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Manning Index of South Australian History
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    Adelaide - Hospitals


    Adelaide Hospital

    Early Adelaide Hospitals

    (Taken from Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience)


    Official documents show that the first hospital in Adelaide was a wooden structure forwarded from England in conjunction with the Immigration Barracks by the South Australian Commissioners and erected at 'Immigration Square', colloquially known as 'Buffalo Row', which I have discussed in an earlier chapter.

    In August 1838 a memorial from citizens requested the governor to consider providing its destitute citizens with means of relief in cases of accident and sickness and concluded by condemning the disgraceful state of the Colonial Infirmary which, in their opinion, was ill-constructed and badly ventilated and in every respect unfit for the reception of sick persons.

    At that time the bedding consisted of a few dirty blankets made from sewing great coats and sacks together into which were stuffed wood-shavings. Three iron beds (borrowed) graced the infirmary which was not provided with either a nurse, fuel, candles, water or any means of preserving the personal comfort and cleanliness of its inmates.

    The First Hospital

    From this memorial flowed a public meeting where it was decided that a hospital be erected by funds supplied by the government, aided by donations from private individuals, and on 15 July 1840 the foundation stone was laid by Governor Gawler 'on a rising and elevated spot about ten minutes walk from town.'

    There has been much debate as to the exact location of this building but there can be no doubt that it was erected 'behind that hideous stone wall on the north side of the road from North Terrace to Hackney' and this statement is confirmed in an 1849 newspaper article that condemns the site for the new lunatic asylum 'almost adjoining' the hospital.

    The building occupied a portion of the Park Lands known as the 'Police Paddock' and the following poem, concerning a melee between the police and bushrangers in the Tiers, tends to confirms its location:

    The hospital was opened on 15 February 1841 and contained two wards, each affording ample space for twelve patients, with four smaller rooms. A piece of land of about two acres was ordered by the governor to be used as a garden in which convalescent patients could work, and this extended to the first creek leading to the Torrens. The moral and religious state of the patients was not neglected; valuable donations of Bibles and religious books were made and the Colonial Chaplain visited the hospital on Thursdays and conducted religious services.

    Whilst regard was had to economy in management, the comfort of the patients was not overlooked for an arrangement was made for a supply of the best joints of beef and mutton and if the patients preferred, occasionally, pearl barley or sago to rice they were permitted to have it. The patients were allowed also porter, brandy, wine, milk, eggs, fish and other extras, when ordered by the medical officer in attendance.

    It was very small and within a few years it was evident that one more adequate to the wants of the colony would soon have to be erected in a more suitable situation. It was invariably overcrowded and numerous persons who ought to be within its walls were frequently sent to the Destitute Asylum. In March 1855 there were 35 male and 36 female patients, while the accommodation was barely sufficient for 66.

    The Hindley Street Infirmary

    A visitor to the 'hospital government buildings, on the flat, at the top end of Hindley Street' in April 1850 described it as follows: 'There are two tenements appropriated to the males and one adjacent to the females. The inmates are either infirm, poor, or diseased persons, sent thither from the hospital as to a sort of out infirmary station.

    'Now one would naturally suppose, that in a Christian country, and under the care of a Christian government, these poor creatures would certainly be provided with all necessary comforts for their daily wants, and experience that care and sympathy so acceptable to the distressed in mind, body and estate...

    'Though the matron has an apartment to herself, all the other females are huddled together in a room without adequate attention to their physical condition or moral necessities. Young orphan children are there exposed to the contaminating influence of women of evil character associated with them in the same dwelling.

    'The male department is under the sole control of an imbecile old man who, by the way, is the only attendant upon the wretched victim of diseases entrusted to his tender mercies. The building is in a dilapidated condition, free access being afforded through its opening chinks for wind, dust and rain. A glance at the interior sickens one.

    'Herded together like so many beasts may be seen a number of our afflicted fellow creatures... Bereft of sympathising friends, they are left without utensils for cooking, without plates, knives and forks, without furniture to their apartment and without, in some cases, a bed to lay on or a blanket to cover them...

    'A man in the last stage of consumption was sent to this deplorable asylum, with the melancholy conviction that no hopes were entertained of his recovery. When he arrived no bed and bedding were provided for him, no comforting aliment, as sago or gruel, was made for him; he had but to moan in silent but fearful neglect for a few days, and then leave this heartless world for the presence of God... But some one, with more feeling than the rest, thought tho poor man ought not to die like a dog and resolved to obtain clerical counsel for him... Soon after his decease he was put into a coffin with his clothes on as he died...'

    The Second Hospital

    A scheme for a new hospital was evidently being discussed in 1850-51 for the Colonial Surgeon, Dr Nash, was summoned to the Colonial Engineer's Office on 8 January 1851 'for a consultation regarding the requirements of the new hospital. 'In June 1853 an amount of £37,000 appeared on the Estimates, but work did not get under way until 1855 when Mr Charles Farr had a contract let to him on 22 May.'

