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    Place Names of South Australia - L

    Lobethal - Lofty, Mount



    In a letter to the Advertiser on 19 November 1929, page 22c Rev John Blacket says:

    An early spelling of Lobethal was 'Loubeth Hall'. Local residents fought hard for the retention of the German name in 1916-1917, when the Nomenclature Committee's choice of the Aboriginal 'Marananga' was discarded in favour of 'Tweedvale', bestowed in recognition of the local woollen industry. Lobethal reverted to its original name by Act No. 2231-1935, assented to 12 December 1935.

    General Notes

    A bushfire is reported in the Register,
    2 February 1855, page 3e.
    Also see South Australia - Natural Disasters - Bushfires.

    Examinations at an English School are reported in the Register,
    24 December 1857, page 2h.
    School examinations are reported in the Advertiser,
    3 December 1858, page 2f and
    the school described in the Register,
    30 December 1859, page 2e.
    The opening of a new school and information on the town is in the Advertiser,
    30 November 1904, page 6d.

    Information on a proposal to establish a "tweed manufactory" is in the Observer,
    16 July 1870, page 5c,
    6 August 1870, page 15d.

    The Tweed and Woollen factory is described in the Register,
    12 August 1873, page 5d; also see
    20 September 1873, page 5b,
    3 and 12 January 1874, pages 7e and 13c,
    15 October 1874, page 2c,
    10 April 1875, page 2c,
    14 August 1875, page 13d,
    12 April 1875, page 6a,
    21 July 1875, page 6g,
    8 November 1875, page 6b,
    13 November 1875, page 13a,
    12 July 1877 (supp.), page 14e,
    3 August 1878, page 5a,
    18 December 1884, page 4g,
    28 November 1885, page 5a.

    "The Governor on Lobethal Tweed" is in the Observer,
    11 September 1886, page 14a.

    Information on the company is in the Register,
    7 and 13 September 1880, pages 4g and 5a,
    7 September 1880, page 2c.
    A proposal to produce woollen tweeds is reported in the Register,
    7 and 13 September 1880, pages 4g and 5a; also see
    1 August 1882, pages 4g and 5a.
    The opening of the factory appears on
    12 November 1883, page 6f.

    "Lobethal Tweeds" is in the Advertiser,
    21 June 1886, page 7b; also see
    4 February 1895, page 7a.

    Also see Advertiser,
    9 May 1884, page 6a,
    22 May 1884, page 4f,
    28 May 1885, page 4h,
    8 June 1885, page 7c,
    22 April 1887, page 6e,
    24 April 1889, page 7c,
    7 November 1889, page 5f,
    27 June 1890, page 5a,
    16 April 1892, page 36c,
    The Critic,
    18 June 1898, page 19,
    22 May 1905, page 6h,
    2 July 1906, page 6f,
    27 June 1913, page 9a,
    3 August 1917, page 7d,
    15 February 1929, page 29a (history of),
    The News,
    7 October 1926, page 16a,
    26 May 1928, page 32a,
    11 July 1934, page 13c.

    "SA Tweeds - Why Not Wear Them?" is in the Express,
    27 July 1905, page 3h.

    "Warp and Weft - Through a Woollen Factory" is in the Register,
    22 May 1905, page 6d,
    "Wool to Woollens" on
    17 May 1909, page 6g.

    A fire at the factory is reported in the Observer,
    28 February 1914, page 46d.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    2 and 9 December 1905, pages 29 and 30,
    28 February 1914, page 32.

    The town is described in the South Australian,
    17 March 1846, page 3a,
    2 April 1850, page 2d,
    22 October 1859, page 3a,
    Parliamentary Paper 66/1886,
    12 December 1902, page 6g,
    7 February 1910, page 6e.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    2 December 1905, page 30,
    2 June 1928, page 36,
    12 October 1933, page 46.

    An alleged poisoning is discussed in the Observer,
    19 and 26 September 1874, pages 10f and 4d.

    A "disturbance" is reported in the Observer,
    6 May 1876, page 7g.

    "A Gold Reef Near Lobethal" is in the Advertiser,
    18 January 1881, page 6a,
    "Gold at Tweedvale" on
    8 and 17 September 1931, pages 9i and 9g.
    Also see South Australia - Mining - Gold.

    Hop plantations near Lobethal are described in the Advertiser,
    14 March 1883, page 7a.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Brewing.

    "A Trip to Lobethal" is in the Express,
    11 February 1886, page 3e.

    Information on cemeteries is in the Express,
    14 July 1886, page 4d.

    A report on tobacco growing is in the Register,
    2 April 1887, page 5d.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Tobacco.

    A rifle club sports and picnic is reported in the Register,
    3 January 1894, page 3e,
    5 January 1898, page 7a,
    7 January 1899, page 20a,
    5 January 1903, page 3f.
    "Lobethal Kingship - J.T. Lake Crowned Again" is in the Register,
    5 January 1903, page 3f; also see
    4 January 1904, page 7e.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Rifle Shooting.

    The unveiling of a monument to Trooper J.H. Moore is reported in the Observer,
    15 June 1901, page 15e.
    Also see South Australia - The Boer War.

    The manufacture of cricket bats by Mr E. Kumnick is reported in the Register,
    13 April 1905, page 7i,
    26 March 1909, page 4f,
    The Mail,
    10 May 1930, page 22c,
    17 February 1933, page 23e,
    The News,
    28 August 1933, page 6c.
    25 February 1937, page 21b,
    15 November 1937, page 21a.
    Biographical details of C.F. Kummnick [sic] are in the Register,
    11 December 1914, page 4h.
    An obituary of Mrs C.F. Kumnick is in the Register,
    3 August 1910, page 6g,
    of C.F. Kumnick in the Register,
    30 July 1918, page 4f,
    3 August 1918, page 19c.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Cricket - Miscellany.

    "The Oldest German Church" is in the Register,
    30 September 1905, page 11a.

    A skating carnival is reported upon in the Register,
    24 June 1908, page 9d.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Roller and Ice Skating.

    Information on the Forester Cricket Club is in the Register,
    14 July 1908, page 5a.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Cricket - Miscellany.

    "Lobethal Harmonia Club" is in the Register,
    19 July 1911, page 5g.

    A proposed recreation ground is discussed in the Register,
    4 October 1912, page 9g.

