Place Names of South Australia - K
Named by Matthew Flinders on 22 February 1802.
After coming to an anchor, some black substances were seen moving about on the shore, by some of the young gentlemen, and were thought to be animals of some kind, but the wiser ones who thought they were lumps of stone, and that imagination supplied them with motion, laughed at this, asking if they were not elephants.
- Was employed this afternoon in skinning and cleaning the kanguroos [sic]; and a delightful regale they afforded, after four months privation from almost any fresh provisions. Half a hundredweight of heads, fore quarters and tails were stewed down into soup for dinner on this and the succeeding days; and as much steaks given, moreover, to both officers and men, as they could consume by day and by night. In gratitude for so seasonable a supply I named this southern land Kanguroo [sic] Island.
For essays, etc., on early settlers and other aspects of the Island's history see Alas, for the Pelicans, Flinders, Baudin and Beyond, Wakefield Press, 2002.
The island, physical features, settlements and settlers are described in the Register,
25 September 1844, page 3c,
24 May 1848, page 3b; also see
24 September 1844, page 2c.
An interesting "Journal of a Trip to Kangaroo Island" is in the Register,
13 January 1853, page 3d-e; also see
12 and 19 February 1859, pages 2e (supp.) and 2f (supp.),
15 and 28 January 1859, pages 3b and 3b,
9 February 1859, page 3b.
Similarly, a letter headed "Insular Topography" is in the Register,
23 December 1862, page 3c,
while many features of the island are described on
22 August 1864, page 2h.
"A Missionary Trip to Kangaroo Island" is in the Observer,
2 October 1870, page 8d.
Various coastal features are described in the Register,
15 February 1876, page 6c,
9 February 1885, page 6h.
"A Trip to Kangaroo Island" is in the Register,
6 May 1876, page 6a; also see
20 October 1877, page 10d,
10 April 1880, page 15b,
23 and 30 April 1884, pages 6g and 3e.
"A Week on Kangaroo Island" is in the Register,
8 March 1880, page 5f,
"A Few Days in Kangaroo Island" on
17 July 1883 (supp.), page 1a.
"A Trip to Kangaroo Island" is in the Chronicle,
26 April 1884, page 5g,
3 May 1884, page 6b.
Sketches are in the Pictorial Australian in
February 1884, page 28.
"Kangaroo Island and Its Resources" is in the Advertiser,
13 January 1886, page 6c.
A trip "From End to End of Kangaroo Island" is described in the Register,
10 March 1886, page 6c.
"Kangaroo Island - By a Recent Visitor" is in the Register,
9 August 1886, page 6b,
"A Trip Across Kangaroo Island" on
25 November 1886, page 6b,
2, 6 and 7 December 1886, pages 6b, 7g and 6d.
"The Land Commissioner on KI" (it includes a description of towns, places and events) is in the Register,
6 March 1888, page 7c.
"Travelling on Kangaroo Island" is in the Register,
4 September 1889, page 5c.
The Register of
5 January 1894 at page 6d has an account of a fishing trip to the island; it includes a description of a visit to the property of Mr and Mrs Buick. See
15 January 1894, page 6g for information on the district surrounding Harvey's Return.
"To the Wreck - Across Kangaroo Island" is in the Register,
23 May 1899, page 7a and
the reminiscences of George Snelling on "Kangaroo Island Wrecks" on
26 May 1899, page 7a,
3 June 1899, page 45.
"Among Kangaroo Islanders" is in the Register,
24 March 1900, page 9e,
"A Visit to the South Coast" on
6 August 1901, page 6f.
"A Trip to Kangaroo Island" is in the Register,
18 and 22 February 1905, pages 8h and 6e,
18 and 23 March 1905, pages 8f and 6e,
1 and 8 April 1905, pages 4a and 7c.
The inhabitants of the present day are not at all satisfied with the present facilities of transit and they are agitating in favour of a second mail in each week or, failing that, to secure competition for the passenger service. Although Queenscliffe is only 76 miles from Port Adelaide the fare by steamer is £1/5s. return, exclusive of meals, while from Hog Bay, about 20 miles by water, the charge is 10 shillings return...
