampede was threatened, a large number of persons leaving the hall. However, the Mayor eventually restored order by announcing that it was a false alarm and 'only a ruse of the enemy to clear the hall.' Rev O'Donnell concluded with a plaintive appeal to his followers:

    Amidst loud and continuing applause Mr E.T. Smith ascended the platform and, at the outset, said he was pained at the appeal made by Rev Simpson that 'they would not be influenced by the long purses of any one.' In his opinion the present platform of the local option adherents was but a continuation of the prohibitive programme which they had tried to introduce to parliament some years previously.

    He went on to say that it was a great mistake to allow ratepayers to decide the question for it had been proved that local option tended to an increase of public houses and he was certain that if it was law fifteen new houses would be erected in Kensington in the next ten years.

    He reminded the audience that local option had been tried before in the colony in the 1850s, when more than half the hotels were licensed by the public and it was a great evil. It was his firm opinion that a licensing bench for the most part of independent gentlemen, could grant licences more equitably.

    Time after time the bench had refused licences to hotels and, on occasions, ratepayers petitioned in favour of the houses and said they were necessary! 'Local option would make it worse', he said. 'Because one man is a drunkard should the other ninety-nine be punished':

    This was received with approbation by the working class element within the audience and Mr Smith resumed his seat. A motion, moved and seconded by the two reverend gentlemen, was subjected to an amendment from the floor which read:

    While this was being proposed the audience rose almost en masse and left, only about 40 persons, including a number of lads, who voted subsequently, remained in the room; Rev O'Donnell also went to catch the last tram car for Adelaide.

    Following the amendment being seconded the amendment and motion were put to the meeting and the latter carried by a small majority. The meeting, which lasted for three hours and a half, was noisy at times, but perfectly good-humoured and the fire scare was the only unpleasant incident.

    To conclude this piece I may, perhaps, be permitted to interpose a comment from the Editor of the Register:

    A home garden in Queen Street is described in the Register,
    11 March 1884, page 7c,
    12 January 1884, page 10d.

    "The Social Evil in the Suburbs" is in the Express,
    10 June 1884, page 3f,
    10 and 11 June 1884, pages 5b and 4e.
    Also see Adelaide - Prostitution.

    A bazaar is reported upon in the Register,
    12 June 1884, page 7d.

    Information on a proposed Working Men's Club is in the Express,
    29 November 1884, page 2d,
    4 December 1884, page 2c,
    29 November 1884, page 5b,
    3 December 1884, page 5b,
    16 December 1885, page 2g.

    The Norwood Working Men's Club

    For some time prior to 1884 a feeling had been growing in the district that a working men's club would be an acquisition to the district and, accordingly, by early December 1884, 150 members had been enrolled and premises secured at the corner of Edward Street, formerly occupied by Hodges and Parr as an auction mart, with a four-roomed house attached.

    A four year's lease was secured and the premises fitted up comfortably, the smaller rooms being carpeted and furnished for the purposes of card, reading and committee rooms; the larger, 25 feet by 30, was intended to be used as a billiards' room and refreshment bar.

    The following officers were elected: Treasurer, T.S. Warman; Trustees, E.H. Pett, G. Wakeham, Hockridge, J. Pearce, T.A. Caterer; Committee, M. George, J. Spence, E. Freeman, C.H. Simmonds, J. Gooden, H. Drew, W. Warman, J.C. Koster, Warmsley, T. Younger, A. Niehus; Secretary, C. Keam.

    Information on Cowell Brothers timber yard is in the Register,
    30 September 1884, page 5d,
    14 January 1885, page 4d,
    on an art exhibition in the Observer,
    9 May 1885, page 31c,
    5 May 1885, page 6h,
    28 September 1889, page 5c.

    "Canary Stealing" is in the Register,
    9 July 1885, page 5b:

    A proposed Rescued Sisters' Home is discussed in the Register,
    5 September 1885, pages 4g-6f.

    "The Rechabite Delegates at Norwood" is in the Register,
    19 October 1885, page 5b.

    The collapse of the Norwood Building and Investment Society is reported in the Express,
    6 November 1885, page 2g,
    27 November 1885, page 5g; also see
    5 February 1887, page 9a.

    Information on a new building society is in the Register,
    1 July 1886, page 5b,
    2 and 3 February 1887, pages 5b and 7b,
    1 July 1886, page 3d,
    2 February 1887, page 3e,
    5 May 1887, page 2c.
    Information on a building and investment society is in the Observer,
    5 February 1887, page 6e.

    Information on James Ashton's School of Art is in the Express,
    14 January 1886, page 3d,
    27 September 1887, page 2f,
    31 January 1889, page 3f,
    30 January 1890, page 4a,
    30 September 1890, page 3f,
    26 February 1892, page 2c,
    24 and 26 September 1892, pages 6h and 3h,
    29 September 1893, page 2h,
    28 September 1894, page 3e,
    3 October 1894, page 3e.
    "Ashton's Academy of Arts" is in the Register,
    6 August 1904, page 4a,
    "Return of Mr W. Ashton" on
    2 February 1914, page 1h.
    Also see South Australia - Entertainment and the Arts - Art.