    A protest from citizens of the town in respect of its proposed change of name is in the Register,
    16 November 1916, page 4e,
    18 November 1929, page 5a.
    Also see South Australia - World War I - Germans in Australia.

    Photographs of the Institute committee is in the Chronicle,
    21 November 1908, page 30,
    of the old college parsonage and early settlers on
    30 March 1929, page 40,
    of a railway carriage utilised as a golf clubhouse on
    21 May 1931, page 32,
    8 February 1934, page 38.

    Biographical details of Ernst Dienelt are in the Register,
    27 May 1922, page 6h,
    31 May 1924, page 36b.

    "Homes for Workmen" is in the Register,
    22 May 1928, page 6d.

    Motor car racing is reported upon in the Advertiser,
    22 December 1937, page 25d.
    Also see South Australia - Transport - Motor Cars and Cycles.

    Lobethal - Obituaries

    An obituary of Mr F.W. Kleinschmidt is in the Express, 13 December 1884, page 2d.

    An obituary of H.A. Waldt is in the Register, 10 October 1891, page 5c, Observer, 10 October 1891, page 32e,
    of Pastor J.M.R. Ey on 30 September 1893, page 31b,
    of Johann G. Pfeiffer on 13 July 1895, page 28d,
    of Carl Frick on 16 January 1897, page 27b.

    An obituary of J.K. Tremel is in the Register, 3 July 1900, page 5c.

    An obituary of J. Davids, cooper, is in the Observer, 5 August 1905, page 38c,
    of Mrs J.H. Weyland on 24 August 1907, page 40e,
    of A.S. Mines on 7 March 1909, page 40a,
    of Carl J. Muhlberg on 10 October 1908, page 40d,
    of H.D. Mengersen on 2 January 1909, page 38b,
    of Mrs Jane Redpath on 17 July 1909, page 42b.

    An obituary of C.F. Davids is in the Register, 1 August 1905, page 3h,
    of Mrs Johanne H. Weyland on 20 August 1907, page 5a,
    of Carl Beck on 27 November 1908, page 5b,
    of John Moore on 8 February 1912, page 4h,
    of J.H.F. Drabsch on 10 December 1912, page 7b,
    of M.M.G. Zoerner on 25 July 1916, page 4h,
    of Mrs Ann A. Moore on 13 February 1917, page 4g.

    An obituary of Mrs Carl F. Kumnick is in the Observer, 6 August 1910, page 39a,
    of M.M.G. Zoerner on 29 July 1916, page 19e,
    of Mrs Fredericka Pingel on 23 March 1918, page 18a,
    of Heinrich Pingel on 4 January 1919, page 33b,
    of John Turner on 9 December 1922, page 35b,
    of J.Otto Stabernack on 25 August 1923, page 38e,
    of Mrs Ann Watkins on 12 April 1924, page 44a,
    of Newsome (Newsone?) Burnley on 14 February 1925, page 38a,
    of Mrs Juliana B. Pfeiffer on 28 February 1925, page 38e,
    of Mrs Johanna P. Berndt on 25 April 1925, page 39c,
    of B. Swaine on 31 July 1926, page 38e.

    An obituary of Mrs Caroline Stafford and Mrs Anna D. Graeber is in the Register, 8 December 1920, page 6i,
    of John Turner on 2 December 1922, page 11c,
    of Albert Mines on 14 November 1923, page 11f,
    of Mrs Mary Minogue on 19 February 1925, page 6f,
    of Johanna P. Berndt on 22 April 1925, page 8h,
    of Rev F.J.H. Steward on 8 June 1926, page 8g,
    of B.S. Warne on 28 July 1926, page 17e.

    Lobethal - Lofty, Mount
    Place Names



    Named by Governor Fergusson when he possibly had in mind the name of a lake and district in Invernesshire.

    General Notes

    Its school opened in 1880 and closed in 1969.

    The rabbit plague in the Hundred is discussed in the Register,
    27 August 1886, page 3h.Also see South Australia - Flora and Fauna - Rabbits

    Lobethal - Lofty, Mount
    Place Names



    Governor Fergusson named it after Scottish associations, (there is a 'Lochiel Forest' near Inverness). It is also one of the titles of the chief of the Cameron Clan, while the Scottish 'Lochiel' comes from the Gaelic ial - 'gleam of sunshine'.

    General Notes

    The Salt Lake Inn is mentioned in the Register,
    20 May 1867, page 3e.

    Its school opened in 1880 and closed in 1987; see Chronicle,
    11 and 25 June 1881, pages 4f and 22g.

    Information on the salt works is in the Register,
    28 January 1886, page 5c,
    30 January 1886, page 39c,
    14 November 1896, page 3d,
    13 March 1913, page 10e,
    7 October 1916, page 16c.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    29 March 1912, page 32.
    Also see Place Names - Bumbunga.

    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Miscellany.

    Photographs of the opening of the hall are in the Observer,
    3 June 1911, page 32.

    "Motorists and Mud - To Snowtown Through Lochiel" is in the Express,
    25 October 1915, page 5e.
    Also see South Australia - Transport - Motor Cars and Cycles.

    Lobethal - Lofty, Mount
    Place Names



    The town was named after a fallen soldier of World War I - Corporal Albert E. Lock, a former member of the Lands Department survey branch.

    General Notes

    Its school opened as "Terre Siding" in 1919.

    Photographs of wheat harvesting are in the Chronicle,
    12 February 1931, page 36,
    of the opening of the Institute on
    15 March 1934, page 31,
    of a football team on
    24 October 1935, page 36.

    Lobethal - Lofty, Mount
    Place Names

    Lock No.2


    During the time locks were being constructed on the River Murray schools were conducted for the benefit of the children of construction workers; accordingly, five such schools were opened - No.2 (1925-1928); No. 3 (1922-1926); No. 4 (1927-1931); No. 5 (1925-1928); No. 6 (1927-1931).

    General Notes

    Information on Lock 2, its school, sporting activities, etc, is in the Register,
    2 June 1926, page 11e,
    1 August 1927, page 6e.

    If river conditions are favourable the officers hope to finish by Christmas time. Then instead of the tremendous activity and busy population nothing will be left but the lock-keeper and his assistant's residence.

    Also see Murray River.

    Lobethal - Lofty, Mount
    Place Names



    Takes its name from a property (section 145) owned by Charles Brown Fisher (1818-1908) in the early 1840s.

