Place Names of South Australia - K
Kangaroo Head - Kensington
- Kanni West
- Karinya, Mount
- Katarapko, Hundred of
- Katinga Hill
- Kekwick, Hundred of
- Kelly Hill Caves
- Kelly, Hundred of
- Kenmore Park
- Kennion, Hundred of
- Kenny, Port
At the entrance to the American River on Kangaroo Island; it was named by Matthew Flinders on 23 March 1802.
A local cemetery is discussed in the Register,
22 February 1905, page 6e and
a cairn to commemorate Matthew Flinders on
15 August 1906, page 4d.
A visit to the little cemetery on the rise above Kangaroo Head was interesting. It is unknown... how long it has been in use as such... The first headstone noted was that erected in the memory of Mr T. Willson, aged 80, who was in his day justly termed "the Father of the island." He was the first resident magistrate there and from him many sought assistance and advice in business and other matters, which was never denied them...
Another stone marks the resting place of Mr Davis Weir Buick, aged 64, brother of the pioneer of American River.
A marble slab bears the inscription which speaks for itself:
In memory of George Bates. Born at Old St. Luke's, London, April 30 1800. Died at Adelaide. September 8, 1895. An old colonist and for 71 years a settler on Kangaroo Island, previous to which he served in HM Navy...
Derived from the Aboriginal kungna- tuko meaning 'different speech', which name they applied to the hill from which copper was obtained.
Horse races "on the Bremer Flat" are reported in the Register,
21 April 1849, page 2d; also see
30 December 1863, page 3c,
29 April 1865, page 3a.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Horse Racing.
A proposed district council is discussed in the Observer,
19 November 1853, page 3e.
Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Local Government.
"Kanmantoo South" is advertised in the Register,
30 October 1856, page 4d.
Its school opened as "Staughton" in 1853; listed as "Staughton, Kanmantoo" in 1858 and closed in 1953.
For information on its schools see Chronicle,
26 December 1863, page 3a,
1 March 1879, page 5b,
9 March 1912, page 41b.
- The first public examination of the scholars attending Mr Tilly's day school at Kanmantoo took place on Thursday... After the examination appropriate rewards, in the form of books, were distributed to the children who then went to a paddock in the rear of Mr Tilly's residence, where they were regaled with a plentiful supply of cakes, sweetmeats, etc. On the same evening Mr J. Ryder of Nairne, gave readings from the "Pickwick Papers" at the Miners Arms...
24 September 1864, page 2e,
26 August 1865, page 2g.
The opening of the Primitive Methodist Chapel is reported on
15 April 1865, page 1e (supp.).
The laying of the foundation stone for the Catholic Church is reported in the Register,
22 April 1858, page 3b and
of the Primitive Methodist Chapel on
14 November 1864, page 3d.
The opening of a Lutheran church is reported in the Register,
25 November 1864, page 3h.
"The Kanmantoo Mines" is in the Register,
23 January 1866, page 2h.
"Killed in a Mine" is in the Observer,
22 August 1874, page 6f.
The mines are described in the Chronicle,
22 April 1871, page 8g; also see
15 June 1881, page 5d.
Also see South Australia - Mining - Copper.
The district's first ploughing match is reported in the Chronicle,
15 September 1866, page 3a.
Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Ploughing Matches.
Information on a vineyard is in the Observer,
17 October 1868, page 12b; also see
17 November 1868, page 12a,
17 May 1893, page 7a,
3 March 1910, page 15c.
Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Viticulture.
A sketch of the bridge over the River Bremer is in the Pictorial Australian in
8 March 1879, page 24.
A cricket match, Kanmantoo versus Callington, is reported in the Register,
2 April 1874, page 6f.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Cricket - Miscellany.
The town and district are described in the Chronicle,
2 December 1876, page 8b,
7 March 1885, page 8b,
2 July 1892, page 9d,
29 June 1892, page 5g.
A sports day held on Mr Langcake's paddock is reported in the Chronicle,
11 January 1879, page 4d.
A proposed telegraph office and school are discussed in the Register,
1 March 1879, page 5b,
1 March 1879, page 4e.
Also see South Australia - Communications - Telegraphic.
Local floods are described in the Advertiser,
7 January 1895, page 3h.
Also see South Australia - Natural Disasters - Floods .
The reminiscences of John Simcock are in the Chronicle,
30 December 1899, page 42c and
of Ursula Miners in the Advertiser,
28 December 1926, page 8b - her obituary is in the Observer,
31 March 1928, page 49c.
An obituary of Gottlieb Kuchel is in the Register,
14 June 1902, page 7c,
21 June 1902, page 21b,
of Carl Leunig on 8 November 1902, page 37a,
of Peter Lewis on 27 July 1912, page 41a,
of James T. Critchley on 21 October 1926, page 8h. A photograph of an old thatched cottage is in the Observer,
8 February 1930, page 47.
"Artillery at Kanmantoo" is in The News,
25 February 1937, page 4e.
Aboriginal for 'frilled lizard'.
This school opened in 1922 and closed in 1938.
A sports day at Kanni West is reported in The News, 14 September 1927, page 4c.
- The annual sports day at Kanni West, near Waikerie, was a record. A silver cup was donated by Messrs G. Bartlett & Son and A. Stoeckel for the principal horse race... The winner, "Sighter", was ridden by Miss Castle who was accorded an ovation on returning to the scales. In the evening a dance was held... Mr H. Kroehn acted as master of ceremonies and music was supplied by Messrs Stott, J. Koch, P. Francis and A. Koch... The committee responsible for the arrangements comprised Messrs F. Hoad, J. Koch, I. Hoad, A. Koch, C. Wilksch, H. Kroehn, P. Farley and L.L. Schulz...(
KanowlaA pastoral property.
An obituary of a former lessee, J.B. Tothill, is in the Observer,
29 April 1922, page 19b.
According to Robert Bruce, who was overseer of the Arkaba run in 1858-59, the name is a corruption of the Aboriginal undenyaka - 'the place of stone'.
A report of Hugh Proby's death is in the Register,
22 September 1852, page 2e.
Mail communication is discussed in the Register,
1 July 1868, page 2f.
- A few weeks ago we mentioned the circumstance that a memorial had been signed praying for a mail to be sent along a large and important area of country in the North which at present is totally devoid of any convenience in receiving letters except such as the settlers themselves provide...
A cricket match, Kanyaka versus Flinders, is reported in the Register,
17 May 1875, page 7b; also see
3 June 1876, page 18f for a match against Pekina.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Cricket - Miscellany.
A proposed irrigation scheme is discussed in the Advertiser,
12 March 1898, page 6g,
14 and 29 April 1898, pages 4h and 3h,
30 April 1898, page 32b,
2 May 1903, page 35a.
Also see South Australia Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Irrigation.
"Distressed Farmers in the Hundred of Kanyaka" is in the Register,
8 November 1900, page 3h,
10 November 1900, page 31b.
We, the undersigned landholders in the district of Kanyaka... draw your attention to the distress prevailing on account of the repeated failure of the crops...
At a meeting at Gordon on November 3 the following resolutions were carried:
That in the opinion of the meeting the administration of the Land Act of 1898 is unsatisfactory for the country outside Goyder's line of rainfall.
That the rents in the Hundred of Kanyaka... should be reduced...
That interest and future payment of seed wheat account should not be charged and that repayments should be extended for a period of five years.
Mr W. Scott, of Moonlight, 20 miles from Quorn, one of the largest farmers in the district, said that the land was fit for pastoral purposes only... [it] was one of the driest spots in the colony...
5 January 1907, page 39a.
"Country Piggeries" is in the Chronicle,
5 October 1912, page 42d.
An obituary of John N. Williams is in the Register,
20 July 1922, page 6i.
Historical information is in the Register,
6 February 1926, page 9a.
Aboriginal for 'cool water'.
This school opened in 1939 and closed in 1945.
Karatta is Aboriginal, probably meaning 'a place where creeks meet'.
The discovery of gems on the station is reported in the Register, 19 January 1897, page 6d.
- Messrs Rosengarthen and Borrow, who have created a sensation at Kangaroo Island on account of a reported find of gems in the interior of the island, returned to Port Adelaide by the steamer James Comrie... The find has been made on the old Karatta station... A heavily timbered tract of country has to be passed through in order to reach the locality, but the old tracks are still in existence.
The Stunsailboom River flows through the property and the workings are in an ancient bed of the watercourse... The samples which have been brought away include, diamonds, rubies, topaz and sapphires...
Its school opened in 1955 and closed in 1973.
The name was taken from a local pastoral homestead which was rendered 'Culcultaby' by the original lessee, James Henry Hiern, in the 1860s (no. 1616). Aboriginal for 'yellow pipe clay water'.
Its school opened in 1926 and closed in 1943.
Formerly Mount Despond, it was renamed by an adjoining landholder, Colonel E.T. Dean; his homestead of the same name stands on section 819, Hundred of Moorooroo. The trig cairn on the Mount has a concrete plate built into the cairn with 'Mount Karinya - 1934' set in concrete. Aboriginal for 'place of rest'.
A public dinner for Colonel Dean is reported in the Register,
18 January 1856, page 3f -
in the course of a speech he traversed the days he had spent in South Australia.