The James Comrie [does] the Kangaroo Island trade... [and] between the island trips goes twice weekly to Ardrossan... [This article contains extensive information on shipping to and from Kangaroo Island.]
28 October 1905, page 4d,
4 and 17 November 1905, pages 10f and 6f (Animals & Reptiles).
"Legislators on Tour - Rural Awakening" is in the Register,
6 February 1906, page 6c.
A steamship trip from Port Adelaide is reported in the Register,
28 February 1906, page 6d.
"Kangaroo Island - Present Conditions and Its Prospects" is in the Register,
26 January 1907, page 10f; also see
9 February 1907, page 6f.
"Karatta's Initial Spin" is in the Register,
4 and 7 December 1907, pages 8g and 12e,
"A Land of Promise" on
19, 22, 26 and 29 February 1908, pages 6d, 10f, 6e and 7e,
4, 11, 14, 21, 25 and 28 March 1908, pages 7a, 7a, 11a, 11c, 7a and 13a,
4, 8, 14, 18 and 29 April 1908, pages 10a, 7a, 6d, 10a and 7a.
A photograph of three early houses - Hope, Faith and Charity - is in The Critic,
18 December 1907, page 46.
"The Agricultural Awakening" is in the Observer,
21 and 28 March 1908, pages 49c and 49,
4 April 1908, page 29 (photos).
"A Great Potato Country" is in the Register,
22 January 1910, page 11f,
"A Trip to Kangaroo Island" on
24 April 1914, page 5f,
"Ideal for Holidays" on
1, 3, 6, 8 and 19 May 1922, pages 9f, 9b, 12a, 9g and 6c.
"A Land for Development" is in the Advertiser,
25, 28 and 29 November 1911, pages 17a, 10g and 18e,
1 and 11 December 1911, pages 12g and 13f.
The reminiscences of M.A. Willson are in the Register,
20 October 1917, page 6i,
"The Australian Isle of Wight" on
13 May 1922, page 5c.
"A Paradise for Holiday Makers" is in The Mail,
31 December 1921, page 5g.
"Ideal for Sheep Raising" is in the Register,
27 January 1923, page 13e.
"An Expensive Sentiment" on
30 April 1923, page 3i; also see
5 May 1923, page 15f.
Various industries and fauna are described in the Observer,
3 February 1923, page 5b.
"Fish, Snakes, Birds and Crays" is in the Register,
13 April 1925,
"Attractive Scenery and Fertile Soil" on
5 February 1926, page 10b.
"Caves on Kangaroo Island" is in the Register,
2 December 1925, page 11h,
13 and 21 January 1926, pages 11a and 10a,
15 and 19 February 1926, pages 9e and 9e,
23 March 1926, page 15a,
20 and 22 December 1926, pages 8g and 12e.
"Magic Caves of Kangaroo Island" is in The News,
12 January 1926, page 7b.
"The Kangaroo Island Emu" is in the Register,
12 February 1926, page 8g.
"Early Settlers Who Lived Like Savages" is in the Register,
31 October 1929, page 7b.
"Kangaroo Island - Pleasure and Production" is in the Advertiser,
25 and 28 January 1930, pages 20a and 14g.
"South Australia's Isle of Wight" is in the Advertiser,
3 September 1932, page 9d,
"Bracing Sea Holiday" on
26 August 1933, page 8e.
In Nepean Bay and the Settlement on Kangaroo Island
Taken from Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience
The First Settlers
Captain Morgan was besought by his people to allow some one to have the credit of being the first immigrant to set foot on the virgin soil, but with the characteristic romance of a sailor he decided that the infant girl of Mrs Beare should be the favoured individual, and a boat's crew was sent ashore with the child in the strong arms of a stalwart sailor, who waded through the shallow water and put the little one's tiny feet upon the sand amidst three hearty British cheers from the boat's crew and a responsive volley of hurrahs from the distant vessel. The historical infant is still alive and in the colony, I believe - married and settled into the land of her adoption.