    General Notes

    A dinner given in honour of Mr A.H. Davis is reported in the Observer,
    19 July 1851, page 7a; also see
    26 July 1851, pages 1e-3e.

    Mr Moore's vineyard is described in the Chronicle,
    14 December 1861, page 5d.
    His obituary is in the Register,
    5 June 1866, page 3d,
    9 June 1866, page 5g.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Viticulture.

    Fisher's horse stables are described in the Farm & Garden,
    13 December 1860, page 94,
    20 December 1861, page 2d; also see
    22 February 1868, page 3d.
    "The Stud - Our Sires" is commented upon on
    23 June 1870, page 6b.
    Mr C.B. Fisher's obituary is in the Chronicle,
    9 May 1908, page 40b.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Horse Racing.

    Amateur horse races are reported in the Chronicle,
    8 August 1874, page 10b,
    17 November 1877, page 15d,
    16 November 1878, page 18b.

    "The Lockleys Training Establishment" is in the Chronicle,
    17 July 1880, page 22f.

    A Catholic picnic is reported in the Register,
    2 January 1883, page 6b,
    9 January 1886, page 7e;
    a later event climaxed in fisticuffs - "A fight with naked fists has resulted in the imposition of a small fine upon the principals and several of the aiders and abettors" - see Register,
    2 October 1894, pages 4h-7g for an editorial report.
    also see Express,
    2 October 1894, page 2f.

    An obituary of John Rowell is in the Register,
    7 June 1893, page 5c,
    Observer, 10 June 1893, page 30e,
    of Mrs Sarah L. Williams on 12 May 1906, page 38a,
    of N.W. Wilson on 2 June 1928, page 45b.

    The opening of the Prison Gate Brigade Home under the auspices of the Salvation Army is reported in the Chronicle,
    18 October 1890, page 10b; also see
    25Jjuly 1892, page 2f.

    Also see South Australia - Religion - Salvation Army.

    A military camp is described in the Register,
    14 April 1906, page 7h.
    Also see South Australia - Defence of the Colony.

    Information on the Christian Missionary Church is in the Register,
    8 and 10 September 1906, pages 6g and 9e.
    A proposed recreation ground is discussed in the Register,
    22 July 1911, page 12g.

    Information on a proposed school is in the Register,
    23 October 1912, page 9f; it opened in 1916.
    "Lockleys School - A Danger to Health" is in The Mail,
    9 December 1922, page 2g; also see
    The News,
    29 July 1926, page 8f.

    Photographs of flooding are in the Observer,
    28 August 1909, page 30,
    28 July 1923, page 29.
    Also see South Australia - Natural Disasters - Floods.

    The district is described in the Register,
    20 June 1913, page 6i.

    Riverside Gardens, a fruit and vegetable producing property, is described in the Register,
    20 June 1913, page 6i,
    28 June 1913, page 50c.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Fruit and Vegetables.

    "Water for Lockleys" is in the Register,
    12 February 1914, page 5g,
    "The Divining Rod - Water at Lockleys" on
    13 February 1914, page 7e. Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Water Divining and Rainmaking
    Proposed weirs on the River Torrens are discussed in the Observer,
    28 March 1914, page 14d.

    Mr Copas's Nursery is described in the Register on
    16 March 1914, page 6;
    biographical details of Henry Copas appear on
    24 February 1915, page 10d;
    an obituary is in the Express,
    28 October 1918, page 2c,
    29 October 1918, page 4h,
    2 November 1918, page 13a.
    Also see Place Names - Findon.

    An obituary of Mrs Helen S. Sawtell is in the Register,
    7 February 1916, page 4f,
    of Hubert Moss on 2 September 1919, page 4g.

    An obituary of H.G. Butterfield is in the Observer,
    5 July 1924, page 38b,
    of John E. Rowell on 15 September 1928, page 50c.

    "Tomato Growing at Lockleys" is in the Observer,
    2 June 1923, page 6a.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Fruit and Vegetables.

    The laying of the foundation stone of a memorial hall is reported in the Register,
    30 March 1925, page 9d;
    its opening appears on
    18 August 1925, page 6h.
    A photograph is in the Chronicle,
    11 April 1925, page 36.
    Also see South Australia - World War I - Memorials to the Fallen.

    Information on Lasscock's Nursery is in the Observer,
    25 June 1925, page 12d.

    A "New Findon Bridge" is in the Register,
    6 May 1926, page 12e.
    See notes Place Names - Findon and Place Names - Reedbeds.

    Lobethal - Lofty, Mount
    Place Names

    Lofty, Mount

    For an essay on gold mining in the ranges see under South Australia - Mining - Gold.


    Named by Matthew Flinders on 23 March 1802 upon seeing it from Kangaroo Head, Kangaroo Island.

    Occasional Essays on South Australian History

    Researched and Written by Geoffrey H. Manning

    Part 1V - Tales of Adelaide

    Essay No. 16 - Settling in the Mount Lofty Ranges


    The Resident Commissioner and the Surveyor-General, in opening the work of the new colony, had first to order and arrange the survey of the City of Adelaide and the preliminary districts, extending from the city down to Cape Jervis, in which the preliminary land orders (mostly held by absentees) might be first exercised. No other country land was open for selection until the end of the first quarter of the year 1838, which was two years after the colony was proclaimed.

    The size of all sections up to this time was to suit the preliminary land orders, viz., 134 acres. After the best sections had been chosen, those rejected were cut up into 80-acre sections and 'green slips' , as they were called; it was then that the 80-acre land orders could be exercised. As was natural, all the best sections as to quality of land, supply of water, or locality, were absorbed by the representatives of the preliminary land-order holders. The authorities had no power to place bona fide farmers on sections, although purchased and paid for in England, until after preliminary selections had been made.

    A further great evil arose - the commencement of land speculation by applications for special surveys of 15,000 acres, out of each of which after survey 4,000 acres could be selected and obtained at £1 an acre - thus, the number of absentee proprietors was further increased and the surveying and opening free districts for selection to bona fide applicants, for land for immediate agricultural operations, was hindered further. In consequence, the inhabitants were, for the first three years, wholly dependent on importations of flour and grain from Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), at one time at the cost from £80 to £100 a ton. The parliament and government of the Mother Country must be justly blamed for the short-sighted and parsimonious policy they adopted in launching the colony, thereby leading to the most serious of the colony's first troubles.

