State Library of South Australia
Manning Index of South Australian History
  • South Australia
  • Adelaide
  • Port Adelaide
  • Place Names

  • About the Index
  • Searching
  • Text-based menus
    (Use this option if your browser will not open the folders.)

    Adelaide - Entertainment and the Arts


    Also see:
    South Australia - Miscellany - Leisure and Allied Matters
    South Australia - Entertainment and the Arts

    "Early Adelaide Entertainment Shows" is in the Register,
    26 September 1917, page 9g,
    "Old-Time Entertainments" on
    30 July 1921, page 12e.

    "Adelaide in Those Early Days" is in the Chronicle,
    3 October 1935, page 49.

    Early forms of entertainment for working people are discussed in the Observer,
    26 April 1884, page 41a.

    The "first fancy bazaar" is discussed in the Observer,
    15 July 1843, page 5.
    A satirical poem on bazaars is in the Observer,
    16 December 1876, page 14b.
    "Bazaars" is in the Register,
    12 June 1879, page 5f

    Information on a bowling alley in Grenfell Street is in the Observer,
    28 July 1855, page 4h.

    "Public Amusements and Holidays" is in the Register,
    2 January 1856, page 3f,
    5 January 1856, page 7e,
    "Amusements" in the Register,
    23 August 1856, page 4c.

    Performances of the "Wizard Jacobs" are reported in the Register,
    29 and 30 January 1856, pages 2h and 2g,
    5 February 1856, page 3h,
    13 and 14 September 1866, pages 2e and 2g.

    Magicians and Wizards

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    Mr Jacobs, the great professor of modern magic entertained Adelaideians in the 1850s and invariably filled the theatre. On a night I attended every part of the house was occupied and many distinguished colonists, with the younger branches of their families, occupied seats in the dress circle.

    The interior of the house presented a very improved appearance from the tasteful arrangements of the Wizard. Chapman's band filled in the intervals with its gayest airs and popular operatic selections.

    The Wizard Jacob admitted at the outset that his performances were a series of deceptions, their merit consisting principally in cheating the visual organs by dexterous manipulation. He ran, he said, no risk of losing favour by that admission, as he had practically proved the truth of the poet's proverb:

    The pleasure was as great
    In being cheated as to cheat.

    He then introduced his familiar 'Sprightly' and rearranged his apparatus in which the audience did not observe a stuffed crocodile, an owl, a skull or cabbalistic characters, such as the magicians of old were wont to startle their disciples with, but rather a gaily arranged collection of boxes, vases and glasses - a small windmill and a Lilliputian tavern being the most conspicuous pieces of mechanism standing on the tables. Then began the real business of the evening.

    Cards were handed to ladies and gentlemen who noted and returned them to the pack when, hey presto, the Wizard produced them in a most unaccountable manner from the most inconceivable places. Half-crowns and watches, borrowed from the audience, played fantastic tricks, and were returned safely to their owners. A lady's pocket-kerchief was burned on the stage and finally taken out of a hat which was empty the moment before.

    A magic bottle yielded its inexhaustible supplies of various liquors until the Wizard's arm must have, as he declared, ached in dispensing what the total abstainers call 'the great deception and snare of mankind.' The Wizard next gave the audience a taste of his qualities as an improvisator, and certainly had supplied to him a series of words which it was almost impossible to connect with rhyme and reason.

    In the course of his extempore ditty he made a few good hits, such as on the word 'Punch'. He complained that the gentlemen who gave it should have explained whether he meant Punch to read, punch to drink or a punch on the head; if the latter he must refer him to 'Sprightly'.

    The word 'Villikins' enabled him to pay a compliment to Coppin which was immediately perceived and acknowledged by the audience; while to a person who gave the words 'Jim Brown' he expressed, with witty malice, a fear that his friend would ever after be known by that nickname. It would be useless to attempt a further description of the tricks, especially as some of them were indescribable.

    I might say, however, that the colloquial part of the entertainment was excellent and the by-play of 'Sprightly' intensely amusing. The ventriloquism which concluded the performance was much and deservedly admired.

    Indeed, the greatest praise was awarded to it in the positive declaration of many that it was not the sole voice of the Wizard that represented the several characters taking part in the humorous conversation. This, of course, was a mistake, but it proved how completely in that case he deceived the ears as he had before mystified the eyes of the audience.

    A picnic by the seaside is reported in the Observer,
    16 January 1858, page 4g.

    Information on the Nelson family is in the Observer,
    8 and 22 May 1858, pages 4h and 4d.

    "The Snake Hunter [Mr Shires]" and "his antidotes" are described in the Register,
    9 and 12 April 1861, pages 2h and 2h,
    1 May 1861, page 3h.

    Crocodiles exhibited in King William Street are discussed in the Register ,
    30 March 1861, page 2h,
    1 and 7 August 1861, pages 3d and 3h.

    Information on waxworks is in the Register,
    14 and 17 July 1862, pages 2d and 2d, 7 and 9 August 1862, pages 2d and 2h,
    21 March 1863, page 2g, 22 August 1864, page 2g, 24 October 1867, page 2e,
    28 March 1863, page 8b,
    31 March 1870, page 2e, 20 July 1880, page 2c, 4 December 1880, page 2d,
    The Irish Harp,
    25 October 1872, page 5d,
    5 May 1877, page 5d,
    5 April 1879, page 5d, 24 April 1883, page 5b,
    24 December 1895, page 3f.
    "Waxworks at the Town Hall" is in the Advertiser,
    1 October 1887, page 5f.
    Information on Rowley's Waxworks is in the Register,
    19 July 1898, page 6d.

    A penalty imposed for kite flying is discussed in the Register,
    10 December 1862, page 2g,
    13 December 1862, page 1h (supp.).

    "Juvenile Entertainment is in the Register, ,
    27 December 1862, page 2e.

    A report of a Frenchman walking across a wire stretched across a waterfall in the Mount Lofty Ranges is in the Express,
    25 August 1865, page 2e; also see
    Melbourne Illustrated Post,
    18 September 1865, pages 133 & 135.
    "Tightrope Feats [of M. Vertelli]" is in the Register,
    17 and 20 April 1868, pages 2e and 2f,
    11 May 1868, page 2f,
    3 and 30 June 1868, pages 2d and 2g,
    17 January 1871, page 5c.

    "The Flying Trapeze" is in the Register,
    18 January 1864, page 3a,
    Observer, 23 January 1864, page 5b.

    The Flying Trapeze

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    Bartine, 'the flying man', who had a high opinion of his own capabilities, became disgusted with the little admiration his performance at White's Rooms excited, and left Adelaide early in 1864 in such haste he forgot to settle accounts with his laundress and other persons who had pecuniary claims upon him. The Weiland brothers, whose exhibitions of grace, strength and agility elicited nightly rounds of applause at Burton's Circus, reserved the flying trapeze for the last three evenings of their performance as the culminating feats of the season.