The trials and tribulations of Colonel Dean when he `locked horns' with George Fife Angas and the Editor of the Register (the supposed watch-dog of `democracy' in the colony) during the turbulent times of elections for the first representative parliament in 1857 are to be found in the Register of that year -
26, 28 and 31 January, pages 2e, 3d-f and 2d,
28 February, page 2d,
16 April, page 2c,
8 and 9 May, pages 2c and 2b,
6 June, page 2d.
See Register, 5 March 1870, page 5d for many problems he encountered when he removed to New South Wales and elected as the member for the district of Hastings.
Aboriginal for 'sheaoak'.
Its school opened as "Hundred of Shannon' in 1909 and was changed to "Karkoo" in 1937.
The Karkulto Mine was 'situated between Kapunda and the Burra about 35 miles from the first-named township'.
The opening of a Bible Christian Chapel is reported in the Register, 27 October 1858, page 2h.
- The Bible Christian Chapel recently installed near the Karkulto Mine was opened for divine worship on Sunday ... What added greatly to the interest of the day was the presence of the Kooringa Bible Christian Choir who in melodious strains sang Jehovah's praise to the delight of all present...
see H.Y.L. Brown, Record of the Mines of South Australia, 1908, page 70 and South Australia - Mining - Coal.
Aboriginal for 'winter's camp'.
Its school opened in 1915; see Observer,
19 May 1928, page 14e.
Photographs are in the Chronicle,
5 September 1914, page 30,
of shifting the Bank of Adelaide to another position on
7 October 1922, page 28,
of the old and new council chambers on
2 July 1927, page 38,
of a Queen competition on
5 September 1935, page 43.
A photograph of the Karoonda Bore Progress Association's Committee is in the Observer,
2 November 1912, page 29,
of members of the district council on
29 July 1922, page 26.
An obituary of Charles Evans is in the Observer,
27 September 1924, page 38c.
"Farming in the Mallee" is in the Advertiser,
13 August 1931, page 7c.
Murray mallee farmers displayed intense interest in progressive cultural methods by providing a record attendance at a district Agricultural Bureau conference at Karoonda... Mr H. Sanders... was one of the first to settle in the district 20 years ago. He told me how he at first had to cart all his stuff from Sherlock railway station, 24 miles away. He could only do two trips in a week with a team of seven horses drawing a dray loaded with 35 cwt. of material. Since then he has succeeded in exhibiting the champion wheat (Caliph variety) at the Adelaide Royal Show... When the Veitch Experimental Farm was closed... Mr Sanders took over the soil culti-packing tests...
Aboriginal for 'low thick scrub'.
Its school opened in 1924 and closed in 1939.
Katarapko, Hundred of
In the County of Hamley, proclaimed on 6 April 1922, takes its name from a creek of the same name which was formerly known as 'Cragg's Creek' (corrupted from 'Craigie') - Margaret Craigie 'of the River Murray' took the transfer of part of pastoral lease no. 91 of 1851 from John Walker on 2 July 1853; her run was south-east of Lake Bonney (Riverland).
For a reference to "Craigie's Creek" see Register,
2 June 1883, page 6a and
"Cragg's Creek" on
14 May 1894, page 7d.
Katinga HillThis school on Eyre Peninsula opened in 1926 and closed in 1943.
Kawi-PadlaIn the Hundred of Parawurlie. Aboriginal for "dying water".
See D.L.& S.J. Hill, Notes on the Narannga Tribe of Yorke Peninsula.
KeiliraThis school opened in 1956 and closed in 1981.
Aboriginal for 'extended plain'.
A sale of allotments is reported in the Chronicle,
20 November 1875, page 18c.
Information on a new school in Keilli is in the Observer,
22 and 29 June 1878, pages 3c and 7e,
13 July 1878, page 14c,
31 August 1878, page 11b.
Education Department records show it opening in 1877 and closing in 1943.
About a year ago the Council of Education accepted a tender for the erection of a school at Keilli... Since then, their Inspector has reported in favour of another site which would be convenient to a much larger number of children and on Monday, June 17, in spite of remonstrances of several Keilli residents, the Council resolved to build on the new site which is on Section 519, Broughton Extension Area. (Observer, 22 June 1878, page 3.)
A meeting was held to consider the unjust steps the Council of Education have taken... Mr Bauldinstone was voted to the chair... Everyone present expressed great indignation... and it was clearly shown that Keilli was not only the Government township, which had been taken up by speculating men and others, with the view of making it a home for their families, but it was also demonstrated that there were quite three to one children that would benefit by the school being in the township... The meeting also censured the Council for being so easily led away from their former and proper decisions by about one individual.
3 April 1880, page 565e,
15 May 1880, page 25f.
An obituary of Mrs William Carman is in the Register,
22 May 1917, page 4f.
Land in the area (Hundred of Stirling) was first taken up in July 1851 when James Allen and Patrick Kelly settled near Mount Monster in terms of pastoral lease no. 224. The town was proclaimed on 5 September 1889, at which date the railway siding of 'Mount Monster' was renamed 'Keith' after Keith Stirling, the eldest son of Sir Lancelot Stirling.
Hundred of Keith - In the County of Kintore, proclaimed on 8 February 1894. Department of Lands records state that it was named after Keith Kingston, the adopted son of Charles C. Kingston who was Premier of South Australia from 1893 to 1899. It should be noted, however, that the Governor of the day, Algernon Hawkins Thomond, Earl of Kintore, had the alternative title of 'Lord Keith of Inverurie' - Keith Hall, Inverurie, Scotland was called after the Keith family
Its school opened as "Mount Monster" in 1889 and changed in 1907.
"Cultivating the Desert" is in the Register,
27 March 1914, page 5e.
Also see Place Names - Ninety-Mile Desert.
The laying of the foundation stone of a Methodist church is reported in the Observer,
20 November 1909, page 15a.
Photographs of the opening of the Methodist Church and its Trustees are in the Chronicle,
26 February 1910, page 29.
Photographs of the construction and opening of the Congregational Church are in the Chronicle,
14 May 1910, page 35,
3 September 1910, page 29,
7 May 1910, page 15a.
The town is described in the Chronicle,
4 March 1911, page 41d.
Photographs are in the Chronicle,
25 March 1911, page 31.
Keith is a very progressive town. The roads and footpaths are more conspicuous by their absence than their presence, but the disability imposed in this respect will be removed as time goes on... Most of the houses and public institutions are built in modern style and there are no ramshackle or makeshift tenements to provide adverse criticism...
The public buildings include two churches... The Bank of Adelaide have established a branch here... while business interests are also served by the Commercial Bank, who have an agency here worked from Bordertown. Recreation for young people is afforded by a men's club, started some months ago by Rev J. Cresswell.
The wants of travellers are catered for at a new hotel recently erected and managed by Mr and Mrs J.D. Barclay... Further conveniences are provided by a telephone service connected to Bordertown and a Savings Bank agency. Four wheat buyers find work at Keith during harvest time... A racing club is in the process of formation...
20 February 1915, page 28,
of an aeroplane crash on
28 August 1920, page 26,
of the unveiling of the war memorial on
4 December 1920, page 26. Also see South Australia - World War I - Memorials to the Fallen.
An obituary of William Fulwood is in the Register,
19 March 1919, page 6h,
of Mrs J.B. Makin in the Observer,
10 January 1925, page 38e,
of John W. Kennett in the Register,
2 August 1926, page 8g,
of Mrs Jane Newbould on 25 May 1928, page 11d.
"The Keith [Air] Crash" is in the Register,
25 and 27 August 1920, pages 7d and 7f.
Also see South Australia - Transport - Aeroplanes.
Kekwick, Hundred of
William Kekwick, second-in-command to John McD. Stuart in 1861-62.
Mr W.D. Kekwick's obituary is in the Observer,
19 October 1872, page 4g; also see
7 December 1872, page 13e under "Pioneers of the Northern Route" and
5 and 22 November 1872, pages 6c and 4e.
The reminiscences of his daughter, Mrs H.E. Wilson, are in the Register,
15 May 1923, page 6e.
A school of this name opened in 1928 and closed in 1942.
Kelly Hill Caves
On Kangaroo Island. About 1880, when Karatta sheep station was being run by Messrs Stockdale and Taylor (lease no. 830), an employee (Frederick John Bates) went out mustering. One man lost his horse named Ned Kelly, when the ground broke beneath them revealing the caves.
They are described in the Register,
14 April 1926, page 8g,
2 June 1926, pages 8f-12g,
20 December 1926, page 16c.
Also see Kangaroo Island.
Kelly, Hundred of
John Robert Kelly, MP (1890-1896). Born at Yankalilla in 1850 he was one of the original movers in the formation of the Yankalilla Mounted Rifle Company. 'The progressive land tax, inter-colonial free trade, protection, butter bonus, women's suffrage meet with his approval. He is opposed to land nationalisation, the single tax and elective ministers.'
Also see South Australia - Politics.
The first wheat exported from the Hundred is reported upon in the Advertiser,
7 March 1910, page 5f.
- An interesting event in the history of wheat production on Eyre Peninsula was marked today when 50 bags of wheat were brought in from the Hundred of Kelly, having been carted 50 miles over sand and rough roads from the farm of Mr E.J. Hoskett to Cowell. The owner of the wheat was proud of his effort and when arriving at Cowell had a flag flying from the waggon. The load was drawn most of the way by 22 bullocks... Mr Hoskett's property is about 20 miles from Carrapee. Good fresh water had been obtained there from trial holes...