    When the Act of Incorporation was granted it was stipulated that it should not be in force until the sum of £35,000 was realised by sale of land, and an additional of £20,000 by the issue and sale of South Australian bonds, and that amount invested in British funds 'as a guarantee that the colony would at no time be a charge on the Mother Country.' The negotiation of these bonds at such a time was, as a matter of course, a losing transaction. The treatment accorded to us may be termed, justly, as step-motherly.

    For such hard terms, the gentlemen on the committee for establishing the colony worked hard for three years, and at last accepted them on finding there was no prospect of obtaining more liberal treatment. Thus arose the necessity for the forced sales of land in London, at a reduces price. The South Australian Company, and a few fortunate private individuals, took advantage of the preliminary sale in England, and thus was created an absentee proprietary. These preliminary sections near Adelaide cost only 12 shillings an acre, with one town acre thrown into each.

    No blame could be cast on these fortunate purchasers who came forward to invest their cash in a speculation, which was treated by the authorities as a wild scheme, but the facts need to be aired in order to explain the primary mistakes which resulted in the unfortunate crisis of 1839-40. The early settlers who had invested their capital in legitimate pursuits suffered great losses. The delays in obtaining land suitable for agricultural purposes caused many to adopt other pursuits, but when the crisis approached, and after flour had attained the unheard-of price of £8 to £10 a bag, many of those who had any means left returned to the pursuit they joined the colony to embark in, although in most instances with greatly diminished means.

    A Settler's Experiences in the Tiers

    A colonist of 1838 has left us with an evocative account of his experiences on a 'selection' 20 miles to the east of Adelaide: 'Having sent on men to prepare timber for building and fencing, I followed as soon as temporary shelter was provided. I give an account of our journey as a fair specimen of what early settlers had to "experience".

    'I first dispatched two bullock teams with our furniture and fixings as early in the day as possible, and followed some hours afterwards with my family in a roomy wagonette, to which were harnessed, one in the lead and two wheelers - a dangerous rig for the rough and hilly track we had to pursue.

    'In the trap, I being the driver, I had my wife, sister, two sons (three and four year old), one female servant, and our youngest boy in arms; also a man to assist in procuring timber drags, and on fixing them on the hind axle before I ventured to drive down the steep hills which we had to pass - in those days screw skids had not been invented. I must here mention that this great improvement in skids on all other plans which had been previously used in easing loaded vehicles down hills was shortly afterwards invented by one of our earliest colonists, Mr Stephen Hack. The first one which was constructed on his suggestion was made by J. Adamson.

    'To pass over the Mount Lofty Range at that time was no easy task. The first ascent was by either of the spurs between Beaumont and Glen Osmond. I fixed on the one nearest Greenhill as being most used and having much more space for making tacks. I had a staunch team and, with many zigzags, I surmounted this first difficulty, my man following behind with chocks to stop the hind wheels when necessary to ease the horses.

    'On the top of the brow on the first saddle, to my surprise and annoyance, I overtook the drays. The day being a hot, one of my best leading bullocks dropped, and could not be got up again. I had in consequence to leave my man to assist in yoking up one of the body-bullocks as a makeshift leader in the place of the fallen one, and to continue with the drays to assist the disarranged team; and I had no alternative but to go on the best way I could without help or the use of drays. I could not leave the horses to cut young saplings for that purpose and to attach them to the drag chain.

    'My next serious difficulty was Breakneck Hill, rightly named as I can speak from experience of broken necked bullocks in descending, but on this occasion I had to surmount it. When I came to the steep and longer descent at Cox's Creek, on which spur very fine trees had been felled and split into palings and shingles, the stumps of course left standing, and sundry rejected bad splitting pieces of timber lying about, I felt I had arrived at my worst trouble. I pulled up and looked on each side, hoping to find at hand a suitable timber drag, but was disappointed; and with much trepidation I started the team at a foot's pace, but when the pressure became too heavy on my wheelers they began to trot in spite of all my efforts to hold them back and at length they broke into a full gallop.

    'By the sagacity and obedience of my leader I was able to clear the stumps and logs without an accident. The females and children fortunately did not scream or utter a word. At the foot of the hill, on pulling up, I found two men on horseback, who had paused in meeting us in astonishment at such a flying descent. Before I could gain my breath or speak to my family they addressed me most abruptly - I could see they were fresh arrivals. They said, "We wish we could hand you over to the police for driving down such a dangerous hill in such a reckless manner to the risk of your passengers' lives." 'I replied, "I excuse your ignorance, gentlemen; I am driving my wife and family. I have scarcely recovered from my fright. You have interrupted me and all of us in returning silent thanks for our deliverance from so great a danger. Look at my hands, black with the force I have used."

    'We continued on the track over the natural surface, now steep sideling, now sharp rise or fall, no pick or shovel having yet been used, and reached the Onkaparinga River without accident. The crossing was too rough and here one of our back springs gave way, after having stood all the heavy jolts and jars we had previously encountered. A cross-bar, cut and fixed, we again passed on and reached the section at sundown. After a picnic supper we turned in on beds of dry grass, as the drays with bedding and food did not arrive till next morning. Poultry and dairy cows had been sent up some time before with a small flock of sheep.

    'The kitchen and dairy being finished we soon had our usual comforts. And now the work of fencing was continued, and grubbing trees, and preparing land for corn. An orchard and garden were trenched, to be ready at the right season for planting. I had purchased seed wheat as 15 shillings a bushel and, having to pay that price for seed, and so much to do in clearing, fencing, and erecting farm buildings, I did not crop more land the first season than what I thought might yield me seed for the following year and enough for domestic use.

    'At this time, on the first farms established, some of them quite unused to manual labour, might be seen undergoing the heaviest work their powers would admit of, their wives and children engaged in unaccustomed employment and totally unsuited to their strength; a boy of eight or ten years driving bullocks at harrow, occasionally a young girl driving bullocks for her father at plough, or with a sister cross-cutting logs for fencing; then all had to help at odd times of the day, early and late, at log burning. All this toil was necessary, because labour was scarce and wages high, or money wanting, and so a variety of hard shifts had to be adopted to accomplish indispensable work.'

    Source - Chronicle, 29 September 1877, page 17f.

    Early Days in the Tiers


    Writing in 1842, Janet May addressed a friend in England:

    The first landholders had a trying time settling in for there were no roads to speak of, no stores to run to for what they might need, no fencing wire to make a paddock secure and no hay or chaff for their working stock and it was common practice to feed them on boughs of sheaoak trees. There was nothing but the roughest fare consisting of bread (not always as light as a feather), damper, beef, which after the first few days after killing was casked and eaten salted. There were rough clothes to work in, rough material to work with and often rough men to deal with.