    Corpulent gentlemen complacently witnessed the exertions of these athletes and criticised the performances as matters well understood by and familiar to them. As the hero in tights swung aloft or dashed onward in his aerial career nervous ladies closed their eyes in apprehension of some frightful catastrophe.

    There were two young men in Adelaide who erected the necessary appliances and could be seen almost every weekday evening practising wonderful feats on the flying trapeze. The took 'flights' between upright posts; they whirled somersaults with ropes in mid-air that made a spectator dizzy; they leaped from one oscillating bar to another, alternating the mode of progress backward and forward and held on with hands and feet with an ease and certainty which Bartine might have envied and the Weiland's admired.

    Their practice ground was not quite so extensive as that the Weiland's worked over, but the feats performed were precisely the same, as any one could have seen who walked along Morphett Street between the corners of Hindley Street and North Terrace of an evening when the amateurs practised.

    In the late 1870s there appeared among the several exponents of 'flying on the trapeze', tight-rope walking and other feats of muscular skill, the introduction into their performances of dangerously sensational elements for the purpose of pandering to the morbid love for excitement which existed among certain classes of society.

    At this time a trapeze performance took place in Adelaide in which a leaping acrobat passed right over the head of the audience; fortunately, no accident occurred on this occasion but at the Wilson's Hippodrome a trapeze performer met with an accident that resulted in serious injury to a man.

    Information on the Lancashire bell-ringers is in the Express,
    3 and 5 March 1864, pages 2e and 2e;
    also see 23 May 1874, page 3g.
    The formation of an Amateur Bellringers' Society is reported in the Register,
    12 June 1867, page 2f, 5 July 1867, page 2h,
    Observer, 6 July 1867, page 3g (supp.).
    Also see under Clubs, Societies and Associations.

    The first performance of the Histrionic Society is reported in the Register,
    21 May 1864, page 2h,
    Observer, 28 May 1864, page 2h (supp.).

    "Bear-Baiting Extraordinary" is in the Register,
    20 August 1864, page 2h.

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    This totally unnecessary form of 'entertainment' was always anathema to me, but in the 1860s it attracted large audiences as evidenced by the following newspaper report:

    "The Canidrome" is discussed in the Observer,
    5 November 1864, page 3e (supp.).

    Japanese jugglers are reported upon in the Register,
    23 June 1868, page 2f, 3 and 5 August 1868, pages 2h and 2f,
    27 June
    , 18 July 1868, page 4g.
    "The Japanese Troupe" is in the Observer,
    15 and 22 April 1871, pages 4c and 7e.

    The Nathan Juvenile Troupe is discussed in the Observer,
    12 September 1868, page 3c.

    An "historic diorama" is reported upon in the Observer,
    22 June 1867, page 2f (supp.).

    Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience

    In the winter of 1867 Bachelder's Historic Diorama of the American rebellion was held in White's Rooms. The varied scenes, from the commencement to the close of the great military struggle, were portrayed on the canvas in a vivid and lifelike manner and were received with unmistakable marks of satisfaction by the audience.

    The opening views represented Forts Sumner and Moultrie, the Volunteers passing through Broadway, New York, and at subsequent stages on their journey towards the southern states, and closed with a graphic delineation of the celebrated defeat of Bull's Run.

    In the second part, by a clever adaptation of mechanical appliances, a view of the naval engagement between the Merrimac and Monitor showed the battle in Hampton Roads, the firing of guns and the movements of vessels being capitally represented, so as to impart the greatest interest to the scene.

    The closing epochs of the war, including the storming of Vicksburg, the battles of Williamsburg, Getttysburg and others were also exhibited together with views of various places celebrated in connection with the war, the entry of the federal troops into Charleston and the surrender of General Lee and his army to Lieutenant-General Grant. The concluding views presented in a wonderfully lifelike manner a naval conflict between the Kearsage and the Confederate steamer Alabama and the long funeral procession of the late President Lincoln passing through the city of Washington.

    These two pictures formed the nearest approach to moving pictures that I saw before the introduction of the cinematograph. The solemn marching of the troops, firing of the minute guns, the plumed jet-black horses drawing the confined remains of the murdered President, made a very imposing scene.

    The entertainment altogether was extremely successful and afforded an instructive evening's amusement. The scenes were described as they appeared by Mr Bachelder and musical accompaniments were supplied by the Concordia Band.

    The debut of the German Dramatic Club is reported in the Observer,
    4 December 1869, page 13d.

    "The Easter Pantomime" is in the Observer,
    27 March 1869, page 6c, 3 April 1869, page 12a.
    "Pantomime, Extravaganza and Other Shows" is in the Register,
    14 and 16 April 1900, pages 6f and 4h.
    "Behind the Scenes - Pantomime Production" is in the Register,
    27 June 1907, page 6f, 23 July 1910, page 6c (includes photographs),
    "Pantomime and Others" is in the Observer,
    9 February 1918, page 11a.
    A cartoon "Sketches at the Panto" is in The Critic,
    16 February 1910, page 1.

    "Concerts for the People" is in the Observer,
    16 and 23 April 1870, pages 5b and 5d.

    Information on the Adelaide Turnverein is in the Express,
    17 May 1870, page 3e.

    Information on the "Gregory Troupe" is in the Observer,
    11 March 1871, page 7d,
    "The Foley Troupe" on 2 September 1871, page 7c.

    The "Panorama" is discussed in the Observer,
    8 April 1871, page 7b.
    "Panorama for Adelaide" is in the Observer,
    22 February 1890, page 37b.

    A bazaar in aid of a "French Relief Fund" is in the Observer,
    2 September 1871, pages 7c-8b.

    Information on a "Grand Roman Hippodrome" is in the Register,
    21 June 1873, page 6a, Observer,
    31 May 1873, page 11g, 21 June 1873, page 6c.

    "The Hindoo Box Mystery" is in the Register,
    14 December 1874, page 5f.

    The appearance of Blondin at the "South Park Arena" is reported in The Lantern,
    23 January 1875, page 10c,
    10 February 1875, page 5e, 2 March 1875, page 5e,
    Observe r,
    27 February 1875, page 12c, 6 March 1875, page 12g.
    "The Australian Blondin" is in the Register,
    7 November 1881, page 5b.
    "Tightrope Feats [of M. Vertelli]" is in the Register,
    17 and 20 April 1868, pages 2e and 2f, 11 May 1868, page 2f,
    3 and 30 June 1868, pages 2d and 2g, 17 January 1871, page 5c.

    Tight-Rope Walkers and the Flying Trapeze.