1 August 1914, page 16c.
Its school opened in 1918 and closed in 1949.
A subdivision of part section 5210, Hundred of Kanmantoo, by John William Parsons, in 1881, who is believed to have named it after Reverend Kelynack, an itinerant preacher of his religious persuasion.
Biographical details of Rev W. Kelynack are in the Register,
16 March 1877, page 5c;
also see 23 March 1877, page 4g.
On 14 May 1881 at page 5c the Register reports on a lecture by the reverend gentleman "which could not fail to have a strong effect on the audience, for it was replete with ideas of genuine worth conveyed in the language of true earnestness"; also see
14 May 1881 (supp.), page 1b,
13 April 1883, page 5a.
The name was imported from Warwickshire, England and applied by Simon Harvey, timber merchant, shortly after he had purchased the land from Archibald Jaffrey in May 1877.
Information on the football club is in The News,
10 August 1923, page 10f.
- It was in the Kenilworth that they [Vic Richardson and Sid White] first commenced their football careers... The work of the club brings back many memories to old-timers of football. From 1915 until the end of the war it was kept going under the same name in the Patriotic Association, but their were only a few of the original members left. Thirty joined up for the war...
KenmareThe Advertiser of 28 October 1867, page 3g mentions this place near Freeling.
- A destructive fire occurred in this locality [at] Mr Long's shed, adjoining his premises. The younger ones belonging to the house left some of their matches in the place, but no more information could be elicited on the subject. Had it occurred on the arrival of His Royal Highness it would have excelled the grandest illumination in the colony...
A novel scene in the shape of a ploughing match took place on a section of Mr Robinson, close to the projected railway station. Up to 20 ploughs were seen on the ground... I hear that Mr Kruger of Freeling is going to build a wheat store here...
Kenmore ParkThis Aboriginal School 36 km from Ernaballa was opened in 1981.
Kennion, Hundred of
The second Bishop of Adelaide, Reverend G.W. Kennion.
Biographical details of Bishop Kennion are in the Register,
15 August 1882, page 6a,
18 November 1882, page 18c,
17 February 1883, page 33b; also see
22 February 1888, page 4f,
"Bishop Kennion on Social Problems" is in the Register,
7 May 1890, page 4d,
"Bishop Kennion's Pastoral Address" on
24 and 25 April 1894, pages 4g and 4h.
His obituary appears in the Register,
22, 23 and 24 May 1922, pages 7d, 3b and 6f.
also see Observer,
2 May 1925, page 62d.
Kenny, Port(See under Place Names - Colton for further information on Michael Kenny.)
In Venus Bay. Michael Kenny, an early landholder in the Hundred of Colton.
The district is described in the Observer,
15 September 1906, page 44a,
4 September 1906, page 7a,
9 February 1911, page 6e.
- Fourteen miles from Talia we pulled up at Kenny's landing. It is the shipping centre of a great stretch of fertile country, and yet the facilities for getting the grain to market are absurdly primitive. This would not be objectionable if the producers had not to pay for it. I was inforned that the loss on every bushel of wheat was something like 6 or 7 pence. There was a stack of about 10,000 bags at the landing when we were there and pitiable evidence of exposure was manifested. The outside sacks had become bleached and worn by the sun and the grain had come out in miniature heaps.
The sequel of this was that two men were making a living at mending and somebody had to foot the bill.... The stack had been there for three or four months and it was obviously a slow process carting the bags out 100 yards or so to meet the cargo boats of the paddle steamer... An expenditure of a few hundred pounds would provide a light jetty... The swirl of the tide and lack of consistently deep water probably militate against a larger scheme... There is no encouragement for the farmers to sow more grain while the absence of reasonable shipping facilities takes 6 pence odd off every bushel they reap...
14 August 1909, page 31; also see
4 February 1911, page 28.
The name is written as Chenesitune in the Domesday Book and probably means 'town of Censige'; other sources say it derives from the Saxon kynsington - 'king's meadow'.
The Foundation of Kensington
(Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning A Colonial Experience)
It must be confessed at the outset that, for the most part, Kensington has not of late years been given to sudden changes. It has an air of tranquillity, arising from the presence of old homes and old gardens. If restless critics object to a lack of a 'go-ahead spirit', the obvious reply is that the district started its career early in the history of South Australia and, accordingly, has a right to rest content while latecomers catch up. Started as a residential district, Kensington has remained so - a place interesting on the human side, rather than that of trade and hustle. It may even be counted 'EarlyVictorian' for the Queen, from whose birthplace it took its name, had not been long on the throne when it was laid out. It was only in May 1838 that the first ballot for land by holders of preliminary land orders was held and, within six months, the history of Kensington began. It was not the earliest suburb for others preceded it. Thus, at the outset, Kensington was a 'bush village' in heavily timbered country, which had, since time immemorial, been a hunting ground for the Aborigines.
The Beginnings of Kensington
Among the pioneering emigrants of 1836 was a 25-year old man named Charles Catchlove, who sailed in the Tam O'Shanter on 20 July 1836, arriving at Port Adelaide on 26 November, after which he ventured into the building trade. He is remembered as the founder of the village of Kensington.
The village was laid out in 1838 into 114 allotments, each of one acre and, on 20 October 1838, the following notice appeared in the SA Gazette & Colonial Register:
To the Working Classes and Small Capitalists
To those who wish for a comfortable retreat within a short distance from their employment, the following offers a desirable opportunity.
Country Section 289 within a mile from East Terrace on the east side of Hallet's Rivulet [now Second Creek], through which water runs the greatest part of the year, will be immediately surveyed and divided into 114 allotments of one acre each. leaving 20 acres to be divided into streets.
These acres will be sold at £12 each, including the expense of survey and deeds, to be paid for at one pound a week or a discount for prompt payment. The 20 acres of streets will be vested in trustees to be named by the purchasers, of whom a meeting will be called when the list is full.
Applications for shares to be made to Mr V. Smith, solicitor, North Terrace, Adelaide. NB. Tenders for surveying the above section will be received till Saturday, 3 November, at 11 o'clock am.
For the Wealthy and Industrious
Kensington. The proprietors of a large portion of this beautiful village have instructed Benham and Co. to sell its lots to suit purchasers. The peculiar advantages of this spot for a suburban residence or market garden render it at once an object to the wealthy and Industrious. A beautiful brook affords the gardener the great requisite to render rich loam capable of growing all fruit and vegetables. The view of Stringy Bark Road cannot but gladden the eye of the lover of scenic beauty. A natural dawn of luxurious grass adds value to the property and gives a happy relief to the eye, wearied of gazing on the stupendous gum trees with which the property abounds...
The present site of the village was, at that time, a tract of land densely timbered with eucalypts, and in the spring fragrant with the golden wattle, gay with wild flowers and harmonious with the song of native birds - it was not until 1838 that any great part of the forest was surveyed.
In 1838 the land now occupied by the eastern suburbs consisted of what were termed 'Sections' and the only road leading from Adelaide was that called the 'Britannia' running from Kensington and then skirting Dr Kent's section (now Kent Town) on the south-west, and that leading from Payneham fringing it on the north-west. The footpath through it, from what is now 'The Parade', Norwood, was the occasion of a considerable amount of frustration, especially during the winter months when the creek running at the back of where Prince Alfred's College stands proved difficult to negotiate, especially when flooded.
In the early days of settlement the colonists seemed to have a preference to make towards the foothills when seeking land on which to build their homes and, in doing so, they traversed rich forests of eucalypts and golden wattle for about three miles before they reached what is now known as Kensington.
The two irresponsible watercourses, which had much to do with the lay-out and subsequent of Kensington, start up in 'The Tiers' as they were called in colonial days:
The tiers are inhabited by a number of lawless and broken men, mostly runaways from the other colonies or from ships,who make a large sum of money by sawing and splitting wood... But, unfortunately, for themselves they spend it as fast as they receive. It seems Crafers is making £1,000 a year out of them and by traffic in mountain timber. He sells to them and he pays in rum. The best man, in Crafers's opinion, is he who drinks most...
First Creek enters Kensington through West Marryatville, passing through what used to be Sir Edwin Smith's grounds, and flows through East and West Norwood. It was once spanned by 21 bridges on its way through the municipality. Second Creek (or 'Hallett's Rivulet') flows through the eastern part of Marryatville, makes a diagonal cut through Kensington and enters Norwood at Kensington Terrace.
It was bridged in twenty places between Ringmore Road in Marryatville and Magill Road, Norwood - reason enough to set High Street running slant-wise and to make Bridge Street, where a wooden bridge was erected by public subscription in the early days of Kensington, the pioneer street.
It is impossible to dwell on all the associations of Kensington, but High Street deserves a mention. At the eastern end stands a pleasant old home in a garden. It was built by Mr Shipster in the 1840s and after his death was the residence of Colonel A.H. Freeling, the Surveyor-General. Opposite stood a two-storey house, 'Rosehurst', the home of the Honourable Lavington Glyde. Many years later it was cut down to one storey and turned into a bungalow, while the triangular garden in which it stood was subdivided, but two magnificent carob trees were left standing.