    Clearing the land for ploughing was a family affair and months of backbreaking work followed. On timbered land the trees were thinned out and cut into lengths of ten to fifteen feet, hauled by bullocks and made into immense heaps, which when dry were burnt, a full day being taken frequently in making one heap. There was no end to root cutting after the majority of the surface timber had been removed. It was not until this absolutely necessary work was carried out that house building and the erection of stables and outhouses could be commenced, 'for as Solomon the Wise said - "Prepare thy work in the field and afterwards build thine house".'

    A typical pioneer's house comprised of a slab hut constructed from fine red gum, while the roofs were covered with sheets of bark off the trees from which the slabs were split, but after a time were inclined to curl up, thus letting in both sun and rain. Indeed, star gazing could be indulged in on fine nights as the residents lay in bed, but on wet nights it became necessary to hold up umbrellas. Many years later white freestone from a quarry owned by Mr W.C. Torode was largely used in home construction throughout the district:

    Weather permitting, harvesting was a six-day week affair, from daylight to dusk. Armed with sickles, the family and helpers descended upon the paddocks of golden grain, where yields of fifty to sixty bushels per acre were not uncommon. The wheat sheaves were carted into close proximity of the homestead and stacked in preparation for threshing in a barn where they were spread out in a large circle, untied, and the wheat trodden out in a most primitive manner by horses or bullocks which were either driven or ridden. This method of threshing was both tedious and unhygienic, as apart from animal excreta, dirt from the floor intermingled with the grain. The alternative method of threshing was by a wooden roller, about nine inches in diameter at its narrow end and up to three feet at the large end. The roller was fastened to a post by a ring at the small end and drawn around by a horse attached to the other end.

    With improvement in roads, draught horses gradually replaced the bullocks and many a fine team that had done duty honestly and well, and borne the heat of day for many years, were turned out into good fattening paddocks of lucerne and rich native grasses in order that their old bones might be covered with juicy young flesh and fat to provide many a square meal for the hungry 'beef eaters' in the colony.

    In the 1860s, and the following decade, a persistent cry was abroad about the alleged insidious and ongoing robbing of the people's land by squatters and this agitation was so persistent in town and country there arose a pressing and overwhelming movement for resumption of pastoral leases and agricultural extension. There were several factors leading to this indiscriminate quest for arable lands; firstly, land in the Mount Lofty Ranges and that extending from Aldinga through McLaren Vale to Willunga had become 'wheat sick' through over-cropping and, accordingly, those farmers whose cash flow had diminished sought greener pastures in the vast virgin lands to the north; secondly, the government was concerned at the exodus of farmers to the Wimmera district of Victoria and were intent on stopping the outflow of both farmers and capital; thirdly, the State's coffers could only benefit from revenue generated by the sale of land.

    When the northern areas were thrown open land in the hills was allowed to go out of crop and was used for grazing and dairying purposes as it was found that stock, especially sheep, paid far better than wheat growing in practically exhausted land. Moreover, it was soon recognised that with all the new appliances for farming, such as the three-furrow plough, iron harrow in place of wooden, with iron teeth on tines, and reaping machines and so on, the hills land had no chance of competing with the level northern plains in the matter of wheat growing.

    By 1879 public attention was being directed to the need for sanitary precautions in the city of Adelaide, while further afield in the Mount Lofty Ranges complaints were forthcoming that local streams were:

    ...trickling rather than flowing and [were] consequently easily polluted; a dead cow lay athwart the creek so as to act as a dam, the water all flowing readily over the putrefying carcass... In another gully... a horrible smell was traced to a large dog - a good deal larger than life-size - anchored by the neck to a stone in an otherwise pretty pond.

    Further, market gardens were highly manured with refuse from stables, so much so that manure formed at least one-third of the properties of the soil and with the prevailing irrigation system the drainage found its way into creeks and was swept downwards thereby defiling and polluting the whole system. One resident complained:

    General Notes

    "Mt Lofty First Visited" is in the Observer,
    25 April 1891, page 28d; also see
    18 February 1893, page 7e.

    "Early Days in the Hills - Reminiscences of Long Ago", by Edward Austin, is in the Register,
    12, 13, 18 and 19 September 1912, pages 7a, 11c, 11e and 15a,
    27 November 1912, page 15a.

    A history of the district and photographs are in the Chronicle,
    7 and 14 September 1933, pages 48 and 45-57.

    Life in the early days is recorded in the Chronicle,
    29 September 1877, page 17f.

    "Flinders and Mount Lofty" is in the Chronicle,
    25 March 1882, pages 4c-22g,
    1 April 1882, page 2e (supp.),
    29 March 1902, page 51,
    19 April 1902, page 52 (photo.).
    Information on the unveiling of Flinders' monument is in the Register,
    22 and 24 March 1902, pages 6g and 4e-5c-6e;
    photographs are in the Chronicle,
    29 March 1902, page 32a.
    Also see Place Names - Flinders.

    Information on Mount Lofty Township is in the Register, 20 October 1859, page 4e.

    An account of an ascent of Mount Lofty is in the Register,
    8 July 1837, page 4a and
    19 December 1861, page 2g under the heading "Interesting Geographical Problem".

    "South Australian Scenery - A Naturalist's Ramble" is in the Register,
    15 January 1842, page 3e.
    Also see South Australia - Flora and Fauna - Birds.

    The New Tiers Road is discussed in the Register,
    31 October 1855, page 2e.

    The laying of the foundation stone of a Bible Christian chapel is reported in the Register,
    1 October 1857, page 2h and
    its opening on
    21 January 1858, page 2d.

    The Mount Lofty School opened in 1859 and remained open until it was replaced by "Uraidla" in 1870.
    Information on a school conducted by Mr and Mrs Holder is in the Observer,
    21 April 1860, page 7g,
    21 March 1866, page 3a,
    22 March 1867, page 2c,
    27 April 1869, page 3c.

    Amenities at the summit are discussed in the Observer,
    16 February 1861, page 4g,
    14 December 1867, page 5g,
    11 January 1868, page 14g.

    Arthur Hardy's vineyard is described in the Advertiser,
    7 May 1862, page 2f.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Viticulture.