    At this time a memorial from numerous citizens complaining of the site selected 'on a paddock at the end of North Terrace on the lower part of which the annual agricultural exhibition has usually been held', was rebuffed by the government. The buildings were completed in September 1856 and by the end of 1858 various contracts were completed in respect of outhouses, drug store, laundry and mortuary, etc.

    The office and dwelling of the House Surgeon comprised a suite of rooms on the right hand entrance to the building, and on the left of the passage was the office used by the Colonial Surgeon on his daily visits; it was also used occasionally as a boardroom or jury room in the case of coroners' inquests.

    In this apartment were some of those curiosities to be found in the laboratories of medical men, such as portions of a human frame preserved in bottles and various other articles interesting to the faculty. Among them were three skulls - one of a person known a short time ago as the white Negro, another of a Bengalee and the third of a Chinaman, which possessed indications of a large volume of brain equal to that of most Europeans. Another room on the same floor, formerly used as a wardroom, was devoted to the purpose of a library and contained a good number of volumes for the use of patients. The operation room was nearby - a moderately-sized apartment with a table in the centre covered with leather cushions on which patients were strapped previous to undergoing an operation.

    A railed gallery ran along each side of the room and underneath were various mysterious and terrible-looking splints and bandages, etc., painfully suggestive of severe surgical manipulations. The light was admitted from above by a raised window and fell upon the operating table. This room was used occasionally on a Sunday for divine service.

    On the first floor were the wards for male patients, containing 20 beds in each. The nurses were kind and attentive and 'moved about the wards with noiseless steps and passed from bed to bed performing grateful acts of service to the sick creatures, whose pallid faces surround the room and whose wistful eyes follow their movements with an appearance of anxiety and interest.' The female wards were on the second floor.

    On the ground floor were a series of wings which contained various important departments. Firstly, a large kitchen fitted up with immense cooking ranges, boilers and dressers, presided over by 'a very civil and apparently intelligent disciple of Soyer.' An adjoining room contained other useful culinary appendages, amongst which was a tea urn of gigantic dimensions, capable of holding up to 15 gallons.

    Next there was a washroom, fitted up with troughs and washing machines and a drying room which housed a drying mangle, of an improved kind, by which much of the labour required by ordinary mangles was economised. At one end of this room were a number of large frames like clothes-horses, upon which damp clothes could be hung and the frames arranged to slide into an inner chamber filled with heated air. In the adjoining courtyard was horse power for pumping water.

    Later Events

    By 1886 the hospital was in a most insanitary condition and there were bugs in every ward. No proper system of inlet or exhaust ventilation existed, with the exception of what the windows provided, leaving, of course, stagnant corners. The floors were of Oregon timber and in a wretched state, cut up by the castors of the beds, while no one would dare to claim that the walls were aseptic.

    To remedy this situation about £4,000 was spent, while the mattresses were taken away to Torrens Island and pulled to pieces and the horsehair disinfected in a hot-air chamber. Bluestone spray, plentifully applied everywhere, made short work of the bugs. At the same time the drainage system was overhauled and put into a good sanitary condition, steam boilers were installed in the kitchens, hot water was supplied in baths and, generally a new start was made.

    In 1889 it was evident that extra accommodation for both nurses and patients was required and, in particular, 60 additional beds for fever and contagious patients. A site was selected along the Botanic Gardens boundary on the eastern side of the hospital grounds and the present red-brick wing was soon on paper. Tenders were called and Mr William Rogers's accepted.

    At this juncture Dr Way went to Melbourne for a holiday where he met Professor Harry Allen, who had just returned from Europe where he had looked into the question of modern hospital construction. Dr Way then telegraphed to Adelaide suggesting that all action be stopped as 'our plans were altogether behind the times.'

    This resulted in consternation at a board meeting and a tremendous clatter all round. The Superintendent of Public Buildings, Mr C.E. Owen-Smyth, was asked for an explanation and, realising that a mere assertion that the existing plans were adequate, suggested to the government that the plans be referred to Professor Allen. This was done and to the astonishment of several South Australian officials he said that 'the design was excellent.' Consternation thus gave way to perfect peace in the hospital's board room! The foundation stone was laid by the governor, the Earl of Kintore, on 12 April 1892 and the silver trowel used was presented by Messrs F.J. Eyres & Co., chemist of O'Connell Street, North Adelaide.

    Later, this wing played a prominent part in the famous Adelaide Hospital trouble which was developing rapidly into a duel between the 'Works official' and the new board and staff imported from Great Britain. It is my belief that the beginning of the trouble was a very small matter. A nurse considered that she or a friend was, or both were, overlooked and complained to a lady who had the ear of the Premier.

    The complainant and the lady were of the same church; sides were taken; Charles Cameron Kingston, the premier, rushed into the arena; strong language was used such as 'Jack the Ripper, etc.'; the professional board went out; new professional men from Great Britain were imported to act as seniors; the nursing staff was put under new management; some few medical men - very few - assisted; and the hospital, like the river, went on.

    Subscriptions went off; so did the medical students, chiefly to Melbourne. All Australia, and indeed, Great Britain, knew about the trouble and extreme bitterness was imported into the dispute and, fortunately, the Public Works and Building Department, for a time, was not mixed up in the row.