    Information on St Mary's Hall is in the Express,
    16 July 1888, page 4b,
    19 November 1888, page 4e.

    Information on Reedy and Koster's Pottery is in the Observer,
    26 January 1889, page 35b.

    A burglary in Charles Street is reported in the Observer,
    25 September 1886, page 29a.

    A case of arson is discussed in the Observer,
    8 January 1887, page 29e.

    A proposed jubilee fund is discussed in the Observer,
    28 May 1887, page 38a.

    A public laundry is described in the Observer,
    28 January 1888, page 33d.

    "A Burning Nuisance" is in the Register,
    27 and 30 March 1889, pages 5b and 6h.

    "The Butchers' Grievance" is in the Express,
    20, 27 and 28 January 1890, pages 4c, 3e and 3f,
    1, 11 and 18 February 1890, pages 4d, 3g and 3c.

    Information on a water lift invented by Mr Jerger is in the Express,
    25 March 1891, page 2d,
    28 March 1891, page 10a.

    A proposed Arbor Day is discussed in the Register,
    19 and 21 May 1891, pages 5a and 3h.
    Also see South Australia - Education - Arbor Days.

    A shop assistants' picnic at Henley Beach is reported in the Express,
    4 February 1892, page 3b.
    Also see Adelaide - Picnics and Holidays.

    Information on the "Wednesday Half-Holiday" is in the Register,
    4 February 1892, page 5c.

    An old German couple, "A Remarkable Pair", is reported in the Observer,
    19 and 26 November 1892, pages 31a and 30e.

    A fatal bicycle accident is reported in the Chronicle,
    13 May 1893, page 7f.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Cycling.

    The first meeting of the Norwood Christian Sociology Class is in the Express,
    5 May 1893, page 4a.

    A supposed case of arson is reported in the Express,
    23 December 1893, page 4f.

    Information on local dairies is in the Express,
    1 November 1894, page 3e.
    Also see Adelaide - Public Health - Milk Supply.

    An inspection of local fruit gardens is reported upon in the Register,
    18 December 1894, page 4i.

    A District Trained Nurse Society fete, including information on the society, is reported in the Advertiser,
    27 November 1894, page 7g; also see
    13 December 1894, page 3a,
    12 August 1897, page 3c,
    1 June 1900, page 2b.
    A meeting of the East Adelaide District Nursing Society is reported in the Observer,
    9 November 1895, page 16c.
    Also see South Australia - Women - Nurses and Female Doctors.

    "Death by Strangulation" is in the Observer,
    19 October 1895, page 29d.

    "Sunday Drinking" is castigated in the Advertiser,
    26 August 1895, page 6e.
    Also see South Australia - Religion - Breaking the Sabbath.

    Information on local shops is in the Register,
    7 July 1896, page 6b.

    "Medical Men and Midwifery Cases" is in the Observer,
    22 August 1896, page 43e.
    "Midwifery Cases in the Suburbs" is in the Register,
    28 October 1896, page 5c.
    Also see South Australia - Health - Infant Mortality.

    Information on the district is in the Chronicle,
    20 February 1897, page 17a.

    "Norwood Pioneers Dinner" is in the Express,
    23 October 1896, page 2c.

    A severe storm is reported upon in the Express,
    26 November 1896, page 2d,
    15 February 1897, page 3a,
    20 February 1897, page 14d.
    Also see South Australia - Natural Disasters - Miscellany

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Masonic Hall is reported in the Express,
    7 February 1898, page 2e,
    12 February 1898, page 16c.
    Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Freemasonry.

    "Pocketpicking at Norwood" is in the Register,
    2 June 1897, page 5f.

    The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs C. Williams is reported in the Register,
    9 June 1897, page 6b,
    the silver wedding of Mr & Mrs J. Colliver on 19 December 1899, page 7d.

    A diamond jubilee ball is reported in the Express,
    1 July 1897, page 2e,
    a mayoral ball on
    25 July 1912, page 5g.
    Also see
    South Australia - Social Matters - Dancing and Other Sins.

    "A Veteran Soldier [William Slade]", is in the Observer,
    15 July 1899, page 42c.

    The opening of a branch of the Australian Natives' Association is reported in the Express,
    23 June 1900, page 4i,
    Observer, 30 June 1900, page 15c.

    Biographical details of Thomas Pugh, "who built the first house erected in Norwood", are in the Observer, 29 December 1900, page 46b;
    also see 14 March 1903, page 26e, 9 September 1905, page 30b (includes a photo.), 19 January 1907, page 38c (obit.).
    His wife's obituary appears on 14 August 1915, page 46a.

    A chrysanthemum show is reported in the Express,
    25 April 1901, page 4b,
    23 April 1906, page 7i.
    21 October 1909, page 7i,
    20 October 1910, page 5e.