Although Baby Beare was the first lawful settler to land upon Kangaroo Island, she was far from the first to put foot upon its wild shores for, as long ago as 1824, George Bates had landed at Dashwood Bay and, long before his advent the island had been occupied by a number of adventurous men, mostly sailors who had run away or arranged to be landed from sailing ships.
The first settler was Thomas Whalley, who left a whaling ship named the General Gates in 1816 and landed at Bews Point (now Rolls Point), immediately beneath where the telegraph station stands now. Two years later he induced a man named Billy Day to leave a whaler, which anchored there, and join him in a Robinson Crusoe life. The first settler had, therefore, been twenty years upon the island when the legal colonizers landed and he had, by general consent, been elected chief man under the title of 'Governor' Whalley. He had taken a man named George Cooper into partnership and they had managed to get some female Aborigines and established a small farm upon the Three Well River, afterwards called the 'Cygnet'.
There are some queer stories extant about how these men were treated by the new settlers - how Whalley was bullied and persecuted and almost compelled to sell out his livestock at an 'alarming sacrifice' and was afterwards refused the chance of buying back a single cock and hen and a sow pig at exorbitant prices. Almost to the time of his death in 1895 George Bates complained that he was robbed of £200 worth of whalebone which he had stacked up on the beach at Encounter Bay, and that whilst he lived in penury those who had 'annexed' his property were rolling in wealth.
The old residents upon the island were not the lawless set of men they have been represented to be. Their ranks had been recruited at times by undesirable characters, but the example of Whalley, perhaps, and the natural honesty of the brave and reckless old salts would not allow them to associate with runaway convicts, who occasionally tried to join them - these fellows were generally glad to reship upon the first opportunity.
Still, the sailors' proverbial love of rum and tobacco did lead them into some wild excesses whenever a certain old captain or other traders came around for their peltries. It is said that it was usual to set a keg of rum upon the deck directly the anchor was dropped, knock the head out and place plenty of pannikins around. Not a word about sale of skins, etc., was allowed to be spoken until every visitor had imbibed copiously, and then the captains obtained the most liberal bargains!
After the orgy was over the men generally found themselves on shore, very seedy, with splitting headaches, fevered circulation, a few groceries, perhaps a bottle or so of rum, and some tobacco, and always a good supply of twine with which to make snares to catch more wallaby. Of course, the vessel had gone, and so were all the settlers' skins. Whalley dropped dead in Adelaide in the 1860s; he was a man of some education and abilities and sent his son to Tasmania to be educated.
How the First Immigrants Fared
The new settlers found a very wild place at Kingscote - a thick forest, with a thicker scrub. Some of the trees were of large size, but they have long since been cut down. There was no water at Kingscote and boats were sent across the bay to Point Marsden for it, or else to Frenchman's Spring at Hog Bay. It was not until a long times afterwards that an abundance of fresh water was found in the sand at the spit close beside them.
The first things the emigrants had to do was to cut down the trees to form a township. The South Australian Company was the only employer of labour and there was, of course, a good deal of discontent amongst a certain class of employees. They had to depend upon the Company's stores for all they wanted; the kangaroos that were so plentiful when Flinders called at the same place in 1802 - being so tame the sailors knocked them on the heads with sticks - were now almost extinct; emus were not found anywhere and even wallabies, which to this day are numerous, could not be found or caught by the inexperienced new chums.
There was, really, no grass at Kingscote and very little on the Three Well River, so that the settlers could not keep goats, sheep or cows. On one occasion the captain of a vessel offered to send a nanny goat ashore to supply milk for a young child, but he was asked also to send hay wherewith to feed her. It was about nine miles through a dense scrub to Whalley and Cooper's farm and these men had not provided for so large an influx of customers, so that their scanty supply of fresh vegetables was soon exhausted.
The place was a wilderness; no water; no communication with the civilised world and everything the settlers wanted was brought by ships from distant countries. They had nothing but limestone on the surface, but sent to Tasmania for lime. Close by there was a bank of kaolin clay, but they sent to England for bricks. There was wood without end within reach of their tent flaps, but timber for houses, for door frames, window sashes, floor joists, etc., were brought from the uttermost ends of the earth. Cedar came from Sydney, deals from the Baltic.