    This immunity did not last for long for a report from the Superintendent of Public Buildings stated that he had found a most insanitary state of affairs prevailing at the hospital and 'this started a cyclone.' After much prevarication amongst doctors, within and without the hospital's board, and the government, the complainant was instructed 'to clean up the hospital.'

    A Patient's Account of a Sojourn at the Hospital in 1875

    The room was pleasant, the situation of the bed allotted to me was in a somewhat retired corner, and last, but not least, the two nurses were neither old nor unamiable. At one o'clock dinner was served and for the present I was on a 'mixed diet' - that is, the ordinary food of the hospital - consisting of meat and potatoes, preceded by what was disguised in the name of soup.

    The surroundings of a hospital ward can scarcely be expected to sharpen the appetite of a new inmate, and it will be readily believed I did not make a very sumptuous repast, but by five o'clock (tea time) I had become more accustomed to things around me and managed to make a meal of the bread and butter and sweet tea provided. During the meal I was waited on by an acting steward who gathered from me, and entered in a book, particulars concerning my religion, occupation, birthplace, time in the colony, ship I arrived in and family - information to be used for my identification in case my friends should either forget or lose sight of me. This gentleman in wishing me goodnight, assured me that I was in good hands; the evening passed slowly and cheerlessly away.

    It is a saying that adversity makes us acquainted with strange bedfellows, and certainly the ward of the hospital brings us into strange and diverse companionship; and no less diverse were the maladies of those around me. Here was the hollow cough of a consumptive shepherd; there the enfeebled form of a sufferer from severe rheumatism; further on was an elderly man almost blind from cataract; near him a youth whose right eye had been injured in an accident; while cases of fever and diseased and injured limbs, in various stages of recovery, were scattered throughout the room.

    At eight o'clock the patients were all expected to be in bed, and at that hour I found myself comfortably settled between the sheets of a very comfortable bed, and as I am a good sleeper, soon was in the land of dreams, despite the strangeness around me. I slept till shortly before six the next morning, soon after which the day nurses are astir and the duties of the day commence. A nurse's salutation to me was accompanied by a draught, the object of which I well knew was to prepare me for the event of the morrow.

    The ward was well supplied with literature and had I been able to read - don't think I had never learnt my ABC - the time might have passed somewhat more pleasantly, but as that was out of the question I had to kill time as best I could. About seven in the evening I was told by the nurse that, as I was to take chloroform next day, I should not be allowed any breakfast. She gave me some supper, however, and told me the night nurse would give me something later.

    Accordingly, at two o'clock in the morning I was awakened by a nurse who gave me a mug of coffee and some bread and butter. This I took with relish when I thought of the long fast before me. I slept no more and the pleasant anticipation of what was before me was varied by the deep cough of the shepherd and the groans of a rheumatic sufferer.

    The hours passes slowly till noon and then the head nurse and myself descended to the chamber adjoining the operating room, near the centre of the building on the ground floor. In a few minutes a doctor beckoned me into the room and both myself and the nurse entered the chamber of horrors, as I had expected to find it. I was directed to take off my coat and slippers, loosen my other garments and lie on the table, which with a due regard to the comfort of the patient, is comfortably stuffed and covered with leather.

    A cloth containing chloroform was speedily placed over my face. My first sensation after drawing one or two breaths was that of choking by the fumes of spirit, and I gave an utterance to the belief that I should certainly choke. I was told, 'All right, breathe away.' Another respiration was followed by a pleasant trance-like sensation and total unconsciousness quickly supervened. When I awoke I felt neither pain nor inconvenience.

    The nurse assisted me to rise and I put on my coat and slippers, remarking that I seemed as though I had been drunk. I complained of the cold, for the ether had left me in a very heated state and, as we hurried back to the ward, the outer air seemed piercing. The next morning my diet changed and a notice over the head of the bed mentioned a milk diet with strong beef tea at 11, which took away my appetite for its weaker brother at 1. Days of monotonous recovery followed and I shall not dwell upon them. In bringing these remarks to a close I would, indeed, be ungrateful if I did not acknowledge the uniform kindness I received from those under whose immediate care I was.

    General Notes

    The proposed establishment of a casualty hospital is reported in the Southern Australian,
    1 September 1838, page 4b.
    A history of the hospital is in the Register,
    13 April 1892, page 6c,
    16 April 1892, page 35.

    Information and dissension as to the location of the first hospital are contained in the Register,
    25 April 1919, page 9e, 1, 6, 7 and 8 May 1919, pages 9f, 7h, 3e and 9i.
    Historical information is in the Register,
    22, 24 and 28 November 1923, pages 7c, 15a and 13a.

    The laying of the foundation stone by Governor Gawler is reported in the Register,
    18 July 1840, page 6d.

    The hospital is described in the Southern Australian,
    9 July 1841, page 3b; also see
    South Australian,
    11 April 1848, page 2c.

    Information on the hospital is in the Observer,
    10 March 1855, page 3c.