    17 October 1901, page 4b,
    16 October 1902, page 3f,
    19 October 1905, page 4f,
    19 October 1905, page 9e,
    Also see South Australia - Agricultural, Floricultural & Horticultural Shows .

    A photograph of the Norwood Assembly Rooms is in The Critic,
    9 May 1901, page 31.

    Photographs titled "Studies from E. Ziegler" are in The Critic,
    9 May 1901, page 34.

    "Outrage at Norwood - Librarian Bound, Gagged and Robbed" is in the Express,
    22, 23 and 29 October 1901, pages 3f, 2b and 2b.

    "Continental at Norwood" is in the Express,
    12 November 1901, page 3f.

    The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs Thomas Robinson is reported in the Register,
    8 July 1902, page 5c.

    Biographical details of Thomas George are in the Register,
    16 September 1903, page 6f.

    "The Norwood Parade" is in the Express,
    6 May 1902, page 3b,
    1 July 1902, page 3f.

    "The Governor at Norwood" is in the Express,
    14 October 1903, page 1a.
    Also see South Australia - Governors and Ancillary Matters.

    "Greater Norwood - Will It be the Third City" is in the Advertiser,
    26 July 1904, page 7c.

    "Burglaries at Norwood - Three Shops Entered" is in the Express,
    15 February 1904, page 1h.
    "Burglars at Norwood" is in the Express,
    10 August 1912, page 1h,
    "The Norwood Sensation - Alleged Housebreaking Cases" on
    11 August 1916, page 4d.

    A photograph of "a monster gum tree" in William Street is in The Critic,
    28 September 1904, page 6.

    "An Early Morning Sensation" is in the Register,
    15 February 1905, page 4f.

    . The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs George Smith is reported in the Register,
    14 August 1905, page 4h.

    Biographical details of William Vincent are in the Register,
    6 August 1906, page 6d, 4 August 1908, page 7d.

    "Luminous Chops and Sausages" is in the Register,
    21 August 1906, page 4g,
    5 September 1906, page 6e.

    The tragedy of a mother and child drowning in a well is reported in the Express,
    25 and 26 January 1907, pages 1f and 1d,
    2 February 1907, pages 30 (photos) and 43.

    "Norwood Autumn Show" is in the Register,
    18 April 1907, page 6b.
    Also see South Australia - Agricultural, Floricultural & Horticultural Shows .

    The formation of a choral society is reported in the Register,
    15 May 1907, page 8c.

    "Night Fliers [in motor cars]" is in the Register,
    25 June 1907, page 6g,
    23 July 1907, page 4f.
    Also see South Australia - Transport - Motor Cars and Cycles.

    The formation of a branch of the Australian Natives' Association is reported in the Register,
    13 August 1907, page 9e.

    Biographical details of William Vincent are in the Register,
    5 August 1909, page 8d, Observer, 14 August 1909, page 41,
    of James Hall on 16 February 1924, page 48d.

    "Local Inventor [of a storage battery]" is in the Register,
    24 April 1908, page 8e,
    of Mrs Emma Whitford on
    1 August 1908, page 9e.

    Information on hotels is in the Register,
    24 February 1909, page 8b.
    Also see Adelaide - Hotels and Lodging Houses.

    "A Night Out for Drunks - Loose Administration of Liquor Laws" is in the Register,
    13, 15 and 21 May 1908, pages 11f, 3i and 7h.

    "Saturday Half-Holiday - Meeting of Shopkeepers" is in the Register,
    18 November 1908, page 7h.
    Also see South Australia - Social Matters - Early Closing.

    "Fatal Building Accident" is in the Register,
    29 January 1909, page 5a,
    1, 3 and 10 February 1909, pages 7c, 8d and 8e,
    30 January 1909, page 37c.
    "Norwood Building Fatality" is in the Express,
    2 February 1909, page 1h; also see
    3 June 1909, page 4d.

    "Sunday Closing of Clubs - Norwood Will Obey the Law" is in the Register,
    1 February 1909, page 6f.
    Also see South Australia - Religion - Breaking the Sabbath.

    "Two-Up Schools" is in the Register,
    27 April 1909, page 4f.
    Also see South Australia - Social Matters - Gambling - Miscellany.

    "Alleged Rat Nuisance" is in the Register,
    21 October 1909, page 4h.

    A charity fete is reported upon in the Register,
    28 October 1909, page 4h.

    The formation of a Boy Scouts group is reported in the Register,
    19 November 1909, page 4g.
    Also see Adelaide - Boy - Scouts.

    A YMCA fete is reported upon in the Register,
    24 February 1910, page 5d.
    Also see Adelaide - Clubs, Societies and Associations - Young Men's Christian Association.

    The reminiscences of Sir Edwin Smith are in the Register,
    6 April 1910, page 7c.
    Also see Hundred of Smith.

    Offensive smells emanating from a laundry are discussed in the Register,
    10 August 1910, page 6f,
    "Laundry Controversy" on
    1 February 1911, page 6f,
    "Aldermen at a Laundry" on
    7 November 1911, page 6e.