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    Blondin It is hard to conceive anything more daring, or needing greater nerve, than the feats of Blondin and many persons doubtless have gone to see him, feeling somewhat fearful of an accident. Such a sensation was, however, uncalled for and was soon dispelled at a performance he gave in 1875 at the South Park Arena. If Blondin was a denizen of fairyland and possessed the power of aerial locomotion, the danger of his falling could scarcely be less than it was then.

    So thoroughly at home did he appear from the time he first set his feet on the rope, to the final bicycle performance, that spectators were inspired with something akin to the confidence of this consummate performer who gracefully and easily tripped along his lofty path.

    Throughout his performance on a tightrope, some sixty feet above the ground, the veteran was greeted with admiring cheers at frequent intervals. The feat of going blindfold across testified almost more than any other performances to his sureness of feet. After bandaging his eyes, so that he could not possibly see, he enveloped his head in a sack that reached to the knees, leaving holes only for the arms.

    After an apparent difficulty in mounting the aerial pathway, he trod with a great show of caution until the centre was reached. Here he made a feint of losing his balance, staggered wildly for a second or two, then fell extended upon his back, crossing his feet and stretching his arms, so that he had no means of support beyond the narrow rope beneath him and his trusty balancing pole.

    One would have expected that some difficulty would have been experienced in gaining an upright position, but while the onlooker was thinking of it Blondin quickly sat astride the rope, looked around and downward, raised one foot and calmly elevated himself. Having cast aside his bandage the Chevalier, attired in a brilliant costume, tripped from one side to the other to the music of Schrader's Band.

    Having stood on one leg, bent forwards, backwards, and, indeed, placed himself in the most awkward positions, he sat on the slender pathway and then placed his head upon it. He gradually raised his body until he literally stood on his head and, extending his legs straight upwards, he clapped his feet in unison with the plaudits of the audience. The balancing pole the while remained resting partially on the rope and by its aid Blondin managed the difficult operation of lowering himself. He also lay at full length, balancing himself without the pole.

    On the middle of the rope a light iron frame was placed and Blondin, having strapped a large cooking-stove on his back, carried it there and deposited it. This was preparatory to the feat of cooking an omelette. The clever performer, who was dressed like a pastry-cook, smartly brushed with a broom and removed with a cloth real or imaginary dust, and then made much ado about cleansing the plates which he produced from inside the oven.

    Half a dozen eggs were broken and the shells thrown to the ground. Having been duly whisked and seasoned, the ingredients were put into a frying-pan and then on the fire which he had lit and blown up with bellows. Dense smoke emerging from the funnel dispelled any doubt as to the genuineness of the proceeding and in due course the omelette was tossed and finished.

    A small bottle of champagne was opened, some was taken, and a tray with the omelette and wine having been lowered to an assistant was taken around to the audience. Several ladies tasted the production which was said to be highly creditable to the Chevalier's cooking abilities. Managing unaided the difficult task of getting the stove on his back, Blondin retired to his platform.

    After the chair feat, which was one of the most astonishing of the performances, the Chevalier carried his secretary across with the utmost ease. On the way he balanced himself upon one foot while the living burden waved his hat to the crowd. Blondin affected by trying to shake off his weight, but upon second thoughts took him to the end of the seemingly perilous journey. Faith is an element wanting in human character, but in Blondin's secretary it must be strongly developed.

    During a velocipede journey the King of Hemp stopped in the centre, moved backwards for 20 or 30 yards, and finally went forward at a quick place to his dressing room on the landing. Many find it hard to ride upon a bicycle on the level earth, yet Blondin did it with perfect sang froid on a cord at a height sufficient to make persons giddy. He did not, as has been supposed, avoid looking earthwards. On the contrary, he often bowed and glanced beneath him. Many things must be seen to be believed and his feats are among them. A view of such achievements notably comes once only in a lifetime.

    The Australian Blondin

    In the 1880s anything sensational proved to be a draw in Adelaide, especially on a fine Saturday afternoon. It was, therefore, not surprising that seven or eight thousand people were to be found on the Torrens dam, or on the river banks, on Guy Fawkes' Day to witness a performance of walking a rope stretched across the Torrens Lake. It is hardly necessary to say that previous to the water being dammed back in July 1881, walking across the Torrens by such a bridge would have been a much more dangerous feat than it was on that Saturday, but it probably would not have attracted a tenth-part of the audience.

    The place selected for stretching the rope was about 200 yards to the west of Morphett Street bridge. The lake at that spot was sufficiently wide to enable the public a good view of the performance. The rope appeared to be of galvanised wire about an inch and a half in circumference, steadied at various points by staying-ropes.

    At a quarter past five 'Blondin' appeared at the northern end of the rope, which was stretched to an elevation of about twenty feet from the surface of the water. With a long balancing pole he began the passage across assisted, or otherwise, by the somewhat dilapidated music of a band engaged for the occasion.

    He traversed the long passage with comparative ease, though there was an occasional puff of wind which must have made the traverse a little unpleasant. Upon reaching the southern end, and after a few minutes' spell, the performer returned with a kind of stool attached to him, on which he sat on the rope when above the centre of the lake.

    When the return walk was successfully accomplished most of the spectators wended their way homewards, but those who remained saw some other performances in the air, which showed that the 'Australian Blondin' made a very good figure at his chosen 'profession'. A collection was made which must have realised a good round sum.

    In January 1895 John Maxted, a labourer in the employ of Alexander Laurie, 'the South Australian Blondin', took to the Norwood Police Station the body of Ernest Camplin, aged nine years, a son of Ebenezer Camplin, woodcarter of Bridge Street, Kensington. Mr Laurie had a tight wire erected on an open allotment off High Street on which he performed and Maxted informed the police that the boy climbed one of the stay ropes, a distance of 24 feet, and swung himself to and fro.

    His movements caused the rope to loosen and a portion of the structure gave way, falling on young Camplin. Maxted lifted the boy into a brewer's dray belonging to Mr Cooper and after visiting two doctors, and finding them away from home, he proceeded to the residence of a third when Dr Ewbank was met on Sydenham Road. The doctor examined the boy and pronounced him dead; the body was then removed to the parents' home by permission of the coroner, who held an inquest at the Rising Sun Hotel on 15 January 1895.

    The people of Norwood were entertained by 'Alexander [Laurie], the Australian Blondin' in December 1902 when hundreds of spectators gathered at the Norwood Oval where they were treated to an unrehearsed and thrilling incident. He was drawing to the close of his act and, after riding a bicycle across a wire, was pedalling back when a spoke from the wheel of the machine broke and became entangled with the mechanism connected with the running of the bicycle.