Other names associated with this street were Justice Wearing, who was drowned in the wreck of the Gothenburg, and Judge Gwynne, who lived at the corner of High Street and Chapel Street, Dr Thomas Taylor, a pioneer in preventive 'health politics' and the first Mayor elected by the ratepayers instead of by council.
Dr John Benson came to Kensington in the 1860s and was truly 'a beloved physician', his memory being perpetuated in a drinking fountain at the western end of High Street. Other well-known names in High Street were those of Mr Dalton, the chemist and Mr Howett, a baker.
The Aborigines at Kensington
(Taken from Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience)The greatest injury that the settlers of Kensington and the surrounding district had to fear from the Aborigines was one they inflicted unintentionally. As is well known, they lived largely on kangaroo and snakes and to force the animals into places where they could easily be caught, and to compel snakes to leave their underground abodes, they set fire to the summer grass for miles around.
New settlers coming up the gulf often received this fiery welcome. The whole hills seemed to be ablaze and great clouds of smoke enveloped the plain and, while the intentions of the perpetrators was peaceful enough, the results achieved were alarming to the white inhabitants one of whom declared that 'Adelaide is all but ambushed with flames.'
Another dangerous habit of the Aborigines related to opossum hunting when they would set fire to huge trees in order to drive the marsupials out of hollow limbs. In the early days the site of Kensington many trees with hollows burned in them large enough to shelter about ten persons.
Occasionally the Aborigines would put on a special show for the newly-arrived settlers in a specialised form of possum catching as described by a Kensington villager: Two men examined several tree limbs for the presence of hollows and the bark for tell-tale tracks and, having chosen one for examination, the younger Aborigine threw off a piece of rug he had tied around his loins (the whole of his wardrobe), then took a stick, commonly called a cutter, about two feet long and an inch thick which had been hardened in a fire. This was flattened on one side and tapered to a point. With it he cut out a piece of bark about three inches square - This was to be the first step about three feet from the ground.
The succeeding steps were all cut in the same manner, the native always standing on the highest step to cut the next. In climbing the natives used the outside of the left foot and the inside of the right so that he went up sideways, steadying himself with his right hand. The possum retired to the extreme end of a hollow broken limb and, in pulling it out, the hunter lost his cutter which fell to the base of the tree. Undaunted, he grasped the bitterly resentful possum and placed it on the bark.
The animal dug its claws in and pulled upwards so the native jerked it loose and set it down again at a lower level where the foolish possum held on tight with all its claws while its captor lowered himself to a lower step. Eventually the Aborigine reached the ground safely where he retrieved his cutter an dispatched his captive.
Many of their habits were disgusting to the settlers minds. Their food bags were described as containing 'such a heterogenous mass of biscuit, meat, pudding, etc., mixed with a piece of gum and such a variety of what we call filth, that I think a European stomach must be reduced to a considerable degree of hunger before it could relish and part of it.' Their cooking methods were something of a shock to Kensingtonians for they lived mainly on native fauna which were cooked on bare coals without skinning or cleaning; birds were merely plucked before cooking.
At times articles of clothing, not always of a suitable nature, were distributed among the local Aborigines, following which the female of the species could be seen strutting by in flounced dresses and crinolines, barefooted and bareheaded except for their shaggy hair. In a camping ground along Second Creek, lithe and naked Aborigines lounged by their wurleys or hurled their spears for hunting practice. Occasionally, another tribe from further afield would pay a visit culminating in games in the form of friendly contests. At nights, fires glowed between the trees and the weird cry of corroboree would ring through the woodlands.
The men, decked with emu feathers and kangaroo bones, ornamented themselves with alternate stripes of chalk and red ochre and danced around the camp fires throwing themselves into well-nigh impossible attitudes and uttering an accompaniment of dreadful yells and screams.
Today, the great gums that still tower here and there above the plains have forgotten the sound of corroborees. But civilisation has compensated for the loss by providing a variety of other sounds, equally discordant and infinitely less picturesque.
By 1844 native game was becoming scarce in the district and, early in January of that year, a dozen or so Aborigines made off with twenty sheep belonging to Mr Harris, a butcher. All but one were recovered while the thieves were never apprehended.
By 1864 concern was being expressed at the inattention of both the Inspector of Aborigines and the Aborigines' Friends' Association to the degraded state of the Aborigines. This followed a complaint that they were to be found drinking, card playing and quarrelling among themselves in the eastern suburbs.
One blackfellow was seen to create an uproar by knocking down his wife and kicking her in the street, while others disturbed the neighbourhood by disputing and swearing in English just as people were leaving church. Further, concern was expressed of the owners of Norwood brickyards who encouraged the Aborigines to stop there every winter.
A history of the village and district appears in the Register,
22 July 1911, page 8a,
15 May 1919, page 4f,
16 and 23 April 1923, pages 8a and 8,
22 May 1923, page 4f,
28 April 1923, page 14,
5 and 19 May 1923, pages 50b and 28 (photos).
The district is described in the Register,
14 May 1879, page 5,
"Early Kensington" on
29 April 1920, page 5d.
Information on the Kensington Bridge is in the Register,
8 July 1857, page 2g,
26 March 1858, page 3h:
Sir, I presume that you are cognisant of the geographical circumstances that when Norwood ends and Kensington begins there is a creek. I assume, also, that you know this creek used to be crossed by a bridge, and that over that bridge persons comprising as well pedestrians, equestrians and the 'respectable' class who use gigs, were wont to pass in great numbers. My only remaining postulate is that you admit that Kensington and Norwood are governed by a corporation, comprising a Mayor, Aldermen and Councillors.
The grievance of which I and my neighbours complain is that this same corporation have closed our bridge and cut off one direct line of access to the metropolis. Is this, Sir, correct? Is it in accordance with law that our right of way 'over, along and across' this creek should be stopped? Is it friendly in our civic rulers?
Sir, our bridge exists no longer. It is become a matter of history and by reason of regret at its loss it may now be truly designated a 'Bridge of Sighs.'
Our municipal magnates, it seems, before the winter began, determined to undertake the gigantic scheme of changing the course of our creek. A work of so stupendous of necessity demanded many hands and, accordingly, a numerous band was employed upon it. The old creek was dammed up and a new creek made.
But when the new creek was completed it was found that it did not accord with the old bridge; accordingly, the wooden fabric had to be removed from its foundations and was sold. We have, therefore, lost our old bridge, but unfortunately we have not got one yet to supply its place. It is true that one has been commenced and has longed remained in that critical state, which happened to Mahomet's coffin.
It is of the kind known in Ireland as a 'rubble bridge'. Now, Sir, it is my misfortune, not having been in Ireland, to have an eye not familiarised with rubble bridges and, therefore, to me the new fabric is very far from pleasing. This, however, is comparatively of small moment - beauty is agreeable, but utility is more important.
So that the bridge answered its purpose I should not feel disposed to be fastidious as to its appearance. But it does not. There is, and has long been, a complete stoppage in transitu at this place. The suburban bus evades the spot and compels stout gentlemen living on the other side to plough his way across in order to attain his seat in the vehicle. Carts and carriages are arrested. Even horsemen are compelled pull up at the board which states that 'Dry rubbish may be shot here' and retire.
The enterprising pedestrian who has accomplished the overland route, having relieved himself of his mud and mire, looks down and marvels at his feat (I intend no pun). Each labourer has acquitted the uninviting spot and nothing now remains but muck and mire. Can these things be permitted in the model township of Kensington and Norwood? Surely not. Sir, a touch of your caustic pen will set all to rights I am certain and compel the making of a serviceable thoroughfare...
The Aldermen and Council of the Corporation of Kensington and Norwood have been so frequently pointed at as the pattern for district emulation, seem to have lulled into a somniferous lethargy, the reason for which can scarcely be accounted for, unless it be that the high temperature which has existed for this long time past has affected its members with an unusual degree of lymphatic dullness.
There was a time when the public safety and the public were the paramount considerations; but alas! any person who will take a glance at the various bridges of the district and the approaches will perceive the falling off of the attention, which was once paid to the convenience and welfare of the inhabitants.
In particular, I allude to the bridge at Kensington near the Rising Sun, which was erected by public subscription at a very heavy cost. It is in so neglected and dangerous a condition that it is a matter of surprise that accidents have not taken place, the parapet wall having been so nearly demolished that foot-passengers on a dark night must use the utmost caution to avoid falling into the bed of the creek.
And, again, the bridge in Pirie Street, Kent Town, erected under similar circumstances, has immense chasms on each side, down which, during the recent rains, the water rushes with fearful velocity; and lucky the pedestrian following the course of the footpath after nightfall who should be fortunate enough to escape a good ducking.
These and other minor matters lead me to believe - indeed, I have heard it expressed by many - that the retirement of former members of the Corporation had made room for inferior and less energetic blood; and now that so able and active a gentleman as the late Mayor, Mr Bonney, has taken his final farewell, the material will altogether degenerate and instead of just laudation, which the Corporation has hitherto received, the reverse will in future be the merited portion.
31 July 1926, page 47c.
Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Viticulture.
A meeting of the Kensington Volunteers is reported in the Register,
2 August 1855, page 2h.
Also see South Australia - Defence of the Colony.