    The formation of a local branch of the Liberal Union is reported in the Register,
    15 November 1910, page 4e.
    Also see South Australia - Politics.

    "Tragedy at Norwood - A Peacemaker's Death [Owen Colwell]" is in the Register,
    20 and 22 February 1911, pages 5a and 8f.
    "The Norwood Tragedy - Verdict of Wilful Murder" is in the Express,
    21 February 1911, page 1i.

    "Burglars at Norwood" is in the Express,
    10 August 1912, page 1h,
    "The Norwood Sensation - Alleged Housebreaking Cases" on
    11 August 1916, page 4d.

    "Prosperous Norwood" is in The News,
    19 September 1923, page 5d.

    Information on and W. Woodroofe Ltd is in The News on 21 November 1927.

    A flower show is reported in the Register,
    21 April 1911, page 6i,
    26 October 1911, page 5d,
    24 April 1912, page 5f,
    17 October 1912, page 5g,
    23 October 1913, page 4f,
    30 April 1915, page 10e,
    31 March 1916, page 9d,
    25 October 1922, page 4h.
    Also see South Australia - Agricultural, Floricultural & Horticultural Shows .

    "Parade of Norwood Cadets" is in the Register,
    14 July 1911, page 6e.
    Also see South Australia - Defence of the Colony.

    Biographical details of Archibald Henderson are in the Register,
    8 September 1911, page 6h,
    of Harry S. Francis on 5 May 1913, page 6g.

    Biographical details of Herman Homburg are in the Register,
    17 February 1912, page 14g.

    "A Norwood Social House" is in the Register,
    30 September 1911, page 14h,
    2 October 1911, page 10h.

    "Workers' Homes" is in the Register,
    22 November 1911, page 11c.

    "A Deserted Baby" is in the Register,
    30 March 1912, page 12h.

    The aftermath of a storm is discussed in the Observer,
    16 March 1912, page 47b.

    "Norwood's Magistrate Court" is in the Register,
    30 July 1912, page 6h,
    13 August 1912, page 9a.
    Also see South Australia - Crime, Law and Punishment - Law - Local courts.

    A home for "domestic helpers" in Charles Street is reported upon in the Register,
    20 August 1912, page 4f,
    18 October 1912, page 6i,
    5 December 1914, page 4g,
    2 January 1915, page 5b.
    Also see South Australia - Social Matters - Domestic Servants.

    A photograph of four generations of the Moyle family is in the Observer,
    21 December 1912, page 32.

    The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs Richard Chaffer is reported in the Register,
    4 April 1914, page 16b.

    The diamond wedding of Mr & Mrs Edward Reedman is reported in the Register,
    5 February 1913, page 6i.

    A photograph of the diamond wedding of Mr & Mrs Thomas Pitman is in the Observer,
    13 March 1915, page 28.

    Biographical details of J.G.O Tepper are in the Register,
    19 April 1915, page 6h.
    Also see under Adelaide - Museums.

    A photograph of Lt W.J. Denny is in The Critic,
    30 January 1918, page 7.

    Biographical details of W. Munson Mills are in the Observer,
    15 January 1916, page 32c,
    of R. Chaffer, master printer, on 19 January 1918, page 28d.

    "Sunday Trading" is in the Register,
    2 December 1913, page 6f.
    Also see South Australia - Religion - Breaking the Sabbath.

    "Norwood Telephone Exchange" is in the Register,
    7 November 1914, page 8f.
    Also see South Australia - Communications - Telephones.

    "Red Cross Display" is in the Register,
    25 February 1915, page 8f.

    "Young Folks' Display" is in the Register,
    7 June 1915, page 9d.

    Photographs of a "Patriotic Carnival" are in The Critic,
    13 October 1915, page 14,
    11 September 1918, page 11.

    Proceeding of the Norwood Exemption Court are reported in the Register,
    17 November 1916, page 4g.

    "Three Long-Lived Sisters [Mesdames C. Amey, W. Langley and R. Lucas]" is in the Register,
    16 January 1917, page 5a.
    Biographical details of Mrs C. Amey are in the Register,
    15 January 1918, page 4g,
    16 January 1919, page 6h,
    26 February 1920, page 6g (obit.).

    Biographical details of R. Chaffer are in the Register,
    14 January 1918, page 4g,
    of Mrs N. Rosewarne on 26 March 1918, page 7a,
    of James Gray on 6 January 1919, page 6f,
    of Mrs L.P. Clarke on 23 May 1925, page 11e,
    of J.P. Roberts on 25 May 1925, page 8h,
    of Mrs Emma Strike on 25 August 1928, page 9b.

    "A Brilliant [War-Time] Officer", John Henry Peck, is in the Register,
    16 July 1919, page 3g.

    "Dr Wigg's Home at Norwood - Now Te Onga Flats" is in the Register,
    31 July 1919, page 4g; also see
    4 September 1919, page 5f.