    The performer tried to move the bicycle either forwards or backwards, but without success. Then it did move, but sideways and as it swung downwards it looked as though the aerialist would be hurled to the ground 21 feet below. It was then that his presence of mind, tested by many an untoward circumstance on the high rope, stood him in good stead.

    He stuck to the saddle with his feet pressed against the pedals and clung desperately to the handles, with his head downwards. The onlookers were horrified, for a serious accident seemed imminent. One of the clowns quickly took in the situation and threw one of the guy ropes to Blondin, who thus reached the ground in safety. The fireworks display, which accompanied this particular trick, exhausted its energy all around the performer without causing him any harm. His safe return to terra firma was rewarded with rousing cheers from the audience.

    An exhibition of buckjumping is reported in the Express,
    3 April 1875, page 2c, 16 May 1890, page 2b.
    A buckjumping display is reported upon in the Advertiser,
    26 April 1924, page 15e.

    Information on the ventriloquist, E.D. Davies, is in the Register,
    28 June 1875, page 6d, 9 July 1875, page 5d.
    "Amateur Ventriloquism" is in the Register, 27 July 1875, page 5d.

    Information on the Amateur Dramatic Club is in the Register,
    3 October 1876, page 6d,
    on the Adelaide Amateur Musical Union on
    15 December 1876, page 5d,
    31 March 1877, page 6c.

    "The Carandini Concerts" is in the Observer,
    21 and 28 October 1876, pages 5c and 5e.

    The illusionists, the Davenport brothers, are reported upon in the Observer,
    11 and 18 November 1876, pages 4e and 6f,
    21 April 1877, page 5e.
    "The Royal Illusionists" is in the Register,
    16 April 1877, page 6d,
    Observer, 21 April 1877, page 5e.
    The Lantern, 28 April 1877, page 11.

    The illusionists, the Davenport brothers, are reported upon in the Observer,
    11 and 18 November 1876, pages 4e and 6f.

    The introduction of "cri-cri", a toy in the shape of a small spherical balloon, is discussed in the Register, 30 November 1876 and 5 December 1876, page 5g.

    A temperance drama, "Ten Nights in a Bar-Room" is reported in the Observer,
    4 August 1877, page 5c.

    Hogshead rolling is discussed in the Express,
    10 September 1877, page 2d.

    Information on the Amateur Dramatic Club is in the Register,
    3 October 1876, page 6d,
    on the Adelaide Amateur Musical Union on 15 December 1876, page 5d, 31 March 1877, page 6c.

    "The Carandini Concerts" is in the Observer,
    21 and 28 October 1876, pages 5c and 5e.

    A temperance drama, "Ten Nights in a Bar-Room" is reported in the Observer,
    4 August 1877, page 5c.

    A satirical poem on a Dog Show is in the Observer,
    18 August 1877, page 13c.

    "Rainford's Ghost Entertainment" is in the Register,
    13 August 1878, page 5e.

    Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience

    At White's Rooms in August 1878 Mr J.H. Rainford presented a new phantasmagorical entertainment for the first time in Adelaide. Notwithstanding some defects in the management of the lights and other difficulties, which are inseparable from the first presentation of such illusions, this part of the entertainment was fairly successful.

    The illusion seemed to be produced by the application of a similar principle to that of Peppers' ghost. The majority of the phantoms were very clearly defined, and it was certain that all persons present were unacquainted with the mystery must have believed that the figures which were manoeuvring on the stage were real human beings and not reflected images of them.

    The first part of the show, entitled 'Temptation, or the Adventures of Hubert de Burgh', served to introduce a number of apparitions representing individuals who by seductive arts endeavoured to tempt Hubert from the fulfilment of a sacred trust. He was, however, proof against them and was rewarded for his fidelity by the appearance of a beautiful phantom of his future wife.

    An illusion of the phantom Christy minstrels was a marvellous one. While watching intently the actions of three human images in ebony, quite unexpectedly they were transformed into a trio of hoary-headed, venerable old men who continued to carry on the grotesque antics of the minstrels who were previously before the audience. With the rapidity of a lightning flash they vanished from the scene and the coloured folk reappeared in their former positions.

    The last part of the show was, decidedly, the best. The eccentric movements of a Mephistophelian looking demon, a witch and another ghost appeared scaling walls with the agility of monkeys on the limb of a tree and then hovered in the air executing most intricate twining and intertwining and forms a spectral vision which astonished and at the same time pleased the audience.

    An obituary of John Lazar is in the Express,
    11 June 1879, page 3f.

    Town hall concerts are reported upon in the Register,
    13 October 1879, page 4g and open-air concerts in Victoria Square on 26 January 1880, page 6a;
    also see 20 September 1880, page 6d, 12 November 1880, page 4g.
    Also see Adelaide - City Council and Allied Matters .

    "Public Places of Amusement" is in the Register,
    7 December 1881, page 4e, 7 January 1882, page 4e.

    "Public Places of Amusement" is in the Register,
    7 December 1881, page 4e,
    7 January 1882, page 4e.

    "The Old English Fayre" is in the Register,
    13 March 1882, page 5b,
    "Great International Fair" on 15 October 1883, page 6e.

    A proposed city band is discussed in the Register,
    1 November 1884, page 5c;
    also see 10 January 1885, page 5c.
    A band competition is reported upon in the Express,
    4 October 1887, page 4c, band concerts on 22 April 1905, page 1g.

    "Two Dancing Bears" is in the Register,
    22 May 1885, page 5c.

    "Egress From Public Places of Entertainment" is in the Register,
    20 September 1887, page 4g,
    "Public Halls and Public Safety" on 30 September 1891, page 4f.


    A proposed aquarium is discussed in the Register,
    10 and 11 July 1888, pages 5a and 5b.
    "An Aquarium for Adelaide" is in the Express,
    4 May 1893, page 2g.
    The need for a public aquarium is discussed in the Express,
    30 June 1922, page 4c.
    A proposal for an aquarium is traversed in the Advertiser,
    9 October 1936, page 30a,
    24 November 1936, page 22d.

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    It needs but a stroll along North Terrace to realise the truth of the aphorism as far as Adelaide is concerned. In regular sequence are the various public buildings and the Botanical Gardens, while at a little distance are the Zoological Gardens. Thus, there is a galaxy of educational institutions, perhaps more closely assembled than in any other part of the world. The omission of an aquarium, however, shows that South Australia is behind the times because of the absence of such an establishment.

    To the best of my knowledge the first thought for the introduction of an aquarium into the city of Adelaide was made in 1888 by Mr J. Henderson of Currie Street on behalf of a company, which wrote to the city council with reference to the use of a piece of corporation land between Victoria Road and the River Torrens 'about 700 feet from King William Road.' Nothing came of this venture.