An art exhibition is reported upon in the Register,
4 January 1859, page 3d,
8 January 1859, page 4d.
- The art exhibition in connection with the East Torrens Institute opened to the public on 3 January 1859. Among the oil paintings the gem of the room appeared to us to be ?Hide and Seek? forwarded by Mr Scott Young, the subject being that of a lady playing with two lovely children in the midst of sylvan scenery. A painting of the Marion steamer passing the Lightship shows its author to have a great skill as a marine artist. We must not omit several scenes by Schram and the Glen Stuart waterfall by Roberts. Other contributors were Mr J.T. Bagot and Miss E. Hall of Kensington...
A report of a native corroboree is in the Register,
8 October 1860, page 3h.
Funerals of the late Messrs George Grosse and William Hughes are reported in the Register,
15 and 22 June 1863, pages 2f and 2h.
Information on local "obnoxious trades" is in the Advertiser,
22 and 24 May 1865, pages 2f and 2f,
29 April 1865, page 2b,
20 May 1865, page 2b,
1 June 1865, page 2e.
- We have reported at very great length the case of Bray & McCarty, the Kensington soap and candle makers, believing it to be one of great importance involving considerations affecting the rights of property, the freedom of trade and the conservation of public health and convenience... Two soap and candle factories have now been suppressed by the strong arm of the law and it is difficult to say where the process will stop.
Our legal experience the doctrine discloses,
That tho? hearts may be hard there's some sensitive noses
Ever chasing like beagles, each wandering smell,
And sniffing, with gluttony shocking to tell -
While yet they bewail that they?re hunted so well;
But so vague and indefinite, is each complaint,
That doctors e'en differ in gauging the taint,
For some cannot feel what would make others faint.
Now a meeting of noses, having held consultation,
Present their report to ?assist legislation?,
And without one dissentient resolve ?with a snort?,
That this vapoury grievance requires cutting short;
Thus to foster and shield all legitimate labors,
From conspirate snouts and fastidious neighbours,
While health is considered - there should be, they think,
Some legal definitive standard of stink.
So to further and aid this desirable end
A notice to all knowing noses they send,
That a prize they propose for a public 'stinkometer?
Which can gauge every gas, and tell what effects from it are
From the scent of a rose to the range of the ?vomiter?.
29 January 1870, page 6f.
Also see Adelaide - Factories and Mills.
"Public Stenches" were of some concern in 1871 and:
At this... place it was my lot to live near an establishment which, though ostensibly for the manufactory of candles was, in fact, a breeding ground for very disgusting forms of animal life.
(See Register, 20 July 1871, page 5e.)
- [In Grenfell Street] I constantly inhaled the rich essences emitted by a soap and candle factory on one side and a tannery on the other. Thence I removed to Kensington. At this place it was my lot to live near an establishment which, though ostensibly for the manufactory of candles was, in fact, a breeding ground for very disgusting forms of animal life. This, however, is a thing of the past, the strong arm of the law having interposed to put down what to many seemed an intolerable nuisance. At the trial I heard the most abstruse points of stink analysis learnedly debated by masters in the art. There I got to understand the sublime mystery of acroline as a stink generator. From Kensington I removed to Parkside... where at the rear of my house were paddocks spread profusely with a compound [which] was neither pleasant to look upon nor agreeable to smell... Thus I have found that there are stenches which will subdue the strongest stomachs...
15 December 1873, page 3f.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Pigeon Racing and Shooting.
A report on its water supply is in Parliamentary Paper 46/1875,
24 January 1880, page 5f,
24 and 30 January 1880, pages 3a and 3c.
Also see Adelaide - Water Supply.
The laying of the foundation stone of Saint Joseph's Convent is reported in The Irish Harp,
10 September 1875, page 5a,
11 September 1875, page 11b.
Photographs of the laying of the foundation stone of the Josephite Convent are in the Chronicle,
18 November 1905, page 27,
30 June 1906, page 28.
A trial of Mr W. Bowman's "Improved Winnowing and Stripping Machine" is reported in the Register,
20 January 1876, page 5e; also see
28 January 1876, page 5b.
Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Farming - Farm Implements.
Information on a fountain is in the Express,
29 November 1877, page 3f.
The unveiling of the Benson Memorial Fountain is reported in the Register,
16 July 1879, page 4c.
.The district is described in the Register,
14 May 1879, page 5e.
Also see Norwood.
"Drowned in a Waterhole" is in the Register,
15 November 1881, page 4g.
"New conservatories and rockeries" are described in the Register,
24 October 1882, page 1g (supp.).
An outbreak of diphtheria is reported in the Register of 5 May 1883 (supp.), page 1g:
[It] was caused by stagnant, impure water at the back of the house... As there were no means at their disposal of carrying it away the family removed to Glenelg where they remain in good health.
3 and 18 July 1883, pages 6a and 7g.
Also see South Australia - Health - Fevers - Typhooid.
A sports day is reported in the Chronicle,
25 October 1884, page 15b.
A fire at David Packham's residence is reported in the Register,
3 and 19 March 1884, pages 6e and 5a.
His obituary is in the Register,
5 April 1912, page 4i.
A Catholic picnic is reported in the Register,
15 April 1884, page 4e,
19 April 1884, page 36b.
An Aboriginal corroboree is reported in the Observer,
6 June 1885, page 30b.
"Estate of John Oake" is in the Register,
17 June 1885, page 7e.
A stone breaking competition is reported in the Express, 15 March 1886, page 2c.
- A stone breaking competition for prizes given by Mr G.W. Spong took place in a paddock ay Kensington... There was a good attendance of spectators, but the entries for the contest were not large owing to many of the intending competitors having neglected to bring their tools with them. The only condition of the match was that the metal should be of 2? gauge and two hours of work was to decide the contest. The first prize of £2 was won by Mr J. Wickham who broke 1? yards in the time, and the second of £1 by Mr J. Ainsworth of Parkside...
17 June 1886, page 7b,
29 May 1886, page 39b,
19 June 1886, page 34c.
"Kensington Health" is in the Register,
17 May 1890, page 7h.
- It is now between five and six weeks since my dustbox has been emptied and I understand many of my neighbours are in the same condition. This to me seems to be extraordinary considering there has been more than one case of typhoid fever in the immediate neighbourhood... If we are to be taxed to pay a scavenger why not make him do his duty... There are several filthy drains allowed to run unheeded although I understand it is against the law... Scavenging matters seem to be left to a kind of Providence in this quarter...
11 November 1893, page 7f.
A fatal accident involving J. Maxted, "the South Australian Blondin", is reported in the Register,
15 and 16 January 1895, pages 5b and 3e.
The silver wedding of Mr & Mrs Edward Dewhirst is reported in the Register,
20 December 1899, page 7c,
the golden wedding of Mr & Mrs Samuel Davie on 15 May 1902, page 5a.
Biographical details of Mrs Emma Bodger are in the Register,
9 April 1900, page 4i.
"The Kensington Murder Case" is in the Observer,
7 December 1901, page 30d.
Also see South Australia - Crime, Law and Punishment - Murders.
The golden wedding of Mr & Mrs Samuel Davie is in the Observer,
17 May 1902, page 22a,
of Mr & Mrs W.H. Harry on 20 June 1903, page 21c,
of Mr & Mrs J.H. Kaines on 25 July 1903, page 24a -
his obituary appears on 1 August 1903, page 34a.
"How the Poor Live" in the town is told in the Register,
22 January 1903, page 4e.
- Some hard cases were seen... At the top end of Kensington, old houses, on what was known as the ?devil's half acre? were inspected. The rent in one instance was one shilling a week; for another three shillings were paid. This was contributed to by an old man aged 82 who managed to earn it by making skewers for butchers for which he received one shilling per hundred. He said he earned just enough to pay the rent and would not be able to subsist but for the rations he received from charitable bodies... These and other cases of hardship drew from councillors the suggestion that steps should be taken for the building of tenements for the indegenous poor.
16 September 1905, page 48d.
"Baby Bitten By a Rat" is in the Register,
13 June 1907, page 4e.
"Perth Cottage Trust" is in the Register,
9 November 1910, page 5c.
Also see Adelaide - Housing, Architecture and Ancillary Matters - Cottage Homes.
The diamond wedding of Rev & Mrs C.H. Goldsmith is reported in the Register,
29 March 1911, page 6g.
Biographical details of Alfred Taylor are in the Register,
3 May 1911, page 7a,
of W. Henry Charlton on 23 September 1911, page 12i,
of Henry Pound on 4 October 1911, page 6g.
"The Kensington Sensation" is in the Express,
3 and 4 June 1914, pages 2f and 4g.
Biographical details of William Pritchard are in the Register,
12 April 1916, page 6h, Observer, 15 April 1916, page 28a.
Biographical details of Mrs Mary A.A. Edmeades are in the Register,
20 January 1917, page 8i,
Observer, 27 January 1917, page 30b,
of Thomas Pitman in the Register,
30 January 1922, page 7d.
A patriotic carnival is reported in the Register,
30 April 1917, page 5b.
The reminiscences of Harry Perry are in the Register,
23 April 1923, page 8f.
Photographs of the district are in the Observer,
19 May 1923, page 28,
of the opening of Kings College on
9 February 1924, page 31,
of tennis matches on
8 January 1927, page 32,
of a King's College sports day on
8 May 1930, page 32,
of a college football team on
10 July 1930, page 34.
"A Sumptuous Home [Wyke]" is in the Register,
30 April 1925, page 5c.
- Wyke, the charming home beautifully situated on the Geroge Street corner of Kensington Road, overlooking from its upper balconnettes the red-tiled roofs and well-wooded gardens of Toorak was designed by Mr G,K, Soward to the order of the late Mr Colin Stone... Owing to the fact that all members of the family are now married and living away from home the house has become too large and somewaht lonely for the present owner, It is now divided into two palatial homes... Apart from its possibilties as a private home or doctor's residence, Wyke would be most suitacble as a high class hospital..The home is for private sale...