    "Sly Grogselling at Norwood" is in the Register,
    17 October 1919, page 5e.

    "Norwood Amateur Orchestra" is in the Register,
    9 December 1920, page 5g.

    Information on Loretta Mansions is in the Register,
    5 May 1921, page 5b (includes photo.)

    "Loyal Orange Banquet" is in the Register,
    3 November 1921, page 4d.

    The reminiscences of E.G. Waterhouse are in the Observer,
    3 March 1923, page 39b.

    Biographical details of Mr & Mrs John Langsford are in the Observer,
    26 May 1923, page 28e,
    of Mrs E. Handrickan on 28 January 1928, page 54c.

    The diamond wedding of Mr & Mrs Charles Fry is reported in the Register,
    7 August 1923, page 8h,
    of Mr & Mrs Richard Chaffer on 1 April 1924, page 6g.

    "Prosperous Norwood" is in The News,
    19 September 1923, page 5d.

    "Jazz Frolics at Norwood" is in the Register,
    31 March 1925, page 3d,
    "Municipal Symphony Orchestra" on
    15 July 1925, page 13f.

    "Native Peach Trees" is in the Observer,
    21 August 1926, page 57a.

    Information on Miss Wanda Edwards' school for dancing is in the Register,
    7 November 1925, page 14e.

    Information on "Warinilla", the home of Mr & Mrs H.J. Holden, is in the Register,
    22 July 1926, page 5c.

    Biographical details of Miss Merle Ridgway is in the Register,
    5 and 11 June 1926, pages 13d and 11g,
    of William Leslie on 4 December 1926, page 9c.

    The reminiscences of William Hill are in the Register,
    20 and 24 January 1927, pages 11c and 8e,
    29 January 1927, page 19a.

    The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs Smith is reported in the Register,
    21 May 1927, page 11a.

    A hold-up of the Bank of Adelaide is reported in the Observer,
    24 August 1929, page 42a,
    26 October 1929, page 40a,
    2 November 1929, page 43d.

    "Scout Hero at Norwood" is in the Observer,
    21 August 1930, page 38e.



    An obituary of Robert Dodgson is in the Register,
    7 November 1870, page 5d,
    of Mrs Esther Solomon on 14 July 1875, page 5d.

    An obituary of Dr F.W. Baily is in the Register, 1 March 1882, page 4g,
    of Charles A. Andrews on 22 July 1884, page 5b,
    of Charles Burton on 2 November 1887, page 5b,
    of Charles Summerhayes on 14 February 1890, page 5c,
    of G.A.C. Winnecke on 14 March 1891, page 5a,
    of J.E. Moulden on 2 November 1891, page 5a,
    of William Genery on 3 March 1892, page 5a,
    of W. Silver on 28 June 1892, page 5c,
    of F.G. Hales on 10 June 1893, page 5b,
    of F.S.H. Weir on 3 July 1893, page 5c,
    of Mrs Jane Ingham on 14 June 1894, page 5b,
    of Peter Peterson on 26 July 1894, page 4h.

    An obituary of Thomas Clarke, vigneron, is in the Register, 3 October 1889, page 5b,
    of Matthew Cranston on 4 December 1893, page 5c,
    of John Wellington on 2 November 1896, page 5a,
    of G.A. Reinecke on 7 October 1899, page 5e.

    An obituary of J. Langford is in the Register, 4 July 1895, page 5a,
    of Johanna H.E. Hanckel on 19 November 1895, page 5d,
    of Rev Joseph Peters on 7 December 1895, page 6g,
    of Mrs R.D. Denford on 29 January 1897, page 5a,
    of Edward Wall on 23 February 1897, page 5d,
    of L.L. Elliott on 22 April 1897, page 5b,
    of J.S. Sanders on 1 May 1897, page 5c,
    of W.E. Peterswald on 30 August 1897, page 4h,
    of J.T. Newitt on 23 September 1897, pages 5b,
    of J.P. Prevost on 30 December 1897, page 5a,
    of William Everett on 1 February 1898, page 5a,
    of Mrs G. Kuhnel on 5 September 1898, page 6c,
    of Charles H. Brooks, hotelier, on 9 September 1898, page 5g,
    of James Scott on 16 and 19 September 1898, pages 5a and 6e.

    An obituary of Thomas H. Francis is in the Register, 28 June 1886, page 5b,
    of W.S. Whitington on 30 July 1887, page 6b,
    of G. Gooden on 9 August 1887, page 5b,
    of Mrs Agnes Wood on 22 September 1891, page 5b,
    of John Richards, editor of the Norwood Free Press, in the Observer, 28 August 1886, page 35d.

    An obituary of W. Silver, a wholesale manufacturer, is in the Observer, 2 July 1892, page 30b,
    of Mrs Jane Ingham on 16 June 1894, page 31a,
    of Peter Peterson on 28 July 1894, page 30b,
    of Mrs R.D. Denford on 30 January 1897, page 27c,
    of James Scott on 17 September 1898, page 28a.