    In 1893, Mr Alfred Wyburd, proprietor and manager of the Bondi Aquarium in Sydney, NSW, visited Adelaide with the idea of making enquiries as to the prospects of profit which would accrue from erecting an aquarium and pleasure grounds on the seacoast within easy access by rail of Adelaide. He examined suggested sites at Glenelg, Largs Bay, Henley Beach and Semaphore. It saddens me to report that this proposal also proved to be a 'pie in the sky'.Also see Glenelg.

    A switchback railway on the southern side of the Adelaide Oval is described in the Register,
    2 and 14 January 1889, pages 4h and 5b, Observer,
    19 January 1889, page 30b, Chronicle,
    19 January 1889, page 15c.

    "The American Midgets" is in the Register, 19 August 1889, page 6:

    A Scotch Fair is described in the Register,
    4 July 1890, page 3h.

    "Wonderland - A Fairy Fete" is in the Express,
    25 and 26 September 1890, pages 4a and 4a.
    23, 24 and 25 September 1890, pages supp., 4h and 6b,
    29 October 1890, page 5a,
    29 April 1891, page 5d.

    "A Parachute Leap" is in the Express,
    15 December 1890, page 3a,
    "Daring Parachute Descent" in the Express,
    10 November 1908, page 3g; also see
    10 January 1910, page 4h.

    "A Drop from the Clouds" by Miss Gladys Van Trassell is in the Register,
    5 and 12 May 1890, pages 6g and 5b,
    by Signor Hernandez 15 December 1890, page 6h.
    "A Parachute Leap" is in the Express,
    15 December 1890, page 3a,
    "Daring Parachute Descent" in the Express,
    10 November 1908, page 3g;
    also see 10 January 1910, page 4h.

    The Adelaide Cyclorama

    The opening of a cyclorama is reported in the Register,
    29 November 1890, page 6e, 18 May 1892, page 4f;
    also see 1 October 1892, page 5c, 20 March 1893, page 5b, 5 December 1898, page 7d,
    18 and 30 September 1890, pages 4c and 3f, 29 November 1890, page 3e,
    24 March 1891, page 2c, 5 April 1893, page 4d.
    Its destruction by fire is reported in the Express,
    11 March 1899, page 2c.


    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    In short, a cyclorama is a realistic picture, presenting by the aid of the wonderful combinations of a special branch of art, a painting so complete that a beholder views the scene with almost the same sense of its reality as if you were overlooking that which actually took place. The first complete cyclorama was that of 'The Siege of Paris' erected in the metropolis of France in 1878 by father and son - Felix and Paul Phillipotaux.

    The first to introduce this form of circular painting to Australia were Messrs Reed & Gross of Chicago, USA. They established cycloramas in Melbourne and Sydney, where they proved to be an unqualified success. In the first named city that of 'Waterloo' was presented, in the latter 'The Battle of Gettysburg.'

    The Cyclorama in Hindley Street was erected in 1890, the architects being Messrs English & Soward, while the contractors were Messrs Paul & Bruce. The hall in which the picture was hung was 130 feet by 115 feet by 48 feet and roofed in a single span. Light was admitted through a glass skylight, while at night it was illumined by twenty electric arcs and a similar number of incandescent lights on the Brush system. A conspicuous feature was a tower, which rose almost from the footpath to a height of 75 feet, with a lookout on its summit, beneath which was a camera-obscura.

    Ingress to the hall from the thoroughfare was obtained through a corridor 14 feet wide; the visitor having first entered between two handsome wrought iron gates, passed well-appointed waiting and retiring rooms, proceeded up a spiral staircase and out on to the centre platform, from which the whole scene was viewed of 20,000 square feet of canvas.

    To aid in this work painters from the art centres of the world were engaged for a lengthy period. Mr Thaddeus Welch of New York executed the landscape portions of the great picture, being assisted by Monsieur S. Mege. The artistic aerial and still-life effects were from the brush of Mr J.E. Austen, while Professors E.D. Grover and C.A. Corwin of the Chicago Art Academy painted the whole of the figures. Monsieur E. Gros of the School of Paris executed the architectural portion of the work and Mr W.P. Noonan of Melbourne, the rock effects in the foreground.

    The huge painting in the Adelaide Cyclorama was a representation of Jerusalem at the time of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. The first portion of it which caught the eye was a realistic representation of the crucifixion. The nobility of countenance of the central figure made a wonderful contrast with the expressions on the faces of the two thieves. The physical details were wrought out in a most masterly manner; indeed, the whole of the figures appeared lifelike in their groupings and attitudes.

    It would, indeed, be difficult to find a subject calculated to excite a more widespread feeling than that dealing with the condition and aspects of Jerusalem at the very time of the crucifixion. The enactment of the Passion Play at Oberammergau had, at this time, caused an increased interest - if such were possible - with regard to this epoch of history and, therefore, it was a singularly happy moment to introduce to the Adelaide public one of those triumphs of modern artistic, mechanical and illusionary skill, known as the cyclorama.

    It was opened in Adelaide on 28 November 1890 by Sir Samuel Davenport and, in doing so, he expressed the wonder and astonishment of the vivid and realistic manner in which the tragic scene of the crucifixion and its surroundings had been reproduced.

    Later on in the afternoon the clergy and ministers of various denominations - including his Lordship, the Bishop of Adelaide and the Rev A.T. Boas - were shown over the exhibition; several of the reverend gentlemen remarked that it was an intellectual and educational treat.

    At seven o'clock in the evening the shareholders met and an hour later the general public crowded the building. Special features were the performance of classical selections by an orchestra under the baton of Signor Rago and the rendition of the 'Messiah', 'I know that my Redeemer liveth', which evoked expressions of admiration from those present.

    The building was destroyed by fire in March 1899.

    A tonic-sol-fa jubilee is reported in the Register,
    4 November 1891, page 5d,
    Express, 30 November 1891, page 4c.

    "Candle Burning" is discussed in the Express,
    2 March 1892, page 6a.

    "The Tug-of-War Tournament" is in the Register,
    10, 11 and 15 February 1892, pages 6h, 7e and 7d,
    13 and 20 February 1892, pages 21e and 21g;
    also see Express,
    10, 12 and 25 February 1892, pages 5e, 3f and 4e.
    Photographs of teams from the police force and tramways are in the Express,
    26 September 1912, page 8.

    "The Leumane Opera Company" is in the Chronicle,
    9 September 1893, page 15g; also see
    24 July 1894, page 4c.
    Also see "Opera" under Music

    "Amusements in Adelaide" is in the Register,
    20 February 1893, page 3f.

    A performance of "Immomeena", a locally written opera, is reported upon in the Express,
    19 September 1893, page 3f,
    7 and 9 October 1893, pages 6d and 3f,
    30 April 1894, page 4b.