    The site for a new hospital is discussed in the Register on
    30 July 1855, page 3d;
    it is described in the Advertiser,
    3 January 1860, page 3d; also see
    28 December 1861, page 6b,
    11 January 1862, page 6c under "Government Institutions".

    "Adelaide Hospital - A Peep into the Past" is in the Register,
    11 April 1924, page 10a,
    "The First Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    1 May 1919, page 9g and
    23 November 1935, page 10c.

    A report on the hospital is in the Register,
    28 August 1866, page 2d; also see
    4 and 22 October 1866, pages 2c and 3d,
    22 January 1868, page 2f,
    18 May 1868, page 2e and
    29 May 1868, page 2.

    The hospital is described in the Register on
    22 October 1866, page 3d; also see
    25 October 1866, page 2b,
    1 July 1868, page 2c,
    14 July 1869, page 2d,
    12 July 1870, page 5a,
    14 April 1871, page 4e,
    27 March 1874, page 5a,
    27 November 1874, page 4f,
    4 and 5 February 1875, pages 4b and 5f.
    A sketch is in the Pictorial Australian in
    January 1876.

    An obituary of H. Briggs, dispenser, is in the Register,
    20 February 1873, page 5a.

    Post mortem examinations at the hospital are discussed in the Express,
    16 December 1875, page 2c.

    "Adelaide Hospital Management" is in the Observer,
    2 October 1875, page 13e.

    "Christmas Fare at the Hospital" is in the Register,
    4 January 1876, page 4e.

    Also see Register,
    14, 17 and 18 March 1876, pages 4f-5e, 4f and 5f,
    9 March 1878, page 4e,
    19 December 1878, page 6a,
    13 January 1879, page 4c,
    16 February 1879, page 4d.,
    4 February 1881, page 4g,
    12 March 1881, page 5f (includes a history of the hospital),
    16 March 1881, page 5f,
    4 and 16 June 1881, pages 6a and 5f,
    3 February 1882, page 4e.

    "Six Weeks at the Hospital" is in the Chronicle,
    16 and 23 July 1881, pages 9c and 3f.

    Also see Register,
    31 October 1882, page 4f,
    18 December 1882, page 4e,
    1, 7 and 9 May 1883, pages 6a, 7a and 6c,
    14 April 1888, page 5d,
    21, 22, 23, 26 and 29 June 1888, pages 5e, 6a, 6a-7g, 6a and 6a,
    4, 13, 19 and 27 October 1888, pages 4f, 4f, 4f-7e and 4g.

    Also see Register,
    8 November 1888, page 4g,
    7, 10 and 11 December 1888, pages 4h, 5a-7f and 6g,
    26 January 1889, page 4f,
    22 November 1890, page 4e,
    8 and 16 March 1894, pages 6f and 5a,
    13 March 1895, page 6c,
    19, 24 and 29 August 1895, pages 4e, 4e and 5g,
    7, 14, 16 and 30 September 1895, pages 4e, 4h, 6c and 6g.

    An article entitled "A Few Days in the Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    21 July 1875, page 7a.

    An editorial on "Hospital Nursing" is in the Register on
    29 January 1874, page 5a,
    "The Hospital Nurses" in the Chronicle,
    21 May 1892, page 20a,
    30 January 1895, page 7d,
    11 March 1895, page 7f and
    Register on
    19 and 21 October 1911, pages 6c and 14h,
    3, 11 and 24 November 1911, pages 7b, 12e and 9b.

    "The Samaritan Fund" is in the Register,
    6 September 1884, pages 4h-6f,
    24 October 1885, pages 4g-6d,
    17 December 1887, page 5b,
    15 December 1888, page 5c,
    14 December 1889, page 5a,
    12 December 1890, page 3d,
    14 December 1891, page 6e,
    17 December 1892, page 3b (supp.),
    15 and 16 December 1893, pages 5b and 5d,
    22 June 1894, page 7d,
    15 December 1894, page 6f,
    14 December 1895, page 6f,
    23 and 24 November 1896, pages 5a and 7i,
    25 November 1898, page 7f,
    11 December 1899, page 7i,
    28 November 1903, page 10e,
    30 November 1918, page 10i;
    its last meeting is reported in the Register,
    16 January 1920, page 10g.

    "Hospital Patients" is in the Register,
    28 November 1884, page 4e.

    "Hospital Scares" is in the Register,
    14 August 1886, page 4e.

    "Private Subscribers and the Hospital" is in the Register,
    2 February 1889, page 4h.

    Information on a new operating theatre is in the Express,
    1 August 1890, page 4a.

    "The Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    12 March 1892, page 4g.

    "The Adelaide Hospital Nurses" is in the Register,
    17 and 28 May 1892, pages 7h and 4h.

    An obituary of Miss Margaret McMahon is in the Register,
    7 September 1894, page 4h.

    Articles entitled "Old Time Memories - The Adelaide Hospital" are in the Register,
    31 December 1894, page 6e,
    21 January 1895, page 5g,
    "In St Anne's Ward" on
    6 June 1905, page 6c; also see
    10 June 1910, page 4c.