Mr Stephens had a commodious house built on the brow of a hill overlooking the Bay of Shoals; Dr Menge, the Company's geologist, built himself a kind of Kaffir hovel at the bottom of the hill, where he made himself a garden by carrying down bags full of rich soil from the hills above. The Company sent out a number of fruit trees, including almonds, mulberries, date palm and carob. Four or five immense almond trees still remain on the site of the Company's garden, but are terribly ill-treated. Later, Mr Stephens had some of the trees sent to Adelaide and there are a fine oak and a date palm in the 'Governor Kitchener's garden' just by the rotunda on the City Bridge Road, and until July 1886 there was a carob tree upon North Terrace, at the corner of Stephens Place, which was destroyed ruthlessly by sawing it off close to the ground.
Among the first passengers were two fishermen engaged by the company at Liverpool at £100 a year each, with two assistants at lower salaries. These men ruined the nets during the first week or two and, somehow, never caught any fish. This was, doubtless, owing to laziness of the most pronounced character, because there are multitudes of fish on the grounds close by, and at the time the seals existed in great numbers about the island, and they would not have congregated there unless there had been food for them.
The emigrants included men of all sorts, from agricultural labourers to University scholars. Those who had been brought up to hardships were often the most difficult to please. Everybody had to take whatever employment the manager could offer them and it was not an uncommon thing to hear a hodsman quoting Latin or woodcutters addressing each other in Greek. One young gentleman, who had been educated for the Church in England, was proud to get a billet to sort rotten potatoes at Kingscote, and his brother, who had been a gentleman in England, filled a situation as valet in the same locality.
Amongst the multitude of goods and chattels brought to the island were a sawmill, a corn mill, a patent slip capable of accommodating a vessel of 500 tons and a steam engine of 20-horespower. Warehouses and dwelling houses built in sections and called 'Manning houses' also formed part of the equipment.
Mr C.S. Hare has left us with some forthright statements regarding the life of the early arrivals on Kangaroo Island:
The men [brought out by the Company] have been most infamous in previous character and conduct. They have threatened Mr Stephens's, Mr Beare's and my own life since I have been here and we have been obliged to walk about with loaded pistols in our pockets. And before my arrival here things were much worse. Mr Stephens had been here, I think, two months; no such thing as a house had been erected. All were living in tents. They possessed one old boat in which they have to fetch water five miles distant; they have dug several wells in vain for water...
Nepean Bay forms a most beautiful harbor, there is never a swell breaking in it, but this serious want of water prevents vegetation here and the keeping of any stock. I think the boring 200 feet would procure water, and if so, this township of Kingscote would be invaluable to the Company as a whaling station and port of discharge... I do not despair of doing well here...
Until last Sunday we had nothing like Sabbath services here. The arrival of the Africaine with her settlers has furnished us with some material to build a church. A grogshop, supplied by Captain Nelson and kept by a Mr Wilkins... has been the prolific source of the most horrid scenes of drunkenness that I have ever beheld. Last Sunday we had a coroner's inquest on William Howlett who came out in the Emma - verdict found drowned; leaving it to a future enquiry whether he was drowned by accident, or intention, on the part of his drunken companion Cranfield... We get no work done through this cursed grog... My dear Sir, may I urge you to send out pious temperance men; the proportion of laborers to mechanics is too small; we want 300 laborers, at least, here.
Kangaroo Island is a place in which you were grossly deceived; there's no timber fit for houses or ships; there are not 500 acres of good land on the island; there are the most impenetrable masses of jungle here that I have ever met... With all these difficulties, I thank God to take courage. I do not fear making this a prosperous settlement and the company doing well...