    Information on Indian jugglers is in the Express,
    15 March 1895, page 2e,
    of a City Volunteer Band picnic on
    25 March 1895, page 3f.

    Biographical details of Edward Reeves, elocutionist, are in the Observer,
    11 July 1896, page 16a;
    an obituary is in the Register,
    21 November 1906, pages 4e-5i.
    Edward Reeves' elocution competitions are reported upon in the Register,
    14 and 16 July 1906, pages 4f and 3c.
    A photograph of Mrs W.R. Langsford and her elocution students is in The Critic,
    17 August 1921, page 8.

    "A Menagerie at Loggerheads" is in the Observer,
    14 November 1896, page 28a.

    "The Perils of a Showman" is in the Observer,
    30 January 1897, page 27c.

    Information on Indian jugglers is in the Express,
    15 March 1895, page 2e,
    of a City Volunteer Band picnic on 25 March 1895, page 3f.

    Information on the kinetoscope is in the Observer,
    16 November 1895, page 33d.

    The "poker" cigar machine is discussed in the Observer,
    8 February 1896, page 31c.

    Biographical details of Edward Reeves, elocutionist, are in the Observer,
    11 July 1896, page 16a;
    an obituary is in the Register,
    21 November 1906, pages 4e-5i.

    A sketch of the Jubilee Oval is in the Chronicle,
    24 October 1896, page 30.
    Also see South Australia - Sports - Miscellany.

    "A Menagerie at Loggerheads" is in the Observer,
    14 November 1896, page 28a.

    "The Perils of a Showman" is in the Observer,
    30 January 1897, page 27c.

    An All Nations' Fair is reported upon in the Register,
    19 and 20 April 1899, pages 5i and 6d and
    a Nineteenth Century Festival on 17 October 1899, page 7d.

    "The Prince of Jugglers" is in the Register,
    24 April 1899, page 7b.

    "An Adelaide Singer - Miss Meta Buring " is in the Express,
    12 August 1899, page 2d.

    Information on a performance at Cremorne Gardens is in the Express,
    10 January 1901, page 3d.

    "Amusements in Adelaide - What is the Public Taste" is in the Register,
    7 June 1902, page 5i.

    The invention of a new parlor game "Cricket by the Hearth", is reported in the Express,
    11 September 1902, page 3d.

    "The Messiah at the Town Hall" is in the Express,
    26 December 1902, page 1g.

    An obituary of C. Dooner, "a veteran showman", is in the Observer,
    11 April 1903, page 23e.

    "Union Parliament - A Training Ground for Speakers" is in the Register,
    24 April 1903, page 6e.

    Information on a glaciarium is in the Register,
    7 December 1907, page 3g.
    Also see South Australia - Skating and Glenelg.

    Photographs of St Patrick's Day celebrations are in the Chronicle,
    26 March 1904, page 43;
    also see 23 March 1907, pages 29 and 42b, 22 March 1924, page 36.

    "Safety of Public Halls" is in the Register,
    7 October 1904, page 4d.

    A photograph of members of the Lyric Club is in the Observer,
    16 September 1905, page 29.

    A buckjumping performance is described in the Register,
    11 and 16 April 1906, pages 7g and 7e.

    Edward Reeves' elocution competitions are reported upon in the Register,
    14 and 16 July 1906, pages 4f and 3c.
    A photograph of Mrs W.R. Langsford and her elocution students is in The Critic,
    17 August 1921, page 8.

    "Sunday Entertainments" is in the Register,
    23 October 1906, page 6i.

    "The New Pavilion", "the huge canvas theatre", is in the Register,
    29 and 31 August 1908, pages 10f and 9g.

    "Kite Flying and Parachuting" is in the Register,
    11 February 1909, page 4f.

    "An Enterprising Showman [W.H. Bruce]" and the construction of a "motor driven road train", is in the Observer,
    11 September 1909, page 52d.

    A bandstand on West Terrace is discussed in the Register,
    23 October 1909, page 13a, 27 November 1909, page 11e.

    A photograph of a seal juggling an umbrella is in the Chronicle,
    27 November 1909, page 32,
    of an Irish Pipers' Band in the Observer,
    30 March 1912, page 29.

    "An Adelaide Poet [Henry Arthur]" is in the Register,
    15 January 1910, page 4c;
    information on Miss Eleanor Wemyss, poet, is in the Register,
    24 December 1924, page 8g.

    A photograph of the Caledonian Pipe Band is in the Chronicle,
    20 November 1909, page 31,
    of the Irish Pipe Band on 15 June 1912, page 31.

    "Amusement in Town is in the Register,
    4 January 1910, page 7d.

    "Public Amusements" is in the Register,
    26 July 1910, page 6d.

    Adelaide's first "Henley" regatta is reported in the Express,
    19 December 1910, page 3e;
    also see 18 December 1911, page 3f.

    "Sunday Concerts - Government to be Defied" is in the Express,
    18 and 20 February 1911, pages 1c and 3i.
    Also see Religion - Breaking the Sabbath

    "An Adelaide Poet [Henry Arthur]" is in the Register,
    15 January 1910, page 4c;
    information on Miss Eleanor Wemyss, poet, is in the Register,
    24 December 1924, page 8g.

    "Viceroy Tea Balloon Carnival" is in the Register,
    11 February 1911, page 11e.

    "A Great Magician - The Nicola Boom" is in the Register,
    15 May 1911, page 6f.

    Tiny Town and Zeynard's Midget Circus are reported upon in the Register,
    23 and 30 October 1911, pages 9e and 3h.

    "Vaudeville on the Oval" is in the Express,
    30 November 1911, page 1d.
    Also see Sport - Adelaide Oval.

    A "Swim Through Adelaide" is reported in the Express,
    16 February 1914, page 3h.
    Also see Sport - Swimming.

    "A New Concert Hall [in Grenfell Street]" is in the Register,
    18 April 1914, page 5e.

    "Luna Park and Park Lands" is in the Register,
    13 June 1914, page 18f;
    also see 15, 24 and 27 June 1914, pages 6c-9e, 8d and 14i.
    Also see Parklands.

    "Austral Gardens [Ayer's House] - Another Amusement Scheme" is in the Register,
    25 June 1914, page 10c,
    The Mail, 27 June 1914, page 7f;
    also see The Mail, 19 June 1920, page 11 and
    Observer, 23 October 1916, page 28 for a report on a Minda fete at the gardens.

    See Advertiser, 25 June 1914, page 18b for a report on a proposed open-air theatre and
    "Palais-de-Danse" at the site of the modern-day "Ayers House" on North Terrace;
    its proposed sale is reported on 23 June 1920, page 6f.
    A photograph of the Palais de Danse is in the Chronicle,
    1 May 1920, page 25;
    also see Register, 10, 12 and 17 June 1920, pages 4f, 8g and 4a for information on the Austral Gardens, etc.