    "The Hospital and the Rebellious Nurses" is in the Register,
    16 February 1895, page 4g,
    8 and 13 March 1895, pages 4g-7f and 4e-6c,
    24 April 1895, pages 4e-6e,
    1 and 18 May 1895, pages 4f and 5c,
    12 and 20 July 1895, pages 5a and 4e.

    "The Hospital Board and an Autocratic Democrat" is in the Register,
    6 April 1895, page 4g.

    "The Hospital Cabal" is in the Observer,
    4 May 1895, page 41d,
    "Hushing-Up the Hospital Scandal" on
    19 December 1896, pages 16d-22b.

    "The Hospital Scandal" is in the Register,
    19, 20, 24, 27, 28 and 29 August 1895, pages 4e, 7c, 4e-7a, 5c, 7e and 5h,
    7 and 14 September 1895, pages 4f and 4i.

    "The Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    17 August 1895, page 7e.

    "Premier and Hospital Board - Wolf and Lamb" is in the Register,
    8 February 1896, pages 4f-4i-7c.

    "The Late Honorary Medical Staff - A Public Tribute" is in the Observer,
    8 August 1896, pages 41 and 42.

    "The Latest Burlesque at the Hospital" is in the Register,
    3 and 7 October 1896, pages 4f and 4f.

    "The Adelaide Hospital and Anaesthetics" is in the Observer,
    13 February 1897, page 24d.

    "The Board Which Works in Darkness" is in the Register,
    22 January 1898, pages 4f-5c,
    31 January 1898, pages 4c-5c,
    "A Serious Crisis" in the Observer,
    29 January 1898, pages 14b-24d-31a,
    5 February 1898, page 13d.

    Information on the hospital is in the Weekly Herald,
    14 January 1899, page 9a.

    "The Infectious Diseases Hospital Wards" is in the Register,
    4 and 5 May 1899, pages 4f and 7d.

    Biographical details of Dr B.H. Morris are in the Register,
    1 August 1899, page 6e.

    A photograph of medical staff is in The Critic,
    14 October 1899, page 24.

    "Shall There Be Peace at the Hospital?" is in the Register,
    9 September 1899, page 4e,
    "The Hospital Dispute Settled" on
    2 March 1900, page 4f-h.

    "In Our Ward - By a Hospital Patient" is in the Advertiser,
    14 October 1902, page 7b.
    Photographs of wards, etc., are in the Chronicle,
    7 February 1903, page 44,
    27 May 1905, page 23,
    3 June 1905, page 27,
    of nurses in the Chronicle,
    11 June 1931, page 34.

    "Operations at the Hospital" is in the Register,
    4 and 6 August 1903, pages 5c and 6c.

    A proposed nurses' home is discussed in the Express,
    9 June 1904, page 1g.

    "The People's Hospital" is in the Register,
    31 May 1905, page 4a,
    3 June 1905, page 40a.

    "In St Anne's Ward" is in the Register,
    6 June 1905, page 6c.

    "Adelaide Hospital - A Haven for the Sick" is in the Register,
    18 February 1911, page 8d,
    "Through the Hospital - Pathos and Humour" on
    31 August 1912, page 17h; also see
    22 July 1914, page 9c (history).

    "Our Ward - In the Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    9 June 1906, page 9g,
    "sweating" at the hospital on
    14 November 1906, page 4e.

    "A Nurses' Home" is in the Register,
    4 August 1905, page 7a.

    "The Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    10 June 1910, page 4c.

    "New Nurses' Home" is in the Register,
    10 January 1911, page 6g.

    "The Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    24 March 1911, page 4c.

    "Adelaide Hospital Nurses" is in the Register,
    24 May 1911, page 6h.

    "Hospitals of Adelaide" is in the Advertiser,
    17 June 1911, page 7c,
    "Glimpses of the Adelaide Hospital" on
    21 October 1911, page 7a; also see
    28 November 1911, page 11e.

    "Hospital Trouble - Three Nurses Dismissed" is in the Register,
    18, 19, 20 and 21 October 1911, pages 7b, 6c-i, 6h-8g and 14h,
    3, 4, 7, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16 and 24 November 1911, pages 7b, 13d, 7c, 7c, 13d, 7e, 8h, 14e and 8b.

    "The Hospital Enquiry" is in the Observer,
    6 April 1912, page 33e.

    "Through the Hospital - Pathos and Humour" is in the Register,
    31 August 1912, page 17h.

    "The Adelaide Hospital - An In-Patient's Experiences" is in the Advertiser,
    28 September 1912, page 21c,
    "Among the Microbes - The Hospital Laboratory" on
    18 November 1912, page 14a.

    "Casualty Patients" is in the Register,
    25 September 1912, page 12d,
    2 October 1912, page 13a.

    "Overcrowded Hospital" is in the Register,
    24 and 25 January 1913, pages 7a and 14e,
    "An Overcrowded Hospital" is in the Advertiser,
    13 and 14 April 1915, pages 6d-9c and 9a.

    Information on the Thomas Martin memorial is in the Register,
    9 December 1913, page 6e.

    Historical and other information is in the Register,
    22 July 1914, page 9c.

    "The Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    14 August 1914, page 6c,
    8 September 1914, page 4d.