I commenced my gardening operations and soon had many kinds of seeds in the ground and the headway they made and the site attained in comparison with what have been the case in England under similar circumstances were remarkable. The inhabitants of the island could not consume the vegetables raised and the surplus was sent in boats to the mainland. The fruit trees and vines also did well and, from what I have heard, some of them are bearing fruit yet. As for food we had salt pork and beef, soup and bouilli, mutton bird eggs, kangaroo, wallaby, fish and any quantity of vegetables.
There was not much teetotalism in those days and rum was very cheap, only 4s 6d a gallon. Had I drunk as heavily of it as some did I should not be here now. I have seen men drink pannikin after pannikin of it until they appeared to be more dead than alive... I was on the island for nearly two years...
A history of the island and photographs are in the Chronicle,
2, 9 and 16 March 1933, pages 46, 44 and 33-46; also see
8, 15 and 22 April 1905, pages 25, 26 and 26,
12 January 1929, page 35,
9 November 1929, page 16d
"Our First Orchard [on Kangaroo Island]" is in the Register,
23 March 1905, page 6e.
Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Fruit and Vegetables.
"Yarns on Olden Times" is in the Observer,
17 April 1880, page 658a,
"Some Early History" on
21 December 1918, page 11a,
16 February 1929, page 11c.
Information on Mary Seymour, who was "born at KI on 11 September 1833", is in the Observer,
21 April 1900, page 31a,
8 April 1905, page 7e, 2 September 1905, page 4g.
Her obituary is in the Observer,
13 September 1913, page 41b.
A photograph of herself and daughter is in the Observer,
26 January 1907, page 28.
"The First Born on Kangaroo Island" is in the Observer,
9 September 1905, page 38a.
An obituary of William Thomson who arrived on the island circa 1832 is in the Register, 27 March 1882, page 5a,
of Mrs W.S. Strawbridge on 12 October 1897, page 4h.
"A Nation's Birthplace" is in the Express,
20 January 1899, page 3e.
Photographs of early buildings, etc., are in the Observer,
1 and 8 April 1905, pages 25 and 26.
Photographs of "Homes of the Early Days" are in the Chronicle,
31 January 1920, page 20.
Reminiscences of KI settlement from 1824 are in the Register,
27 July 1886, page 6d,
"The Pioneer Colonists" on
19 August 1886, page 7d.
"The Patriarch of Kangaroo Island" is in the Observer,
3 November 1894, page 25d.
"Who Discovered Kangaroo Island?" is in the Chronicle,
3 July 1909, page 39.
For information on Augustus Reeves, an early inhabitant of the Island - see Register,
15 and 23 March 1905, pp. 4i & 6e, Observer,
18 & 25 March 1905, pp. 34d and 24,
1 April 1905 (sketch).
Also see Place Names - Reeves Point.
"Kangaroo Island - Its Historical Associations" is in the Register,
30 December 1918, page 6g,
1 January 1919, page 4g.
"The Very First" white inhabitants are discussed in the Advertiser,
3 August 1936, page 14e and
1 September 1936 (special), page 5.
"First Landings on Kangaroo Island" is in the Observer,
12 November 1927, page 41a.
"Early History of Kangaroo Island" is in The Mail,
28 March 1914, page 17c,
4 April 1914, page 19g,
23 May 1914, page 21e,
12 September 1914, page 8g.
"Smugglers on Kangaroo Island" is in the Observer,
23 February 1924, page 58c.
"Early Settlers Who Lived Like Savages" is in the Register,
31 October 1929, page 7b.
"Historic KI Landing Re-Enacted" is in The News,
27 July 1936, page 5c.
"An Isle in its Infancy" is in The Mail,
11 April 1925, page 1b.
"The Foundation of South Australia - First Settlement on Kangaroo Island" is in the Advertiser,
28 December 1929, page 13g.
"Journal of an Excursion Into the Interior of Kangaroo Island" in November 1836 is in the Register,
8 July 1837, page 3b.
The Southern Australian of 24 September 1842, page 2c has information on early white settlers and Aborigines.
A letter in respect of the death of Jacob Seaman "who had lived on the island for sixteen years" is in the Register,
12 September 1846, page 2d.
"An Old Settler", information on James Graham, is in the Advertiser, 31 March 1896, page 5h.