    An obituary of Matthew Cranston is in the Observer, 9 December 1893, page 31c,
    of J. Langford on 6 July 1895, page 30a,
    of Daniel Ray, corporation inspector, on 30 March 1901, page 28d,
    of K.J. Techritz, builder, on 6 April 1901, page 21a,
    of Charles C, Scarfe on 12 September 1903, page 34e,
    of Jennings Colliver on 5 December 1903, page 33e,
    of A.T. Greenshields on 5 December 1903, page 34a,
    of A.O. Chambers, washing machine manufacturer, on 19 December 1903, page 44a,
    (See Adelaide - Housing, Architecture and Ancillary Matters - Miscellany.)
    of William H. Thomas, builder, on 30 September 1905, page 38d,
    of Alfred Swaine on 8 May 1909, page 38a,
    of J.W. Cowell on 19 February 1910, page 40a,
    of Harry Bray on 21 May 1910, page 38a,
    of Mrs Elizabeth Burnet on 18 January 1913, page 41a,
    of Mrs G.A. McLean on 14 October 1922, page 35c.

    An obituary of G. Clarke is in the Register, 29 March 1895, page 5d.

    An obituary of Arthur J. Baker is in the Register, 5 July 1900, page 3i,
    of Daniel Ray on 26 March 1901, page 4h,
    of H.J. Techritz, builder, on 29 March 1901, page 5c,
    of G.V. Eimer on 5 April 1901, page 5b,
    of George Willimott on 19 July 1901, page 5c,
    of Mrs Margaret H. Giles on 23 October 1901, page 4h,
    of Alfred Weir on 9 November 1901, page 7c.

    An obituary of August Stolte of the Robin Hood Hotel is in the Register, 29 March 1902, page 5c, Observer, 5 April 1902, page 21b,
    of William Richardson, builder, on 5 July 1902, page 21b,
    of W.C. Buik on 14 February 1903, page 34c.

    An obituary of William Richardson is in theRegister, 28 June 1902, page 7a,
    of W.C. Buik on 7 February 1903, page 5c,
    of William Gillard on 2 April 1903, page 4h,
    of Mrs M.A. Giddings on 10 August 1903, page 4g,
    of Joseph Rogers on 2 September 1903, page 4g,
    of Charles C. Scarfe on 9 September 1903, page 7a,
    of Mrs A.J. Monteton on 23 November 1903, page 4i,
    of A.T. Greenshields on 3 December 1903, page 5a,
    of George Collins on 4 December 1903, page 5b.

    An obituary of G.A.F. Heseltine is in the Register, 24 March 1904, page 4h,
    of W.J. Sumsion on 9 May 1904, page 4g,
    of Rev George Buckeridge on 1 November 1904, page 4h,
    of James Pearce on 7 November 1904, page 4h.

    An obituary of William J. Sumsion is in the Observer, 14 May 1904, page 34a,
    of William Adair on 24 June 1905, page 36d,
    of Mrs Mary Oakford on 28 April 1906, page 38e,
    of Mrs Jane Bury on 29 June 1907, page 40c,
    of William Nicholls on 13 July 1907, page 40b,
    of Mrs Hollidge on 14 September 1907, page 40d,
    of Mrs E.D. Jagoe on 4 January 1908, page 38a,
    of Mrs C.H. Davies on 31 October 1908, page 40d,
    of W.G. Gilbert, carter and road contractor, on 30 January 1909, page 38d.

    An obituary of Frederick Newsom is in the Register, 12 April 1905, page 4i,
    of William Adair on 22 June 1905, page 5a,
    of James D. Woods on 8 July 1905, page 7f,
    of William H. Thomas on 26 September 1905, page 5a.

    An obituary of James Gunn is in the Register, 14 March 1906, page 5a,
    of Mrs Mary Oakford on 26 April 1906, page 5b,
    of William Hodges on 10 July 1906, pages 5a-6b,
    of D.R. Squibb on 22 September 1906, page 7b,
    of Reginald Allen on 28 December 1906, page 4h.

    An obituary of Mrs S.W. Pearce is in the Register, 10 January 1907, page 5d,
    of Alfred Smart on 25 March 1907, page 5a,
    of Mrs John Darling on 10 June 1907, page 7h,
    of William Nicholls on 6 July 1907, page 7b,
    of William Hartley on 27 July 1907, page 7d,
    of Mrs James Hollidge on 12 September 1907, page 9a,
    of D.A. Gibbs on 23 December 1907, page 7c,
    of Mrs E.D. Jagoe on 28 December 1907, page 7a.

    An obituary of Mrs Sarah Allison is in the Register, 17 January 1908, page 5c,
    of James West on 12 September 1908, page 9c,
    of Mrs C.H. Davies on 27 October 1908, page 5b.

    An obituary of Mrs G.C.L. DeLaine is in the Register, 4 January 1909, page 4g,
    of William G. Gilbert on 27 January 1909, page 5a,
    of Charles Martin on 27 February 1909, page 9d,
    of Alfred Swaine on 3 May 1909, page 4h.