    "Wanted - A Hospital" is in the Register,
    3 March 1915, page 8c-f, also see
    13 April 1915, page 8g.

    A photograph of nursing staff is in The Critic,
    23 May 1917, page 12.

    "Better Treatment for Nurses" is in the Register,
    14 June 1917, page 4h.

    "Out of Date and Too Small" is in the Register,
    18 and 25 November 1919, pages 7f and 6e.

    "Are Nurses Overworked" is in the Register,
    31 March 1920, page 8a; also see
    12 and 17 April 1920, pages 6d and 11b,
    12 May 1920, page 6f.

    "The Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    28 April 1920, pages 6d-7g.

    Biographical details of Matron Margaret Graham are in the Register,
    4 December 1920, page 8i.

    A photograph of the House staff is in the Observer,
    5 February 1921, page 26; also see
    17 November 1928, pages 36-37.

    An obituary of W.C. Medlyn, secretary of the board, is in the Observer,
    5 March 1921, page 31c.

    Biographical details of R.J. Champion are in the Register,
    10 June 1921, page 7b,
    of Mrs E.W. Nicholls in the Observer,
    3 June 1922, page 37c.

    Problems at The Adelaide Hospital are discussed in the Register,
    18 and 23 April 1923, pages 9g and 6c-7a and
    8 May 1923, page 9f,
    29 April 1926, page 8c,
    "Shocking Conditions at Adelaide Hospital" on
    25 January 1928, page 9f.

    "Woman Patient Shot Five Times" is in the Register,
    20 September 1923, page 9a,
    29 October 1923, page 11e,
    22 November 1923, page 9e.

    "Maintenance of the Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    14 November 1923, page 8e.

    Information on the Bice Building is in the Register,
    9 August 1924, page 9g,
    on the Thomas Martin Building on
    18 September 1924, page 5c.

    "Radium for Adelaide Hospital" is in the Register,
    22 September 1924, page 8e,
    11 February 1925, page 9a.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Sheridan memorial kiosk is reported in the Register,
    5 March 1925, page 11c;
    for its opening see
    19 November 1925, page 10d.

    "Nurses New Home" is in the Register,
    19 March 1925, page 11d.

    An obituary of John Wood, surgical mechanic, is in the Register,
    30 September 1926, page 8g.

    Information on the Adelaide Hospital Auxiliary is in The News,
    1 March 1927, page 6f and
    the Consumptive Home on
    23 August 1927, page 8f.

    "Shocking Conditions at Adelaide Hospital" is in the Observer,
    28 January 1928, page 46a,
    25 January 1928, pages 8e-9f,
    14 August 1928, page 9c.

    "Wireless in Hospital" is in the Observer,
    30 June 1928, page 57a,
    7 July 1928, page 50e,
    7, 12, 21 and 25 June 1928, pages 18a, 9g, 14 and 10a,
    23 July 1928, page 10h,
    6 and 13 August 1928, pages 10h and 13b,
    8 and 10 December 1928, pages 10a and 10a; also see
    12 February 1931, page 58a.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    30 June 1928, page 35,
    14 July 1928, page 35.

    "A Public Scandal - Facilities for Out-Patients" is in the Observer,
    18 August 1928, page 69e.

    "Highlights of History at Hospital" is in The News,
    10 April 1935, page 6g.

    "Adelaide Hospitals' Century of Progress" is in the Advertiser,
    16 May 1936, page 11c.

    A history of the Adelaide Hospital Auxiliary is in the Advertiser,
    14 July 1937, page 9f.

    Hospitals - Choose again

    Children's Hospital

    A proposal for a maternity and children's hospital is in the Express,
    1 and 14 September 1876, pages 2g and 2d,
    7 October 1876, page 3c,
    16 September 1876, page 6b; also see
    19 September 1876, page 4e,
    9 October 1876, pages 4g and 1b (supp.),
    23 November 1876, page 6a,
    18 October 1877, page 5e,
    7 November 1877, page 5c,
    28 May 1878, page 4d,
    21 June 1878, pages 4f and 6c (laying foundation stone).
    A petition against the site for the Children's Hospital is in
    Parliamentary Paper 183/1877.

    "Adelaide Children's Hospital" is in the Observer,
    10 and 17 January 1880, pages 74a and 114b.

    A feature article and an editorial on the Children's Hospital are in the Register,
    3 and 5 January 1880, pages 5c and 4e; also see
    11 January 1882, page 6a,
    18 May 1883, page 6b,
    14 June 1883, page 6b,
    29 April 1893, pages 5a and 1a (supp.),
    1 and 2 May 1894, pages 7e and 6f,
    15 November 1895, page 4g,
    5 June 1896, page 5a,
    27 October 1896, pages 4g-7a,
    14 December 1896, page 6e,
    2 March 1895, page 4c,
    Weekly Herald,
    18 March 1899, page 5c.

    "The Garden at the Children's Hospital" is in the Register,
    8 April 1884, page 6d.

    "Charity Sunday" is in the Register,
    15 May 1885, page 5b.

    A sports day is reported in the Chronicle,
    28 April 1900, page 31a.