    The second Mount Lofty Show is reported in the Register,
    12 March 1863, page 3e,
    2 April 1864, page 3.
    "Mount Lofty and Its Annual Shows" is in the Register,
    17 March 1928, page 10a.
    Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Agricultural, Floricultural & Horticultural Shows .

    The inspection of a "new light" by the Marine Board is reported in the Observer,
    10 March 1866, page 2b (supp.).
    Also see South Australia - Maritime Affairs - Lighthouses and Lightships.

    Journeys to the Mount Lily mine and a goldfield on Sixth Creek are reported in the Register,
    1 May and 2 June 1866, pages 3e and 3c respectively -
    reports on the latter also appear on
    3 July 1866, page 2e and
    19 April 1867, page 2e.
    Also see South Australia - Mining - Gold.

    A sketch of the summit is in the Adelaide Illustrated Post,
    23 May 1867, page 68.

    An account of the Lady Edith Gold Mine is in the Register,
    29 June 1870, page 5c;
    an entertainment held in a schoolroom near the mine is reported on
    24 December 1870, page 5a.

    A description of a trip from Adelaide to the Eclipse Gold Mine about two miles beyond Norton Summit is in the Register,
    10 November 1871, page 5e.

    "The Gold Mines in the Hills" is in the Advertiser,
    18 April 1882, page 5f and
    a history of "Gold in the Hills" on
    9, 12, 20 and 22 March 1901, pages 9a, 6a, 6a and 6a,
    5 April 1901, page 6a.

    A proposal to erect a tower and obelisk on the summit to commemorate the visit of the Duke of Edinburgh is the subject of voluminous reports, etc, in the Register during 1867 -
    26 October (p. 2f),
    4 December (p. 2d),
    7 December, (p. 2g),
    10 December, (p.2g), -
    1868 -
    8, 9, 15, 22, 25 January, pages 3d, 3c, 2h and 2h;
    4 and 22 February, pages 2g - when a public subscription was mooted to defray costs one correspondent did not approve:

    Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Royal Visits.

    Information on the 1840 cairn and an obelisk is in the Register,
    15 December 1900, page 3g. See
    22 January 1868, page 2h for an account of the erection of a "very neat building of timber on the summit [some years ago]".
    The dedication of an obelisk and photographs are in The Critic,
    29 march 1902, pages 8 and 31.

    A sketch at the summit is in the Illustrated Adelaide Post,
    23 May 1867, page 68.

    "Holiday in the Hills" is in the Observer,
    31 December 1870, page 7f.

    A correspondent to the Register of 26 July 1871, page 6b tells of the introduction of the rabbit into the ranges:

    Also see South Australia - Flora and Fauna - Rabbits.

    A report of a snow fall on the mount is in the Register,
    12 August 1872, page 5c,
    29 and 30 July 1901, pages 5a and 6c-8d,
    1 July 1904, page 5b,
    30 August 1905, page 4g
    (photos are in the Chronicle,
    2 September 1905, pages 28-29,
    14 April 1906, page 42b,
    1 September 1906, page 29,
    15 December 1906, page 5 (supp.),
    28 August 1906, page 7g,
    23 June 1908, page 5b,
    27 June 1908, pages 30-31 (photos),
    11 October 1910, page 9e,
    22 August 1931, page 15d,
    15 August 1932, page 9c.

    A picnic at the trig station on the summit is reported in the Register,
    13 October 1877, page 5c.
    Also see Adelaide - Picnics and Holidays.

    "The Pollution of Hill's Streams" is in the Register,
    25 and 27 February 1879, page 4c and 6f and Torrens, River.

    "A Day in the Hills and What it Cost" is in the Register,
    10 November 1879, page 5f.

    "The Belara Mine" is in the Chronicle,
    10 April 1880, page 24e,
    "Gold Mines in the Hills" on
    22 April 1882, page 16d.
    Also see South Australia - Mining - Gold.

    The establishment of a heliostat station on the summit is reported in the Register,
    5 August 1880, page 5a.
    Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Weather, Astronomy and Allied Matters.

    "On the Tramp - Prospecting" is in the Observer,
    1 October 1881, page 41c.

    A coach trip through the ranges to Milang is reported in the Register,
    9 January 1883, page 7a.
    Also see South Australia - Transport - Horse Coaches.

    A bicycle trip through the ranges is described in the Register,
    27 January 1883 (supp.), page 1b.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Cycling.

    Field Naturalists' Society excursions are reported in the Register,
    10 December 1883, page 6f,
    4 February 1884, page 7a,
    3 March 1884, page 2d (supp.),
    9 February 1886, page 7f,
    29 October 1894, page 7h,
    26 November 1901, page 8h,
    22 September 1903, page 3f,
    3 September 1904, page 4g,
    17 November 1904, page 3a.

    The establishment of a meteorological observatory on the summit is reported in the Register,
    4 November 1884, page 5b -
    it is described on
    2 December 1884, page 6e.

    Mr E.C. Gwynne's home is described in the Register,
    8 April 1885, page 5e,
    Sir Thomas Elder's on
    18 June 1885, page 7b.

    "Notes of an Naturalist in Australia" is in the Register,
    26 June 1885, page 6d,
    2 July 1885, page 7e.

    "Sketches of Life in the Hills" is in the Register,
    7 September 1885, page 3f.

    An excursion "In the Hills" is described in the Register,
    24 February 1886, page 6a,
    3 September 1890, page 5a.

    "The Scenery of the Eastern Hills" is in the Register,
    21 June 1887, page 2e (supp.).

    "Our Inheritance in the Hills" is in the Observer,
    26 January 1889, pages 25e-30,
    13 April 1889, page 25b.

    A sketch of "Avenue Road, Mt Lofty" is in the Pictorial Australian in January 1889, page 4.

    "Settlers in the Hills" is in the Advertiser,
    24 February 1891, page 7b.

    "The Toilers of the Hills" is in the Register,
    23 January 1893, page 6f,
    6, 8, 14 and 25 February 1893, pages 6c, 6c, 6b, and 1a (supp.),
    4, 9, 18 and 25 March 1893, pages 1a (supp.), 6c, 1a (supp.) and 1a (supp.),
    1, 7 and 27 April 1893, pages 5e, 6e and 6b,
    6, 11 and 25 May 1893, pages 1a (supp.), 6d and 7a,
    3 and 17 June 1893, pages 5h and 5h,
    15 and 22 July 1893, pages 6b and 6c,
    3 and 5 August 1893, pages 6d and 5g.