An "Old Settler's Story" is in the Register on
4 May 1866, page 3a,
"First Landings on Kangaroo Island" on
10 November 1927, page 10c.
"Coroner's Inquest Upon the Earliest SA Settler [Henry Wallen (sic)]" is in the Register,
30 April 1856, page 3d; also see
9 May 1856, page 2e.
An account of finding human remains, believed to be those of Dr Slater who came out in the Africaine, is in the Register,
6 April 1866; also see
1 May 1866, page 3b.
Letters re the first cemetery at Kingscote are in the Register,
15 June 1869, page 3b.
Also see note Place Names - Kingscote.
Reports of Tasmanian Aborigines living on the Island are in the Register,
7 August 1871, page 5c and 6e,
26 September 1871, page 6f:
It will be pity if these few remnants of a once powerful tribe are allowed to descend into the grave without [photographs being taken]...
21 May 1874, page 5a and
8 March 1880, page 5f; also see
16, 17 and 24 March 1932, pages 11d, 6d and 6d.
A complaint against the treatment of "Our Oldest Colonists" appears in the Register,
21 February 1877, page 5g and
3 March 1877, page 12g - it concerns Nat Thomas "who [over 54 years ago] was wrecked from a Sydney brig (on a sealing cruise)... and afterwards picked up... and landed on Kangaroo Island..."; also see
27 June 1883, page 6f for information on George Bates and Chronicle,
10 March 1888, page 7a.
A letter from "G. Bates of Hog Bay" is in the Register of 8 December 1886 at page 6h:
In 1827 I was living with the natives from Cape Jervis to Adelaide. I was also associated with Mr Kent in 1831 in the search for Captain Barker...
1 January 1887, page 6c.
also see Place Names - Hog Bay and
27 December 1886, page 6c for biographical details and
4 and 15 January 1890, pages 5b and 5a. See
10 October 1894, page 5b for a report on his committal to the Destitute Asylum and
16 October 1894, page 7c for "A Chat With a Nonagenarian",
"The Patriarch of Kangaroo Island" in the Observer,
3 November 1894, page 25d.
For notice of Bates' death, obituary and the return of his remains to Hog Bay for burial see Register,
31 August 1895, page 5d,
9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 September 1895, pages 4g-7d, 5b, 5a, 5b, 5a and 5e,
22 and 26 October 1895, pages 6g and 5h,
7 and 8 November 1895, pages 5b and 5d,
Observer, 9 November 1895, pages 29d-30b.
An obituary of E.S. Bates is in the Register,
24 June 1908, page 7c.
"An Old Chapter in Colonial History" is in the Register,
25 January 1888, page 6d.
The reminiscences of early residents are in the Advertiser,
23 May 1899, page 6e.
"A Fine Inheritance" is in the Register,
18 April 1908, page 10a.
Several facets of its early history are recounted in the Advertiser,
17 and 24 June 1909, pages 6g and 9a.
"Historical Relics" are reported by Rev John Blacket in the Register,
30 November 1917, page 6e,
"Its Historical Associations" on
28 and 30 December 1918, pages 7e and 6g,
1 and 2 January 1919, pages 4g and 4g,
"Sealing on Kangaroo Island" on
30 September 1924, page 9g.
"A Curious Human Document - Kangaroo Island Relic" is in the Register,
7 April 1928, page 5d.
"Strange Chapter of History" is in the Observer,
9 November 1929, page 16c.
"First School Under Tree" is discussed in the Advertiser,
12 July 1933, page 40c,
"Kangaroo Island's Anniversary" on
27 July 1933, page 38i.
Commemoration services, etc, are reported in the Advertiser,
25, 27 and 28 July 1936, pages 18g, 8h and 16h.
For essays, etc., on early settlers see Alas, for the Pelicans, Flinders, Baudin and Beyond, Wakefield Press, 2002.
Also see South Australia - Mining.