29 December 1926, page 11d.
Biographical details of J.A. Haslam, headmaster of King's College, are in the Observer,
5 May 1928, page 68d,
of Mrs Mercy Thomas on 11 August 1928, page 32b.
Kensington - Schools and Churches
The laying of the foundation stone for the Independent Chapel appears in the Register,
7 September 1844, page 3a; also see
14 and 27 December 1844, pages 3a and 3a;
that of St Matthew's Church is reported on
24 May 1848, page 3a.
"An Interesting Landmark" is in the Register,
25 September 1909, page 12g; also see
8 and 9 November 1912, pages 6f and 14h.
A history of Saint Matthew's Church is in the Register,
17 November 1923, page 6.
The opening of a new Congregational Church is reported in the Register,
9 August 1854, page 2e; also see
1 July 1882, page 8f.
"The Old Village Church of Kensington" is in the Observer,
20 June 1891, page 42b; also see
18 July 1891, page 30d.
A poem is in The Examiner,
16 April 1853.
"Religion in Kensington, South Australia" is the subject of a letter from John Roberts in the South Australian,
31 October 1850, page 4b.
A school anniversary is reported in the Register,
23 October 1855, page 3h.
Examinations at Mr & Mrs Baigent's school are reported in the Register,
22 December 1855, page 2f.
Information on Maesbury House School is in the Register,
24 December 1857, page 2h,
26 December 1857, page 3e.
Information on the Commercial Academy is in the Register,
24 June 1856, page 2e,
20 December 1856, page 3e.
Examinations at Rev Drane's school are reported in the Advertiser,
27 August 1859, page 3a.
The laying of the foundation stone of the Primitive Methodist Chapel at North Kensington is reported in the Register,
25 July 1865, page 3a,
29 July 1865, page 5f.
The laying of the foundation stone of Saint Joseph's Convent is reported in The Irish Harp,
10 September 1875, page 5a,
11 September 1875, page 11b.
Photographs of the laying of the foundation stone of the Josephite Convent are in the Chronicle,
18 November 1905, page 27,
27 June 1906, page 11,
30 June 1906, page 28.
Examinations at the Kensington Seminary are reported in the Observer,
30 December 1893, page 10e.
Information on the Misses Muller's Seminary and Kindergarten is in the Express,
1 April 1896, page 4c,
17 April 1897, page 4e.
Information on the Hope Lodge Missionary Training Home is in the Register,
27 November 1908, page 7f.
"Memories of Bishop's Court" is in the Register,
4 February 1911, page 12h.
Kensington - Sport
(Also see Adelaide - TransportKensington Park.)
A cricket match against St Peter's College is reported in the Observer,
1 April 1854, page 7e.
The formation of a cricket club is discussed in the Chronicle,
16 November 1861, page 4b (supp.).
An annual meeting of the cricket club is reported in the Observer,
20 September 1873, page 7f,
23 August 1876, page 2e.
A refusal of the local cricket team to play on the Adelaide Oval is reported in the Register,
5 March 1874, page 7b; also see
28 November 1876, page 2g,
19 April 1898, page 4d.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Cricket - Miscellany.
The cricket club's 1875 dinner is reported on
26 June, page 5c; also see
10 June 1876, page 5b,
6 June 1878, page 2f (supp.),
24 and 31 August 1880, pages 5c and 5b,
29 January 1881, page 190c.
"The Kensingtons in the South-East" is in the Register,
18 April 1882, page 7a.
A cricket match at Angaston is reported in The Lantern,
22 April 1876, page 10a.
"The Inter-Colonial Cricket Match" is in the Register,
6, 10, 14 and 15 November 1883, pages 6a, 6c, 6g and 5c.
"The First Cricket Match, 1881" is in the Register,
12 October 1923, page 4e.
A meeting of the Kensington and Norwood Cricketing Association is reported in the Observer,
6 October 1883, page 18d.
A photograph of a Kensington Oval cricket team is in The Critic,
15 August 1923, page 18,
of a Kensington team on
21 October 1923, page 18.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Cricket - Miscellany.
A meeting of the football and athletic club is reported in the Express,
11 April 1872, page 2e; also see
12 July 1872, page 2d,
5 August 1872, page 2d,
26 April 1873, page 2d.
A proposal to amalgamate the cricket, football and athletic clubs is discussed in the Observer,
5 July 1873, page 8b; also see
17 June 1876, page 5c,
11 September 1891, page 4c.
Also see under South Australia - Sport - Football.
Reminiscences of football in the 1870s are in the Register,
25 March 1909, page 4g.
Also see under South Australia - Sport - Football.
"The Melbourne Footballers at Kensington" is in the Register,
16 August 1884, page 5b.
A photograph of footballers of the 1870s and
the club's history is traversed in the Observer,
3 April 1909, page 29.
Information on local football is in the Express,
18 August 1871, page 2d,
26 August 1871, page 7e,
2 and 9 September 1871, pages 7d and 7f,
13 April 1872, page 8c,
20 July 1872, page 8b,
26 July 1873, page 9c,
9 August 1873, page 5f,
6 May 1873, page 6f,
16 June 1873, page 5d,
1 and 16 September 1873, pages 2d and 3f; also see
2 May 1874, page 7f,
24 June 1874, page 2e,
23 August 1875, page 2d.
Also see Register,
7 August 1874, page 6f,
13 and 27 May 1876, pages 6g and 6a,
22 August 1876, page 2g,
9 October 1876, page 3b,
12 May 1877, page 2e,
2 and 9 June 1877, pages 2d and 2f,
16 June 1877, page 2f (supp.),
16 April 1881, page 682e,
4 June 1881, page 975d,
29 April 1882, page 19a,
3 June 1882, page 19b,
20 March 1883, page 4a.
A moonlight football match is reported in the Express,
16 April 1878, page 2c.
- A moonlight match was played by the Kensington Football Club on their oval, Kensington, on April 15. The sides - red and white - were captained by F.G. Stanton and T.W. Caterer. The reds, who proved to be much the strongest, won the game by four goals to one. The first part of the match was carried out with considerable spirit but after half time was called, but little energy was exhibited by the players, as the numbers dwindled down to about seven a side.
26 October 1878, page 18b,
1 November 1879, page 18a.
A pigeon shooting match is reported in the Express,
15 December 1873, page 3f. Also see South Australia - Sport - Pigeon Racing and Shooting.
- In December 1873 a nunber of gentleman, principally members of the Hamley Gun Club had an afternoon sport by invitation on the grounds of Mr H.F. Shipster. After enjoying that gentlema's hospitality they chose sides, His Excellency the Governor, president of the club, who was one of the guests and Mr R.I. Stow, QC, Vise-President, acting as Captains; Colone Barber offoiciated as umpire... The spot chosen for the shooting was beautiful... The wooded background attracting the unkilled birds to the scouts...
25 October 1884, page 15b.
Moonlight bicycle races are reported upon in the Register,
30 January 1885, page 5h,
27 February 1885, page 5c. Also see South Australia - Sport - Cycling.
- A moonlight concert and bicycle races were held on January 29 by the members of the various bicycle clubs in the town and suburbs. The moon was at the full and it was thought that a grand turn out of cyclists and a promenade on the oval to the accompaniment of Signor Squarise's Band would prove to be a very enjoyable way of passing a summer night. The anticipations of the Secretary, Mr R.F. Osborne, were fully justified.... The tram cars running to Kensington were crowded with passengers... The first event was a handicap mile bicycle race [and] H. Sadler who received 50 yards start accomplished the distance in 3 minutes and 16 seconds... Messrs Wood and Jepson acted as judges; Messrs F. Palmer, W.Tyler and L. Threlfall as handicappers; and Mr D.G. Evan as starter
27 June 1885, page 19e,
against Clare on
6 November 1886, page 17e.
Tennis matches are reported in the Express,
5 and 13 October 1886, pages 4e and 4f.
Information on and a photograph of a ladies tennis club, "the first in the State", is in the Register,
1 May 1923, page 6f;
a photograph of a club committee is in the Register,
3 January 1928, page 10.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Tennis.
An athletics meeting at the Kensington Hotel Tea Gardens is reported in the Observer,
13 November 1886, page 19b.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Athletics and Gymnastics.
Information on a homing pigeon club is in the Observer,
23 July 1898, page 51c.
Also see South Australia - Sport - Pigeon Racing and Shooting.
Kensington - Transport
"Public Conveyances" is in the Register,
5 November 1856, page 2f,
"Runaway Omnibus" on
4 July 1857, page 3f.
A complaint about the local omnibus is in the Register,
10 April 1866, page 3b - "... when they go into a deeper hole than ordinary a mighty groan issues from the whole fabric..."