    Bicycle races are reported in the Chronicle,
    17 November 1900, page 35b.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Cycling.

    "A Day in the Hills" is in the Register,
    17 March 1902, page 3b,
    19 January 1903, page 5b.

    The formation of a Gardeners' Association is reported in the Register,
    31 July 1896, page 3g; also see
    5 November 1896, page 10d and
    25 March 1898, page 7a,
    "Hills Gardeners and Their Troubles" on
    16 March 1898, page 6b,
    "Down From the Hills - Glimpse of the Market Gardener" appears on
    27 July 1914, page 9a.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Fruit and Vegetables.

    The opening of a new recreation ground is reported in the Register,
    4 January 1897, page 7d.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Queen Victoria Home for Convalescent Children is reported in the Register on
    12 July 1897, page 5h; also see
    4 and 6 November 1899, pages 8e and 2i,
    12 September 1905, page 5c.

    "A Trip Through the Hills" is in the Chronicle,
    18 February 1899, page 21e,
    "Gardening in the Hills", a description of Mr M.A. Jennings' property at Third Creek, is in the Chronicle,
    30 September 1899, page 15a.

    The reminiscences of James Bell, a bullock driver, are in the Weekly Herald, 15 April 1899, page 4a.

    "The Age of Mount Lofty" is in the Advertiser,
    14 October 1901, page 4c.

    "At the Summit of Mount Lofty" is in the Observer,
    29 March 1902, page 35b.
    A photograph is in the Chronicle,
    7 December 1912, page 32.

    "Beautifying the Hills" is in the Register,
    23 May 1903, page 10c:

    Photographs of the district are in The Critic,
    24 January 1903, pages 16-17,
    11 January 1905, page 25,
    6 September 1905, page 6.

    A photograph of a road is in the Chronicle,
    22 February 1908, page 30,
    "A Rocky Road - Dangers and Discomfort in the Hills" is in the Register,
    19 and 21 February 1920, pages 6g and 9g.

    "Making Mount Lofty Attractive" is in the Register,
    20 August 1908, page 6f.

    "Our Hills in Winter Garb" is in the Register,
    22 May 1909, page 11a,
    "Our Pleasure Resorts - Glimpses of the Hills Scenery" on
    7,14 and 21 October 1911, pages 8c, 8c and 8c,
    "A Walk in the Hills" on
    2 July 1912, page 5i.

    "On the Slopes of Mount Lofty" is in the Advertiser,
    17 January 1910, page 8d,
    "Foxes in the Hills" on
    28 January 1910, page 10b,
    "A Day on Mount Lofty" on
    3 December 1910, page 20d.

    "Early Days in the Hills" is in the Observer,
    30 November 1912, page 47a.

    "Save Our Hills - Hideous Defacements" is in The Mail,
    26 November 1921, page 2d; also see
    29 August 1925, page 1f.
    "Defacing Our Hills" is in The News,
    5 November 1923, page 2b.

    Biographical details of Mrs F.W. Stokes are in the Register,
    19 November 1925, page 10c.

    Biographical details of Miss Mabel Hardy are in the Register,
    12 October 1926, page 4d.

    "A Hills Pioneer", the reminiscences of Mr W.J. Cobbledick, is in the Register,
    26 October 1923, page 11f.

    The sale of Mr Cowan's Mt Lofty House is reported in the Register,
    28 May 1925, page 5c.

    Information on Elvet House is in the Register,
    10 December 1925, page 4e-f.

    "Picnic Prospectors - Search for Gold in Hills" is in The Mail,
    2 July 1927, page 10c.

    A photograph of wood carting is in the Chronicle,
    16 April 1931, page 36.

    A history of the Mount Lofty Golf Club is in the SA Golfer, May 1975.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Golf.

    Mount Lofty - Obituaries

    An obituary of Alfred Gore is in the Observer, 26 November 1892, page 30d,
    of William Gore on 10 June 1893, page 30b,
    of Henry A. Price on 31 August 1895, page 28b,
    of Mrs Frances Young on 25 August 1906, page 38c,
    of John Halliday on 16 August 1919, page 13d,
    of George Smith on 19 August 1922, page 20c.

    An obituary of Joseph Howard is in the Register, 30 March 1893, page 5b,
    of Charles Edlin on 8 January 1895, page 7e,
    of H.A. Price on 24 August 1895, page 5b.

    An obituary of William J.S. Stacy is in the Register, 11 December 1906, page 4h,
    of Mrs Sophia Spotswood on 6 June 1907, page 5a.

    An obituary of Henry Scott is in the Register, 17 December 1913, page 13a, Observer, 20 December 1913, page 41b,
    of John Halliday in the Register, 13 August 1919, page 6h,
    of George Smith on 12 August 1922, page 12d,
    of J.W. Bakewell on 4 April 1923, page 6g.

    An obituary of William Lowe is in the Register, 1 January 1926, page 6e,
    of Marmion M. Bray on 1 July 1927, page 8h,
    of A.V. Mitton on 31 January 1928, page 9e,
    of Mrs Emma Gandy on 8 May 1928, page 13h.

    See Place Names - Uraidla.

    An Essay on Mount Lofty and Its Summit

    The total maximum thickness is 265,000 feet and consequently if [the ranges] accumulated at the rate of one foot a century, as evidence seems to suggest, 26 million years must have elapsed during their formation...
    (Advertiser, 14 October 1901, page 14.)


    On 23 March 1802 the highest point of the range overlooking Adelaide received its name when Captain Matthew Flinders entered the following into the log of Endeavour:

    The next explorer was Captain Collet Barker who, in April 1831, sailed into St Vincent Gulf in the Isabella, attended by Dr Davies and Mr Kent, when his immediate object was to ascertain if there was any communication with Lake Alexandrina from the gulf. On 17 April he landed at the site of present-day Noarlunga having crossed the bar and rowed four miles in his boat up the River Onkaparinga; he camped that night at the head of the inlet where he found an abundant supply of food in the deep pools in the rocky glen at that point.

    On 18 April 1831, Captain Barker, accompanied by Mr Kent and a servant, proceeded along the ridge of the range towards Mount Lofty, camping for the night some distance from the summit. On the morning of 19 April they reached it and were surprised by the size of the trees on the brow of the mountain; one was measured and found to be 43 feet in girth. The present-day Mount Barker was for the first time recognised as being distinct from the Mount Lofty of Captain Matthew Flinders, with which mountain Captain Sturt, viewing it from the lakes, had confounded it.