    "Adelaide's White City - An Immense Project" is in The Mail,
    13 June 1914, page 19e;
    also see 20 June 1914, page 21g, 11 July 1914, page 15f.

    "Night Club for Girls - Lady Victoria Buxton Club" is in the Advertiser,
    3 July 1916, page 9a.

    "Locally Made Toys" is in the Observer,
    16 November 1918, page 28d.

    Biographical details of Miss Dorothy Goodfellow, poet, are in the Register,
    26 October 1925, page 8h.

    A proposed Snake Park is discussed in the Register,
    22 April 1926, page 8f, 18 May 1926, page 12d;
    also see 6 November 1926, page 13c, 29 December 1926, page 2h,
    5, 12, 24 and 31 January 1927, pages 8h, 9d, 12d and 7d,
    1 and 16 February 1927, pages 9a and 8f,
    The Mail,
    12 March 1927, page 1d,
    19 and 23 March 1927, pages 13a and 10g, 20 May 1927, page 9g,
    13 and 15 June 1927, pages 10b and 10c,
    The Mail,
    3 September 1927, page 1a,
    30 July 1936, page 18b.
    "Fight With Python" is in the Observer,
    26 May 1928, page 54a.
    An obituary of C.J. French, who died after a snake bite, is in the Register,
    21 May 1927, page 14a.

    "The Floating Palais" is in the Register,
    9 December 1925, page 13e, 9 June 1927, page 13d, 24 November 1927, page 2f,
    28 November 1927, page 8b,
    "The Floating Palais Mystery" on 27 November 1928, page 14b,
    27 November 1928, page 10 (photo).
    Also see South Australia - Dancing.

    Information on mouth organs is in the Register,
    10 September 1926, page 10h.

    "Sideshow Season on Beaches" is in The News,
    22 November 1928, page 23b.

    "The Palais Royal - Sudden Closure" is in the Register,
    5 January 1929, page 9f.

    "Wild Beasts for Rodeo" is in The News,
    2 and 5 September 1932, pages 8d and 4e.

    Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience

    I recall that a great attraction during the 1860s was Wombwell's Australian Branch of Wild Animals which performed at a site in King William Street, now occupied by the Royal Exchange Hotel at the corner of King William and Rundle Streets. The name 'Wombwell' was famous in connection with wild beast shows in England and Europe.

    The show was small, but made up for this by hair-raising experiences. One performer entered a cage of two lions and dipped his bare arm in a bucket of bullock's blood, previously handed round to show its authenticity. He then placed his arm in a lion's mouth following which the blood streamed out of the lion's jaws but he never attempted to bite. It was a horrid spectacle, but something more venturesome or foolhardy followed.

    He seized one lion by the top and bottom jaw and opened the animal's mouth as wide as possible and then thrust his head into that terrible cavern. It is now all but fifty years since I saw this feat and yet, as I write, I can see that man's head in the lion's mouth and the animal's foreteeth sticking through the man's long black hair. In those days men and boys wore their hair much longer than they do now. Our present style of hair cutting was then known as the 'prison crop'.

    A photograph of the Adelaide Metropolitan Silver Band is in the Chronicle,
    1 October 1936, page 31.

    Entertainment and the Arts - Choose again

    Miscellany - Ballooning

    Balloon Ascents

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    The first aeronaut to bring a balloon to Adelaide was Thomas Gale in June 1871 when he advertised that, weather permitting, a 'grand balloon ascent' would be made the following day 'from the City Cattle Market' and ended with a plea that 'having sustained great loss to the present time, [I] appeal to the public of Adelaide for support.' He intended to ascend for three miles but, unfortunately, his balloon was not inflated sufficiently. However, success was with him a few days later when the Young Australian rose from opposite the Newmarket Hotel and, grazing the stockyard wall, descended in about 15 minutes at Mary Bank, Fifth Creek. It contained 28,704 cubic feet of Brompton coal gas and rose 4,000 feet above sea level. Mr Gale, was the son of Lieutenant Gale, RN, an aeronaut of considerable fame who was killed from a balloon in France.

    In a later ascent the balloon 'gave a lift' to 30 or 40 persons, one or two at a time. Among those who thus ventured 'above the world so high' was a young lady named Lavinia Balford, of Parkside,, who has therefore the honour of being the first female to ascend in a balloon in South Australia.

    In another ascent in August 1871 Mr Gale lifted off and drifted towards St Mary's and, in due course, a grapnel iron near the Flagstaff Hotel was utilised to secure it. Later, they ascended again and touched down on section 528, Hurtle Vale, the property of Mr Thomson. In a summation of the entertainment provided by Mr Gale the Editor of the SA Register said: 'His management of the balloon proved him to be an experienced aeronaut and his kindness and attention greatly contributed to the enjoyment of the trip...'

    A month later Mr Gale removed to Gawler where, owing to the kindness of Captain Osborne of the Kapunda Mines, the supply of sulphuric acid required for the generation of the gas was obtained at less than one-third of the usual price. With this acid and zinc, hydrogen gas was made. However, all did not go well, for Mr Gale was to complain that the acid supplied by the company was of inferior quality and to this fact alone the failure of his entertainment had to be attributed.

    During the next six years Mr Gale made a number of successful ascents in various parts of the world. He returned to Adelaide in the latter half of 1877 and commenced the construction of a large balloon at the Flagstaff Inn, Franklin Street, following which he proposed to make an ascent from the Exhibition Grounds on the occasion of the Hibernian Society's picnic. All the work on the balloon was done in the colony, women being principally employed, while an arrangement was made with the SA Gas Company for the supply of gas and a six-inch pipe laid down to the grounds.

    The balloon, when completed, was 65 feet in height and 118 feet in circumference while the first ascent was made on 9 November 1877; added attractions at the venue were a six-mile foot race, a five-mile walking match and other athletic sports, horse jumping, horse racing and numerous other sports.

    On New Year's Day of 1878 an ascent was terminated rather unpleasantly for those who accompanied him. After taking a zig-zag course a descent was made near Enfield where they ultimately touched the earth. The grappling irons caught a fence but, unfortunately, the rope broke and the balloon was dragged, in a most dangerous and erratic manner for the occupants, for a distance of about four sections, in the course of which a Mr Dwyer was thrown out. Mr Gale managed to stick to it, however, until the balloon reached Dry Creek where the car caught in a fence and he shared the ill fate of his companion by being thrown out. The balloon, thus lightened, went off at a tangent, but the escape valve, having been opened previously, its career was cut short near Bolivar, where it was secured. Dwyer escaped with a sprained wrist, but Gale sustained some severe bruises about the body and arrived in town about midnight, shaken considerably by his adventure.