    A sketch is in the Pictorial Australian in
    May 1881, page 65,
    February 1885, page 29;
    photographs of a Lawn Fete are in the Chronicle,
    22 November 1902, page 41; also see
    9 May 1903, page 41,
    3 April 1915, page 30,
    8 October 1921, page 26,
    10 May 1924, page 34,
    19 January 1929, page 36.

    "A Lady Doctor at the Children's Hospital" is in the Observer,
    6 and 13 February 1892, pages 29a and 26a.

    "Another Sunbeam Cot" is in the Register,
    12 April 1895, page 5b.

    "The Children's Hospital and Diphtheria" is in the Register,
    14 January 1896, page 4h.

    Photographs are in The Critic,
    27 November 1897, page 3,
    9 May 1903, pages 4 and 28 (May Day),
    23 May 1903, pages 10, 11 and 18,
    18 July 1903, page 8,
    14 September 1904, page 16.

    "Opening the Isolation Wards" is in the Register,
    18 October 1897, page 6d.

    "Children's Hospital - In Financial Difficulties" is in the Register,
    16 August 1904, page 6c; also see
    28 August 1905, page 7e,
    14 September 1905, page 8h,
    15 September 1905, page 4g.

    "Help for Children - A Street Collection" is in the Register,
    10 September 1904, page 7b,
    15 September 1905, page 5c,
    15 September 1905, page 7g;
    14 and 17 September 1906, pages 7c and 7c;
    photographs are in the Chronicle,
    17 September 1904, page 31.

    "May Day at the Children's Hospital" is in the Register,
    2 May 1906, page 7e.

    Photographs of a tennis club are in The Critic,
    26 September 1906, pages 3, 8 and 19.

    "Duties of Doctors" is in the Register,
    23 June 1908, page 8b.

    "Adelaide Children's Hospital - A Noble Institution" is in the Register on
    25 March 1911, page 8c.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    8 February 1913, pages 29-30.

    "Hospitals of Adelaide" is in the Advertiser,
    17 June 1911, page 7c.

    "Overcrowded Hospital" is in the Register on
    24 and 25 January 1913, pages 7a and 14e; also see
    The Mail,
    21 June 1913, page 7a.

    A photograph of the committee of a ball is in The Critic,
    30 September 1914, page 21.

    Biographical details of Miss K.R. Snelling is in the Register,
    5 October 1914, page 4f.

    "Helping the Suffering Young" is in The Mail,
    11 September 1920, page 3d.

    "Foster Mothering Sick Children" is in the Register,
    18 March 1921, page 5f.

    "For the Sake of the Children" is in the Register,
    1 September 1921, page 6e.

    A photograph of a Christmas treat is in the Observer,
    30 December 1922, page 29,
    of "A Cot Endowed" is in the Chronicle,
    10 February 1923, page 32.

    "Child Out-Patients" is in the Register,
    19 February 1924, page 9e.

    Information on it is in the Advertiser,
    5 March 1924, pages 13a and 14b.

    "Pupils in the Children's Hospital" is in the Register,
    28 July 1925, page 4d.

    "The Children's Hospital and the Grosvenor Memorial" is in the Observer,
    1 February 1930, page 13d,
    17 April 1930, page 6e.

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    Other Hospitals

    A proposal for a "German Hospital" is discussed in the Register,
    11 and 25 February 1850, pages 3c and 2e-3d,
    20 June 1850, page 3d,
    11, 16 and 20 July 1850, pages 1c, 2c and 3a,
    22 and 26 May 1851, pages 2c and 2d; also see
    8 August 1855, page 2h and
    18 and 19 August 1868, pages 3d and 2e.
    A sketch is in the Mercury & SA Sporting Chronicle,
    26 July 1851, page 917.
    "German Hospital" is in the Register,
    17 June 1911, page 15c;
    historical information on it is in the Register,
    22 July 1916, page 4h.

    A proposed convalescent hospital is reported upon in the Observer,
    24 August 1872, page 13d; also see
    12 July 1875, page 6c; also see
    27 July 1878 (supp.), page 1b and Place Names - Saint Margarets and Semaphore.

    The need for cottage hospitals is discussed in the Register,
    31 May 1876, pages 4f and 5d. Also see
    30 November 1876, page 4e and
    11 December 1876, page 6c.

    A proposed maternity hospital is discussed in the Chronicle,
    23 September 1876, page 7c.

    "Hospitals for the Insane" is in the Register,
    13 December 1876, page 4c.

    A convalescent home is discussed in the Register,
    2 August 1879, page 1f (supp.).

    "Hospital Sunday" is in the Register,
    7 and 24 July 1880, pages 6b and 4d,
    4 and 7 August 1880, pages 5a and 4d,
    3, 4, 5 and 11 November 1885, pages 4e, 4g-7e, 7f and 5a.

    A proposed Smallpox Hospital is discussed in the Observer,
    11 March 1882, page 29.

    "A New Hospital for Adelaide" is in the Register,
    18 July 1891, page 5c.

    Information on a Salvation Army Maternity Home is in the Observer,
    8 June 1895, page 28e.