    An obituary of Walter J. Francis is in the Observer, 20 February 1909, page 40c,
    of William Fisher on 24 June 1911, page 41b,
    of J.N. Lugg on 1 July 1911, page 41a,
    of James Hollidge on 9 September 1911, page 41a,
    of W.P. Weller on 8 June 1912, page 41a,
    of Thomas Clarke on 15 June 1912, page 41a,
    of Mrs Elizabeth M. Shelley on 26 October 1912, page 41a,
    of J.C. Koster on 30 November 1912, page 41b,
    of Robert Muirhead on 24 May 1913, page 41a.

    An obituary of Harry Bray is in the Register, 18 May 1910, page 7a,
    of Mrs Elizabeth Watts on 13 July 1910, page 6g,
    of James Wescombe on 29 October 1910, page 13a,
    of Walter Thorpe on 19 January 1911, page 7a,
    of James N. Lugg on 24 June 1911, page 12i,
    of James Hollidge on 4 September 1911, page 6h,
    of Samuel Davie on 26 October 1911, page 6i,
    of Mrs Charlotte Sayer on 8 February 1912, page 4h,
    of Mrs Elizabeth M. Shelley on 18 October 1912, page 6i,
    of J.C. Koster on 25 November 1912, page 6h,
    of John O. Carlile on 9 December 1912, page 6h.

    An obituary of Charles Walter is in the Register, 11 January 1913, page 15a,
    of Mrs Elizabeth Burnet on 13 January 1913, page 6f,
    of Robert Muirhead on 16 May 1913, page 4g,
    of William Latta on 22 May 1913, page 6g,
    of Thomas Irwin on 5 July 1913, page 14h,
    of Edward J. Ronald on 5 August 1913, page 6g,
    of Mrs Maria Benson on 18 February 1914, page 8a,
    of Edward Bromley on 3 April 1914, page 10b,
    of Mrs J. Holden on 18 April 1914, page 16b,
    of Mrs Sarah A. Godden on 4 August 1914, page 12c,
    of Mrs Ann C. Rogers on 27 October 1914, page 4g.

    An obituary of Mrs Maria Benson is in the Observer, 21 February 1914, page 41c,
    of W.J. Gepp on 3 April 1915, page 45c,
    of John Sincock on 3 July 1915, page 46a,
    of William Woodroofe on 24 July 1915, page 45a,
    of S. Smith on 6 November 1915, page 46a,
    of Mrs Jessie Darling on 27 November 1915, page 46a,
    of Benjamin Pope on 4 December 1915, page 23a.

    An obituary of John Jude is in the Register, 12 March 1915, page 6f,
    of W.J. Gepp on 31 March 1915, page 6i,
    of John Simcock on 25 June 1915, page 6g,
    of William Woodroofe on 19 July 1915, page 6g,
    of Mrs Jessie Darling on 24 November 1915, page 6h,
    of Benjamin Pope on 30 November 1915, page 5a,
    of Mrs Sarah H. Hurst on 4 January 1916, page 4f,
    of Joseph Bertram on 25 March 1916, page 8i,
    of Norman W. Brice on 3 May 1916, page 4g,
    of Oskar Ziegler on 23 August 1916, page 6h,
    of Henry B. Dawkins on 26 September 1916, page 4f,
    of Norman Byrne on 28 September 1916, page 6g,
    of W.A. Elliot on 23 October 1916, page 4f.

    An obituary of Mrs Sarah H. Hurst is in the Observer, 8 January 1916, page 44a,
    of N.W. Brice on 6 May 1916, page 33c,
    of Oskar Ziegler on 26 August 1916, page 33c,
    of Harry B. Dawkins on 30 September 1916, page 35a,
    of Norman Byrne on 30 September 1916, page 35b,
    of Mrs M.A. Casely on 28 October 1916, page 15a,
    of W.A. Elliott on 28 October 1916, page 15a,
    of W.M. Mills on 24 March 1917, page 49a,
    of John Drummond on 17 August 1918, page 19c,
    of Harry Trevorah on 23 November 1918, page 20a,
    of Colin Stone on 5 July 1919, page 22d,
    of John E. Silver on 26 July 1919, page 20c,
    of Mrs Dorothea A.S. Krichauff on 13 September 1919, page 30c,
    of James Wilson on 8 November 1919, page 23a,
    of B. Whittenbury on 15 November 1919, page 24c.

    An obituary of George Smith is in the Register, 23 April 1917, page 6g,
    of Ernst Siekmann on 29 June 1917, page 4g,
    of Mr & Mrs C.W. Toll on 22 November 1917, page 4f,
    of John Drummond on 15 August 1918, page 6g,
    of J.H. Mattingly on 21 August 1918, page 6f,
    of Harry Trevorah on 20 November 1918, page 6g,
    of Mrs Dorothea A.S. Krichauff on 11 September 1919, page 6h,
    of James Wilson on 5 November 1919, page 6g,
    of Mrs Ann Clarke on 20 November 1919, page 6i,
    of Henry M. Miller on 13 July 1920, page 6h,
    of Mrs Mary A. Martin on 24 August 1920, page 4h,
    of Richard Patfull on 4 November 1920, page 6i,
    of Edwin Robins on 3 December 1920, page 8b.