"The Kensington and Norwood Omnibuses" is in the Register,
3 and 11 June 1872, pages 3e and 5c,
17 December 1875, page 7b,
21 April 1876, page 5c,
21 December 1876, page 6d.
"The Kensington Cabstand" is in the Register,
21 March 1874, page 3f,
28 March 1874, page 12b. Also see
29 June 1872, page 8a,
15 February 1879, page 13d,
21 November 1891, page 41.
Information on early horse and tram transport is in the Register,
16 November 1891, page 6a.
A meeting in respect of a railway to the hills via Kensington and Norwood is reported in the Register,
6 August 1878 (supp.), page 2e; also see
2 November 1878, page 20b.
Information on the tramway is in the Register,
11 and 13 June 1878, pages 5d and 14b,
18 September 1878, page 6d.
A fatal tramcar accident is reported in the Register,
10 September 1878, page 5c; also see
27 March 1880, page 5a.
Also see .
"Fatal Tramcar Accident" is in the Register,
4 August 1879, page 6e.
A tram trip is described in the Register,
10 November 1879, page 5f.
An Essay on Horse Trams
Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience
The manner in which the Norwood trams is conducted is a crying disgrace... remonstrances with the boys only bring forth a volley of abuse, and appeals to drivers are met with something very like silent contempt. The tram cars are crowded to an extent which renders their resemblance to full boxes of oleaginous sardines more forcible than pleasant. Dresses are spoiled, corns are trodden to cursing pitch, children are squashed out of all likeness to their former selves... The horses are over-worked, the men are over-worked, the cars are overworked and the public are over-worked. Who's to blame?
(The Lantern, 7 May 1881)
In 1877 the Adelaide and Suburban Tramway Company was formed and the first rail was laid in front of the Norwood Town Hall by the Governor, Sir William F.D. Jervois, on 29 October 1877; the first car ran to Norwood and Kensington along the 4? mile track in June 1878 and, in 1896, Mr E.T. Smith recalled that he drove the first tram. Stone tram sheds and stables of galvanised iron, with a capacity to provide shelter for 120 horses, were on a triangular block of land at the north-west corner of Shipster Road and Regent Street. The route from the sheds was southwards along Shipster Road, down Kensington Road into High Street to The Parade, northwards into Sydenham Road, then down Beulah Road and Rundle Street into Kent Town to Pulteney Street, then to Hindmarsh Square, Grenfell Street, King William Street and back to Rundle Street. There was much opposition to the line running in Rundle Street because of the narrowness of the street and the alleged danger that the grooves of the rails made to other vehicles.
However, all was not smooth running for the patrons because many complaints were forthcoming about the uncomfortable trips, the dilatory manner of drivers and the cheekiness of tramboys:
[I] join with the great body of Norwood and Kensington residents in offering up a song of praise and thankfulness for the enterprise and sagacity shown by the promoters of this very useful company. But still the tramcar has its drawbacks and [I] consider it is [my] bounden duty to point them out.
There is the rattle and the crowding, but chiefly there are the conductors. These limbs of Satan are simply unbearable at times, and they show 'a natural leaning to cussedness', as Artemus Ward puts it, which is simply miraculous. They have a marvellous aptitude for getting in one's way, and generally they appear to delight in giving as much trouble as possible.
Should an old lady, heavily laden with parcels, be wearily clambering into the car, bang goes the bell while the dear creature is slowly wending her way to a seat, and down she sits abruptly on some masculine's knee, while her parcels are sent promiscuously into neighbouring laps and faces.
Should a sweet damsel be carefully alighting so as to keep clear of the surrounding mud, ding, ding, sounds on her affrighted ears and off she goes staggering forward, often on her charming hands or her unmentionable knees, while her parasol goes into the gutter and her hat tilts rakishly over her eyes...
Should a belated traveller be running anxiously for the car, the conductor is firmly ensconced on the steps and there he stops altogether immovable, while the unfortunate is frantically endeavouring to get a footing. Then he jumps off hurriedly, nearly capsizes the hanger-on and asks blandly for his fare. If you have a bad foot, he kicks it; if a sore hand, he knocks it.
If you have a camellia, which you are carefully treasuring as a present to your lady-love, he ruthlessly pushes by you and breaks it, and by his monkeyish antics throughout makes himself an entire and unmitigated nuisance. Will Mr Buik or some other director do something to curb the fiery, untamed ardour of these miscreants, and thus lay an obligation on a large section of the travelling public...
The trams rarely run up to the time that is published... the boys are decidedly cheeky (their being dirty is... excusable) and some of the drivers seem asleep during the journey... The already fatigued bony horses... should have been turned out four years ago... Every variety of jolt and violent swaying, both sidelong and upwards, has to be endured - not necessarily for the whole journey, because it is open to passengers, who cannot bear the infliction, to get out and walk before reaching their destination.
It was not uncommon to find that a car, supposed to be licensed to carry sixteen passengers inside and nineteen outside, would have as many as twenty-five within and more than thirty without. To complain to the driver during this overloading process was to no avail for he would disregard all remonstrances and take on passengers as long as he could pack them in.
The laws governing tram cars were amended eventually to give local authorities control over some aspects of the company's operations and the first prosecution was launched in 1906 when Arthur Hutchinson of West Hindmarsh, a driver for the Adelaide, Hindmarsh and Henley Beach Tramway Company, was charged with permitting 'a larger number of passengers than was specified in the licence, viz., five in excess.'
Counsel for the defence suggested that the alleged overcrowding was 'due to the greed of the company and its desire to draw in the filthy lucre.' After heated exchanges between counsel for both sides the unfortunate defendant was allowed to leave without a blot on his escutcheon because the learned magistrate ruled that portion of the council by-laws were repugnant at law.
Another inconvenience was the presence of dogs which were permitted in tram cars to the great annoyance of persons inside, while the ever-present drunkard was far more objectionable than a dog in a crowded vehicle.
Roomy carriages became close and stuffy and the loading at the top and on the steps was a check on ventilation. There were notices in the trams that any complaint or incivility or otherwise should be made to the secretary of the company in writing but they probably found 'themselves in a correspondence which ended in nothing.'
It was suggested that an appeal to the driver would be useful, but his hands were full minding his horses and attending to the call bell and the state of the traffic in the streets, and had no time in transit for altercations and no power to do anything except complain upon return to the depot - the long hours they had to keep were against any special zeal in this direction.
Each tramcar had a driver and conductor, the latter usually a boy. The smaller cars had fare-boxes into which were put all the fares in tickets or money. At the end of each journey the driver and conductor delivered a weigh bill showing the number of persons carried, and this of course had to agree with the tickets and money in the box, of which the company manager kept the key.
In the large cars the stationery boxes were closed and the tram conductor went around with a box which would have served very well for church collection purposes. Its secular character was, however, manifest from its being so constructed that money or tickets could not be taken from it except by use of the key.
In the smaller cars a strap attached to a bells in front and behind ran along the whole length of the vehicle above the gangway and, by pulling it, a passenger could secure the immediate attention from the driver. In the larger, the alarm bells were rung by touching a cord, which ran along either side above the windows, that on the driver's side being intended for him and the other for the conductor.
The men who drove the cars were most 'respectable and steady; their daily task [was] severe and protracted.' They worked from twelve to fourteen hours a day and had no special times for meals - they took them when they could. If they were off duty from sickness or any other cause, they had to 'place a shilling for every trip made in their absence.' They received a holiday every other Sunday and one week every year, the latter being a concession introduced only in 1881.
Many youths from working class families were employed as conductors on the horse trams and one of them, a friend of my younger son, proffered to me a poignant account of his life, both at home and in the work place:
Father was very poor - sometimes in work, sometimes out of it - sometimes drunk and sometimes sober - and there were seven of us to keep and very little to do it with. There were times when the baker wouldn't trust us for bread, and the butcher gave us up more than once.
Father tried to dodge the schoolmaster and kept me away from school so that I might earn a little to help the family, but the School Visitor was one too many and father was fined five shillings, for the magistrate said the boy must be taught whatever happened; and when father asked 'What, even if the kids have to starve?' the magistrate answered quite angry like, 'Don't you go and question the action of a wise and liberal Government, my man, or I'll make it ten shillings.'
After this I went to school again, and often got more driven into my head than put in my stomach; but I persevered and thought of the future before me, for mother had often said that if I got along with my books she would get my uncle who drove one of the tramcars, to use his influence with the Company and get me a billet as a tramboy.
When I came home one night with the red band round my cap and my number printed on it my little brothers were as proud as though I had been made a policeman, and they all, even down to the baby (for there is always a baby in our house) had a try on, and made up their minds to become tramboys themselves when they grew old enough, the cheeky little beggars. 'Brush your clothes and polish your boots, and keep your face and hands clean, and be civil and honest', says Mr Jones, the manager, 'and mind you ring the bell whenever you take a fare, and the Company will stand by you and God will bless you...'
... Some special provision is necessary. A sort of an attempt was made some time ago... to put badges with numbers on their hats. However this regulation, if it be one, is observed only to a limited extent; many of the lads have no badges at all, and it is within our knowledge that the boys change badges and hats too at times - so that travelling on one car at different times of the day may ring the changes and baffle if not quite prevent positive identification.