    After settlement in 1836 it would appear that the first attempt to reach the summit was undertaken by a party led, ostensibly, by Mr Young B. Hutchinson in 1837:

    Two of his diary entries read:

    In an address read at an Adelaide meeting of the Australian Association for the Advancement of Science in 1893 Charles Hope Harris said, inter alia:

    For many years visitors to the summit must have felt the inconvenience on hot days of the want any shade in the immediate neighbourhood of the flagstaff. The desideratum was attended to in 1861 by the courtesy of Mr Arthur Hardy to whom most of the land surrounding the summit belonged. This gentleman erected a neat little rest-house with seats for the excursionists and it could be seen distinctly from Adelaide ?in clear weather by the aid of a good glass.?

    In 1868 Samuel Tomkinson said that 'some years ago? [in 1861/1865?] he had assisted by finding funds to erect a neat building on the summit:

    Finally, in 1882 the majority of the above contentions were confirmed when a citizen asserted that ?A cairn was erected many years ago, which has since been covered with a shed.?

    An Interesting Geographical Problem

    By 1861, it had long been doubted whether or not the precise geographical position of Yorke Peninsula as laid down in our maps and charts could be relied upon. To determine this the government completed a series of experiments that were carried out under the superintendence of the Surveyor-General. The locality selected from which to lay down the first compass bearings was the apex of Mount Lofty, the latitude and longitude of which had been ascertained with 'sufficient nicety for the purpose.?

    The distance of the mount from the nearest point of the peninsula was too great for observations to be taken in the ordinary manner but this difficulty was surmounted by burning Bengal lights at predetermined times upon the top of Mount Lofty in the expectation that they would be clearly visible from the peninsula. An account of their ascent to the summit makes for interesting reading:

    Precisely at nine pm Sergeant Harris fixed one of his Bengal lights upon the rocks that supported the flagstaff and applied a stick of burning wood to it. The sudden blaze of light had an extraordinary effect for every object upon the mountain top was visible in a moment as in broad daylight. The light continued to burn for two minutes and in accordance with instructions a further six lights were ignited at five minute intervals.

    Upon leaving the party decided not to ?risk their precious necks on the Greenhill Road? but took the Mount Barker Road and found, as expected, ?the farthest way round was the nearest road home.?

    The Dedication of a Flinders Monument

    In 1874 a citizen of Adelaide sowed the seeds that culminated in the erection of several monuments in honour of Captain Matthew Flinders:

    The wheels turned slowly until 1882 when the Editor of the Observer put forward his views for consideration by both the government and public at large:

    As said previously an obelisk was erected in 1885 without any public ceremony and it was not until 1902 that its proprietorship was proclaimed:

    This was done formally by the Governor, Lord Tennyson, on 23 March 1902, when he unveiled a tablet attached to the obelisk.

    Hail the Duke of Edinburgh

    Two meetings were held in the Imperial Chambers in December 1867 when there were present - Captain Bagot, John Morphett, Samuel Davenport, William Hanson, W.S. Douglas, Arthur Hardy, H.H. Turton and N. Oldham. The second meeting resolved ?That the Governor-in-Chief, Sir Dominick Daly, be respectfully informed of the formation of the committee and asked if he will consent to become the patron of ?The Prince Albert Monument Fund?.?

    To this proposal there was much opposition as evidenced by the remarks of interested citizens:

    The following grandiose suggestion in late 1867 for improvement to the summit was apparently the catalyst for the erection of the Prince Alfred Sailors? Home at Port Adelaide for the inaugural meeting of that body was held in late January 1868:

    A Heliostat Signal Station

    In 1880 Lieutenant A. Ringwood of the Battery of Artillery had made to his order and design by Mr Unbehaun of Halifax Street an instrument to which he gave the name of ?heliostat? for signalling by means of the sun and mirrors. A trial took place in the North Parklands on 4 August 1880. It was calculated that when placed on the summit of Mount Lofty it would be seen 90 miles away and it was expected to be of use in signalling shipping in the gulf.

    A Weather Observatory

    In late 1884, encouraged by ?tentative results of the past month?, Mr Clement Wragge, extended his plan of operations on Mount Lofty and established a substantially equipped meteorological observatory there on 1 October 1884, following which he carried out a series of experiments as a tentative measure and in connection with his Torrens Observatory. The barometer was on the Kew pattern and made at Mr Wragge's order by Adie & Wedderburn, of Edinburgh. The observatory was on a government reserve ?within a stone's throw of the summit.?

    Mr Wragge came to South Australia in 1883 from Great Britain where he had founded the Ben Nevis Observatory in Scotland. In South Australia he was instrumental in forming the Meteorological Society of Australasia on 14 May 1886. He was appointed Government Meteorolgist for Queensland and left the colony in December 1886.

    Register, 8 July 1837, p. 4, 24 July 1841, p. 3, 19 December 1861, p. 2, 29 November 1862, p. 2, 4 and 7 December 1867, pp. 2 and 2, 9, 15 and 22 January 1868, pp. 3, 3 and 2, 26 July 1871, p. 6, 7 August 1871, p. 7, 12 August 1872, p. 5c, 12 August 1872, p. 5, 27 July 1876, p. 5, 10 February 1877, p. 6, 5 August 1880, p. 5, 2 October 1884, p. 5, 4 November 1884, p. 5, 2 December 1884, p. 6, 9 December 1886, p. 6, 15 December 1900, p. 3,8 May 1924, p. 12, 24 and 26 December 1925, pp. 9 and 12, 27 January 1926, p. 15, Southern Australian, 10 October 1840, p. 2, 20 October 1840, p. 3, 15 January 1841, p. 2, 5 February 1841, p. 2 (supp.), Observer 16 February 1861, p. 4, 2 July 1864, p. 1 (supp.), 14 December 1867, p. 5, 11 January 1868, p. 14, 26 December 1874, p. 3, 4 September 1875, p. 9, 28 October 1876, p. 6, 25 April 1891, p. 28, 18 February 1893, p. 7, Chronicle, 25 March 1882, pp. 4 and 22, Advertiser, 10 August 1935, p. 9. The News, 12 December 1932, p. 4. Manning's Place Names of South Australia, p.185.

    Lobethal - Lofty, Mount