    "Wanted - A Maternity Hospital" is in the Register,
    7 December 1900, pages 4f-6c; also see
    8 December 1900, page 7h.
    15 December 1900, page 24e,
    12 and 19 January 1901, pages 16a and 30,
    16 and 23 February 1901, pages 25a and 30b,
    8 June 1901, page 15e,
    29 March 1902, page 35c.
    Information on the Queen Victoria Maternity Hospital appears on
    8 February 1901, pages 4c-6b,
    30 March 1901, page 5f,
    8 June 1901, page 3d,
    13 and 15 July 1901, pages 4f and 5h,
    26 May 1902, page 6f,
    9 July 1902, page 4b,
    22 May 1903, page 6b,
    24 March 1905, page 2g.
    A photograph is in the Chronicle,
    20 July 1901 (supplement).
    Photographs of the opening of the Queen Victoria Maternity Hospital are in the Chronicle,
    31 May 1902, page 32a; also see
    23 July 1910, page 29,
    2 December 1916, page 30.

    A special report on "The Adelaide Hospital for the Insane" is in the Register,
    27 November 1878, page 5f; also see
    5 and 12 December 1878, pages 5e and 5f.

    A proposal for a Home for the Incurables is in the Register,
    28 September 1878, page 5a; also see
    8 May 1879 (supp.), page 1c,
    1 July 1880, page 6c,
    23 September 1880, pages 4g-5g,
    1 February 1881, page 5b,
    31 May 1883, page 6a,
    23 April 1891, pages 4f-7e. On
    22 June 1881, page 5f a feature article includes a history of the home. Also see
    7 September 1891, page 7d,
    11 February 1892, page 4g,
    29 April 1902, page 6d,
    24 November 1905, page 6e.
    "Home for Incurables - A Noble Charity" appears on
    19 November 1910, page 8c.
    Its history is in The Mail,
    26 May 1928, page 3a.
    Also see Adelaide - Asylums, Reformatories and Homes and Place Names - Fullarton.

    A "lying-in hospital" is described in the Observer,
    14 February 1880, page 282a.

    "The Hospital Sunday Movement" is in the Chronicle,
    19 and 26 June 1880, pages 26d and 5b,
    10 July 1880, page 5a.
    The Lantern,
    28 May 1881, page 9.

    A proposed Maternity and Foundling Hospital is discussed in the Register,
    22, 28 and 29 July 1880, pages 3e (supp.), 6e and 5a,
    19 and 20 August 1880, pages 4g-7c and 7d; also see
    10 and 17 December 1880, pages 4g-5g and 6d,
    28 January 1881, page 5c,
    18 October 1884 (supp.), page 1c.

    A proposed smallpox hospital is discussed in the Register,
    7 February 1882, page 5b,
    9 March 1882, page 4e-f.

    A new maternity home in Gilbert Street conducted by the Salvation Army is reported upon in the Observer,
    25 February 1893, page 30b.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Queen Victoria Children's Home is reported in the Observer,
    17 July 1897, page 41c; also see
    11 November 1899, page 33e,
    16 September 1905, page 44d.

    "A New Private Hospital [in Hutt Street]" is in the Register,
    2 April 1898, page 7d.

    Dr Hyne's sanatorium in Flinders Street is discussed in the Observer,
    20 December 1902, page 35 (plus photos.).

    A Nurses' Ball is reported upon in the Register,
    25 June 1904, page 7c.

    "Hospitals - Their Use and Abuse" is in the Advertiser,
    10 and 12 April 1905, pages 4g and 6e.

    Information on Ru Rua Hospital is in the Register,
    28 April 1909, page 8c.

    A proposed hospital for babies is discussed in the Advertiser,
    2 October 1913, page 14d.

    The opening of the McBride Maternity Hospital in Carrington Street is reported in the Express,
    31 January 1914, page 1f.

    "Maternity Needs - Wanted, A Hospital" is in the Register,
    18 March 1915, page 11d.

    "Methodist Hospital - In Memory of Soldiers" is in the Advertiser,
    12 July 1919, page 9e,
    12 July 1919, page 9c.

    Information on the Memorial Hospital is in the Express,
    11 August 1920, page 2e,
    13 August 1920, pages 4i-8,
    The Mail,
    18 December 1920, page 24e;
    its opening is reported in the Register,
    21 July 1921, page 8c.

    The need for an infectious diseases hospital is discussed in the Register,
    24 August 1921, page 7c,
    1 November 1922, pages 8d-9g; also see
    15 and 16 February 1932, pages 16f and 12c.

    An obituary of Miss S.A. Best, "practically the founder of maternity homes in Adelaide", is in the Observer,
    26 August 1922, page 20b.

    The new Dental Hospital is discussed in the Register,
    10 July 1923, page 9c,
    26 July 1923, page 11a.

    "Hospital on Wheels" (railways) is in The Mail,
    31 July 1926, page 3c.

    Information on the Queen's Home is in The News,
    8 March 1927, page 8c.

    For information on Mareeba Hospital see Place Names - Woodville.

    Hospitals - Choose again