In 1891, the Register carried an informative and perceptive article, purporting to be the story of a day of a tram car written in the first person and, from my own observations over recent years, I concur with the sentiments expressed; it reads in part:
Of others who patronise me I will mention the schoolgirl, who with her satchel filled with overnight homework travels to school to have it and herself corrected, and, aping the manners of her older sisters, talks fashion, garden parties and babies...
Government and bank clerks... are as rule a garrulous lot, especially when happening to be clad in summery and elegantly patterned tweeds; they take a seat recently vacated by dear little innocents, who inadvertently leave fragments of strawberries, cherries and jam tarts with greasy surroundings on the seats of our inexpensive means of locomotion.
On Saturday afternoons we experience a change and an increase of customers to the annoyance of our weary-shouldered and ditto-legged draggers - our horses. Our gallant defenders, the Volunteers, with cleanly accoutrements and dirty pipes, we then muster from each intersecting roadside...
Should there be a football match or races on the Old Course [Victoria Park] we 'take in' those who bet and barrack, as a sort of preliminary, possibly to the 'taking in' now perhaps they only too often participate in at such gatherings, where that curse of the sport - betting - is so rampant. However, money like our wheels is round, and therefore resembles us in being 'licensed to travel', sometimes to our advantage, but oftener to others who, like parasites, live on us in the matter of adding to or getting rid of their daily necessities.
During the evening we convey the patrons of pleasure both in and out of town, and on our last trips, especially on Saturday nights, we occasionally gather in some who, fortunately for themselves, do not have to walk home, as the number of steps then occasioned in the performance of that exercise might in many instances be multiplied by three.
Unfortunately for us we are seldom enabled to indulge in the luxury of what our children used to term 'tub night'. No, our baths or washing down are, unfortunately, few and far between. The company we keep go more for dividends...
Other stories I could tell, but I am nearing what the conductors call the 'terminus', where our weary horses have their heated harness taken off, to rest probably on their wearied puffed legs for the night. Some of the poor brutes don't lie down, probably out of fear of not being able to get up again; but if we had happened to have been blessed with a good season our manager might have sold a lot of them to the farmers, and so allowed many of them to spend the rest of their days in peaceful glades, where in youth they gambolled at their mother's sides.
Alas! the poor creatures may now have to bow their bent knees to the stern decree of fate and draggle me and my passengers along until at last they are led with dotty footsteps to take one last leaden ticket which the poor brutes collect on the slopes of the river near Frome Bridge. Faithful until death; for in so doing another mite is added to the revenue of the Company they had so well served.
And now, my patrons, I bid ye farewell in print. I, a thing mechanical, have given you my history. Compare the lines I traverse with the lines of life, and each resembles the other in many respects. At first they were, as I found them, comparatively smooth and straight, with many curves and points at which we may run off, but with a judicious application of the brake they may be successfully negotiated. As time rolls on they become disjointed and jolty, and with old age creeping on we go slower, whether uphill, with heavy pulling, or downhill; I, like you, I trust, will endeavour to keep the track.
17 May 1880, page 6f; also see
18 and 19 May 1880, pages 6g and 4g-6c,
13 August 1883, page 7b and South Australia - Industrial Relations - Sweating
A tram time-table is in Frearson's Weekly,
22 November 1879, page 352.
"Boy Conductors" is in the Register,
17 and 19 May 1880, pages 6f and 4g-6c.
An informative article on local transport, including horse trams, is in the Observer,
21 November 1891, page 41e.
"Tramways Trust and Pile's Paddock" is in the Register,
19 and 22 December 1908, pages 9a and 4e,
4 and 9 January 1909, pages 4h and 5h.
"A Procession of Cars" is in the Register,
8 March 1909, page 5c; also see
9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 18, 20 and 22 March 1909, pages 6i, 7a, 4f, 5a, 5a, 5f, 11g and 4h; also see
17 January 1911, page 6f.
"Motor Tragedy" is in the Register,
26 April 1911, pages 5g-6e.
"The First Australian Tramway" is in the Observer,
il 1923, page 14b.
Kensington - Obituaries
An obituary of Benjamin Baye is in the Register, 17 June 1856, page 3h.
An obituary of Henry Noltenius is in the Register, 11 January 1884, page 4f,
of James Baigent on 14 January 1888, page 5b,
of Mrs Salter on 11 April 1892, page 5a,
of Mrs Josiah Jones on 14 August 1893, page 5c,
of Mrs Alfred Watts on 21 August 1894, page 5c,
of Edward Howitt on 28 February 1896, page 5b, 2 March 1896, page 4h,
of Mrs Elizabeth Lee on 11 October 1899, page 5a.
An obituary of Charles A. Wilson is in the Register, 21 June 1884, page 4g,
of Rev Edmund Jenkins on 27 April 1888, page 5b,
of G. Tilly on 10 August 1888, page 4h,
of J.A. Bruce on 1 August 1889, page 5a,
of J.R. Knuckey on 21 July 1890, page 4h,
of Claude Shuttleworth on 28 May 1892, page 5b,
of B. Morey on 3 January 1893, page 4g,
of G.J. Outlaw on 16 June 1896, page 5d.
An obituary of B. Morey is in the Observer, 7 January 1893, page 30d,
of Edward Howitt on 7 March 1896, page 45b,
of Robert P. Abbott on 25 April 1896, page 43c,
of G.J. Outlaw on 20 June 1896, page 44a, 17 October 1896, page 14d,
of Mrs Margaret Thorpe on 30 September 1899, page 15c.
An obituary of Mrs Ellen Meyer is in the Register, 7 August 1900, page 4h,
of John Counter on 26 November 1900, page 5a,
of James Cumming, architect, on 29 April 1901, page 5a,
of W.R. Wilson on 11 July 1901, page 5a.
An obituary of John Counter is in the Observer, 1 December 1900, page 22a,
of Mrs Margaret Thorpe on 1 August 1903, page 34a,
of J.W. Reed on 1 April 1905, page 23e,
of Mrs Elizabeth Stanton on 10 March 1906, page 38a,
of Charles J. Woodman, chemist, on 17 March 1906, page 38b,
of F.J. Botting on 14 July 1906, page 38d.
An obituary of T.W. Walters, school teacher, is in the Register, 2 March 1903, page 4g,
of George Cook on 7 March 1903, page 7b,
of Mrs Margaret Thorpe on 25 July 1903, page 7c,
of John Whitelaw on 20 March 1906, page 4h,
of Rev J.C. Woods on 12 May 1906, page 7a, of F.J. Botting on 11 July 1906, page 7a.
An obituary of W.H. Harry is in theRegister, 13 October 1908, page 6h,
of William Rowe on 21 March 1910, page 6i,
of Joshua Gurr on 10 November 1910, page 6h,
of Mrs J.B. Shuttleworth on 21 November 1910, page 4g,
of Mrs Ellen Hunter on 11 May 1911, page 4h,
of J.T. Wallis on 12 July 1911, page 6i.
An obituary of Mrs C.A. Wilson is in the Observer, 8 May 1909, page 38a,
of William Rowe on 26 March 1910, page 38a,
of David Packham on 13 April 1912, page 41b,
of Joseph Gurr on 14 June 1913, page 41b,
of Thomas Wiggins on 20 May 1916, page 33b,
of John Bath on 10 May 1919, page 40c.
An obituary of Mrs Margaret Smith is in the Register, 15 April 1912, page 4g,
of Joseph Gurr on 9 June 1913, page 6h,
of W.E. Dalton on 19 June 1913, page 6h,
of Mrs Thomas Daff on 10 July 1915, page 8g,
of W.H. Davenport on 20 August 1915, page 6f,
of Thomas Wiggins on 16 May 1916, page 4g,
of G.F. Stewart on 4 January 1917, page 4h,
of Mrs Sarah Probyn on 13 January 1917, page 6h,
of William Selth on 22 March 1917, page 6g,
of Mrs John Bath on 7 May 1919, page 6f.
An obituary of M.H. Montefiore is in the Observer, 20 March 1920, page 30a,
of W.H. Pennifold on 30 August 1924, page 27c, 6 September 1924, page 39c,
of S.D. Davis on 23 May 1925, page 28d,
of R.H.S. Brown on 15 August 1925, page 45b,
of W.A. Stevens on 9 July 1927, page 43b.
An obituary of John Sprod is in the Register, 24 January 1921, page 8a,
of William Little on 21 May 1921, page 6i,
of James Daly on 2 November 1923, page 8g,
of Frank G. Stanton on 1 September 1924, page 6g,
of Albert Macdonald on 24 October 1924, page 8g,
of George H. King on 8 November 1924, page 8h,
of F.T. Vandepeer on 30 November 1924, page 10f,
of Mrs Sarah A. Goldsmith on 13 December 1924, page 8g,
of Walter G. Wallis on 20 December 1924, page 13e.
An obituary of S.D. Davis is in the Register, 21 May 1925, page 8g,
of R.H.S. Brown on 10 August 1925, page 6h,
of Mrs Emma Lucas on 19 March 1926, page 13c,
of William Robertson on 31 March 1926, page 14f,
of William A. Stevens on 2 July 1927, page 13c,
of Joseph M.J. Bannister on 5 November 1927, page 13c,
of Frederick G. Anderson on 1 December 1927, page 15a,
of John Nosworthy on 18 December 1928, page 15d.