    In 1879 Mr Gale was embroiled in a court case when a Mr W. Craig was charged with unwarrantable interference with Gale's balloon on 26 December 1878 when it was being used for partial ascents at the Exhibition Ground. It appeared that the balloon was inflated with gas and ready to ascend when the spectators, who gratuitously assisted to hold the impatient machine to earth, became divided in opinion, some holding on and some letting go, so that the balloon appeared to be in danger, Craig, who was conspicuous in helping to prevent the catastrophe, let out the gas against Gale's wish and after some exciting proceedings, during which two or three men were carried up a few feet holding to the rope, the aerial machine came into collision with a tree and, finally, collapsed. The Court after a patient hearing decided in favour of the defendant so Mr Gale, whose ill-luck only seemed an incentive to further experiments as an aeronaut, had to add another disappointment to his list.

    Postponed for a week on account of adverse atmospheric conditions Miss Gladys van Tassell's parachute descent came off successfully in May 1890. The scene of the operations was the old Exhibition grounds where the main event was due to commence at 4 pm. In the meantime, another event in the form of a 'mounted sword combat' was contested between Captain Jennings and Mr W.V. Virgo, late of the 12th Royal Lancers.

    General Notes

    "Early Ballooning" is in the Register,
    3 September 1926, page 7a.

    Accounts of balloon ascents are in the Register,
    7, 10 and 15 July 1871, pages 2e (advt.), 6b and 15d,
    8 and 28 August 1871, pages 5c and 5e,
    2 and 22 September 1871, pages 10g and 5f.

    Gas making for balloons is discussed in the Register,
    23 September 1871, page 5e,
    7 October 1871, page 5e. Also see
    29 October 1877, page 5c,
    8 November 1877, page 1f,
    3 January 1878, page 4g.

    "Bother With a Balloon" is in the Observer,
    15 February 1879, page 14e; also see
    27, 28 and 29 December 1888, pages 7f, 5b-6d and 7h and
    10 May 1890, page 38a for accounts of ballooning and parachuting.

    Also see Observer,
    14 November 1908, page 31-44a,
    15 January 1910, page 38d,
    The Critic,
    4 and 11 November 1908, pages 8 and 18,
    9 and 10 November 1908, pages 6g and 7b,
    28 December 1908, page 10f,
    9 January 1909, page 30 (photos),
    29 November 1909, page 9e,
    10 January 1910, page 5c,
    15 January 1910, page 38d,
    25 February 1911, page 32 (photos),
    3 September 1926, page 7a-b and
    The News,
    4 December 1936, page 6e.

    Reminiscences of ballooning are in the Advertiser,
    6 May 1937, page 21a.

    "First Parachutist in Adelaide" is in the Advertiser,
    4 May 1937, page 21a.

    Entertainment and the Arts - Choose again

    Miscellany - Fireworks

    Information on fireworks displays is in the Register,
    3 January 1856, page 3h,
    6 and 12 November 1862, pages 2g and 3f,
    28 April 1863, page 2h,
    10 November 1866, page 3d,
    7 November 1867, page 3c (royal visit),
    27 May 1869, page 2c,
    23 May 1885, page 33e,
    16, 17 and 24 March 1887, pages 5b, 7c and 5a,
    6 April 1887, page 7h; also see
    29 May 1886, page 38a,
    28 January 1888, page 15c for wire-walking and fireworks.

    A pyrotechnic display on Montefiore Hill is reported in the Observer,
    2 May 1863, page 4f.

    A sketch is in the Pictorial Australian in June 1885, page 97.

    An obituary of Charles Knight, pyrotechnist, is in the Register,
    23 July 1881, page 5d.

    Entertainment and the Arts - Choose again

    Miscellany - Playgrounds

    "Playgrounds for Children" is in the Register,
    5 and 14 April 1906, pages 6e and 4c,
    17 May 1906, page 6i,
    27 June 1907, page 7f,
    6 August 1907, page 4g,
    25 and 29 August 1908, pages 7b and 7b,
    1 March 1916, page 4e.

    "Children's Playgrounds" is in the Advertiser,
    25 August 1908, pages 6d-8f,
    7 December 1909, page 6f,
    14 and 15 May 1914, pages 10d and 8d,
    23 September 1914, page 6f,
    26 August 1916, page 14a.

    "Public Playgrounds" is in the Register,
    29 April 1915, page 4c,
    The Critic,
    27 September 1916, page 16,
    "Mayoral Playground for Children" in the Register,
    24 September 1918, page 4e,
    19 November 1918, page 4f,
    19 and 20 December 1918, pages 6d and 8d.
    "First Children's Playground" is in the Register,
    14 July 1917, page 6d,
    21 July 1917, page 29b,
    19, 21 and 26 February 1918, pages 6e, 6g and 6c.

    Photographs of the first children's playground are in the Chronicle,
    28 December 1918, page 25,
    28 December 1918, page 23.

    Photographs are in the Observer,
    28 December 1918, page 23.

    Photographs of the opening of a playground on Lefevre Terrace are in The Critic,
    22 December 1920, pages 16 and 20.

    "West End Kindergarten - New Playground for Children" is in the Register,
    20 June 1921, page 4g; also see
    4 July 1922, page 6e.

    "The City Playgrounds" is in the Observer,
    4 October 1924, page 35d; also see
    11 and 15 October 1924, pages 7g and 13g.

    "Children's Playgrounds" is in the Register,
    24 June 1927, page 12f.

    "Playgrounds for Children" is in The News,
    25 August 1927, page 9d.
    "Recreation on Sundays - Move to Open Playgrounds" is in The News,
    4 and 22 October 1935, pages 2g and 4c.

    Entertainment and the Arts - Choose again

    Miscellany - Skating

    A skating rink is described in the Express,
    22 May 1868, page 3c,
    23 April 1878, page 5a; also see
    11 May 1878, page 5d and
    22 June 1878, page 5c-d and South Australia - Sports;
    also see Express,
    20 July 1878, page 3f,
    1, 7, 9 and 28 August 1878, pages 2c 3c, 3g and 3f,
    11 September 1878, page 2c,
    10 April 1879, page 2g,
    27 April 1888, page 3f,
    29 May 1888, page 2b,
    3 and 31 July 1888, pages 2d and 4c,
    15 October 1888, page 2d,
    5 November 1888, page 2e,
    15 January 1889, page 3b,
    23 February 1889, page 2c,
    14 March 1889, page 2f.
    A sketch is in the Pictorial Australian in
    March 1888, page 37 and
    a photograph in the Observer,
    12 May 1906, page 30.

    Entertainment and the Arts - Choose again