    An obituary of William M. Mills, "a remarkable soldier of the Empire", is in the Register, 20 March 1917, page 7b.

    An obituary of Mrs Annie Wallis is in the Observer, 31 January 1920, page 12c,
    of Henry Buttery on 28 February 1920, page 18d,
    of Richard Patfull on 6 November 1920, page 19b,
    of Mrs G.S. Fowler on 15 April 1922, page 19c,
    of George Atkins on 21 April 1923, page 35c,
    of J.D. Woods on 4 August 1923, page 35c,
    of Harry Woodcock, land agent, on 31 May 1924, page 45c,
    of R.J. Buttery on 14 June 1924, page 38c,
    of W. Story on 19 July 1924, page 39e,
    of Mrs H.J. Holden on 12 June 1926, page 28e,
    of Mrs W.E. Hamp on 14 August 1926, page 40c,
    of G.H. Searcy on 15 January 1927, page 44a,
    of F.G.W. Gurney on 23 April 1927, pages 41e-44b,
    of William Farmer on 13 October 1928, page 50b.

    An obituary of A.T.H. Angel is in the Register, 10 February 1921, page 6h,
    of C.J.S. Shuttleworth on 15 September 1921, page 10a,
    of Mrs G.S. Fowler on 8 April 1922, page 6i,
    of Mrs Catherine Lane on 1 May 1922, page 6h,
    of Mrs George A. McLean on 10 October 1922, page 6h,
    of H.J. Scrutton on 25 December 1922, page 8g,
    of Dr J.L. Glasson on 31 January 1923, pages 6h, 2 February 1923, page 6h,
    of George Atkins on 14 April 1923, page 8h,
    of James D. Woods on 30 July 1923, page 8g,
    of William Pritchard on 17 August 1923, page 13d,
    of Rudolf Buring on 17 August 1923, page 18f,
    of William E. Giles on 20 August 1923, page 6f,
    of Robert Schneider on 11 October 1923, page 6f,
    of William H. Craigie on 8 November 1923, page 8h.

    An obituary of John Shepherd is in the Register, 1 January 1924, page 6g,
    of Mrs Elizabeth Elliott and Richard J. Buttery on 11 June 1924, pages 12f and 12e,
    of John McDonald on 26 June 1924, page 8h,
    of Mrs Jessie Hargrave on 8 September 1924, page 8h,
    of William Banyer on 7 November 1924, page 11h.

    An obituary of Thomas Pitman, builder, is in the Register, 19 January 1925, page 8g,
    of Mrs Elizabeth Sanders on 2 April 1925, page 13e,
    of James Trego-Williams on 24 April 1925, page 13d,
    of Richard E. Kippist on 27 July 1925, page 8f,
    of Charles S. Hobbs on 22 September 1925, page 8f,
    of T.S. Warman on 13 November 1925, page 8f,
    of Edmund Brandenburg on 15 January 1926, page 8h.

    An obituary of John W. Shannon is in the Register, 1 February 1926, page 8e,
    of Mrs M.M. Goss on 12 February 1926, page 8h,
    of Mrs A. Couch on 1 March 1926, page 8h,
    of William Davies on 9 March 1926, page 8g,
    of Richard Chaffer on 22 March 1926, page 8g,
    Mrs H.J. Holden on 10 June 1926, page 10b,
    of Nicholas P. Webbe on 9 August 1926, page 11e,
    of Mrs W.E. Hamp on 12 August 1926, page 8g,
    of Mrs. E.S. Davies on 11 November 1926, page 12e.

    An obituary of William Powell is in the Register, 7 January 1927, page 8g,
    of Mrs Louisa Hardy on 1 April 1927, page 8g,
    of Frederick G.W. Gurney on 19 and 20 April 1927, pages 8h and 10h,
    of Mrs M.A. Redman (Reedman?) on 2 August 1927, page 12c,
    of Mrs Lucy P. Clarke on 22 August 1927, page 11c,
    of Charles H. Ferors, hotelier, on 25 August 1927, page 8g.

    An obituary of Richard Sholl is in the Register, 12 January 1928, page 8h,
    of Alfred James on 24 January 1928, page 8g,
    of Mrs Helen McFayden on 28 January 1928, page 17d,
    of Patrick Hogan on 14 February 1928, page 8h,
    of Mrs Elizabeth Molony on 28 February 1928, page 12e,
    of Thomas Cowling on 27 April 1928, page 11e,
    of William Farmer on 5 October 1928, page 10f,
    of Rev E.J. Henderson on 3 November 1928, page 11h,
    of L.H. Sholl on 9 January 1930, page 22d.

    North Adelaide - Nympsvale