Information on salt production is in the Observer,
8 July 1843, page 6a,
6 April 1844, page 4b,
15 March 1845, page 6c,
5 May 1923, page 50e.
Information on the Globe Salt Co is in the Advertiser,
9 March 1897, page 7c; also see the
1 July 1937, page 6a.
A search for coal is reported in the Register,
29 July 1850, page 2d,
17 August 1850, page 2c; also see
30 July 1850, page 4c and
23 April 1850, page 2a.
27 July 1850, page 2e (supp.),
24 August 1850, page 1c (supp.).
Information on the presence of coal is in the Express,
27 March 1879, page 3a,
12 April 1879, page 6d.
A supposed discovery of petroleum is reported in the Register,
25 January 1866, page 2f; also see
20 February 1866, page 2f,
3 March 1898, page 5i,
2 October 1906, page 11d,
13 August 1912, page 14a,
16 and 17 September 1912, pages 5a and 14b,
13 and 17 August 1912, pages 5a and 7h,
17 and 18 September 1912, pages 5e and 8g,
3 December 1912, page 5f,
11 January 1913, page 39a.
Also see Advertiser,
9 January 1913, page 9f,
23 June 1920, page 9d,
28 August 1920, page 2f.
The American Beach (KI) Oil Company is discussed in the Advertiser,
20 October 1920, page 6h; also see
1 April 1921, page 3b,
"No Oil - On Kangaroo Island" on
20 January 1922, page 5f.
"Oil in South Australia - Various Indications" is in the Advertiser,
17 and 24 May 1922, pages 12a and 11a; also see
27 March 1923, page 15c,
23 June 1926, page 15g.
"A New Claimant for the Gold Reward" - "a black lubra known... by the decent Christian name of Betsey" is reported in the Register,
13 September 1856, page 2c.
A gold discovery is reported in the Register,
24 and 26 September 1885, pages 7f and 5c,
14 October 1885, page 3e; also see
23 October 1885, page 7b,
26 September 1885, pages 13c-30e,
31 October 1885, page 29d.
A tin discovery is reported in the Express,
14 October 1885, page 5c.
Information on mining is in the Advertiser,
13 January 1886, page 6c.
Mining on the island is discussed in the Register,
12, 17, 18 and 20 April 1888, pages 7g, 7g, 7h and 7c,
30 May 1888, page 7g,
20, 21 and 23 November 1894, pages 6a, 7e and 7g,
15 January 1895, page 5b,
23 February 1895, page 6h.
A report of the discovery of gems on Karatta station appears in the Register,
19 January 1897, page 6d; also see
23 February 1897, page 5c,
12 and 24 June 1903, pages 4f and 3h,
14 October 1903, page 8d (history of),
8 April 1905, page 7e.
A report on its mines by the Government Geologist is in the Register,
3 January 1899, page 6e.
Biographical details of Mrs T. Willson are in the Register,
18 February 1905, page 8i.
The mining of rich deposits of porcelain clay near Hog Bay is reported in the Register,
18 October 1905, page 8h,
25 November 1905, page 6f,
3 January 1906, page 3h,
27 April 1907, page 42.
"The Cygnet Mine" is in the Express,
26 May 1907, page 4f.
"Porcelain at Kangaroo Island" is in the Observer,
9 September 1905, page 48e; also see
2 December 1905, page 37c.
"A New Australian Industry - KI Pottery Clay" is reported in the Advertiser,
3 February 1906, page 11d (a photograph is in the Chronicle,
10 February 1906, page 30); also see
19 April 1906, page 4g,
20 April 1907, page 11g,
6 January 1906, page 44d.
"Its Mineral Resources" is in the Advertiser,
10 March 1906, page 11a,
31 March 1906, page 39d,
7 April 1906, page 40b.
A discovery of monazite is reported in the Register,
16 February 1907, page 7f.
"The Mining Industry - A Brighter Outlook" is in the Register,
28 March 1908, page 13a; also see
11 April 1908, page 49a.
"Gold on Kangaroo Island" is in the Register,
30 May 1928, page 13e.
"Gold Rush at Kangaroo Island" is in the Advertiser,
17 September 1931, page 9g; also see
28 May 1938.