State Library of South Australia
Manning Index of South Australian History
  • South Australia
  • Adelaide
  • Port Adelaide
  • Place Names
  •  

  • About the Index
  • Searching
  • Text-based menus
    (Use this option if your browser will not open the folders.)

    South Australia - Crime, Law and Punishment

    Law

    Prisoners' Aid Society

    Also see Place Names - Yatala. The need for a Prisoners' Aid Society is canvassed in the Register,
    28 July 1883, page 6f; also see
    24 October 1885, pages 4h-6e,
    26 January 1886, pages 4g-6f,
    29 March 1886, page 4g,
    20 July 1891, page 6f,
    19 December 1902, page 4e,
    27 January 1905, pages 4c-6g,
    7 September 1906, page 3d,
    14 May 1907, page 7d,
    1 March 1912, page 4d,
    18 April 1912, page 4d.

    "The Indigent Sick and the Criminal Poor" is in the Register,
    23 January 1894, pages 4g-6h.

    Information on it is in the Register,
    6 August 1894, page 6e,
    4 December 1894, page 6a,
    22 January 1897, page 7g,
    Observer,
    24 April 1897, page 9e,
    21 January 1899, page 41a,
    Express,
    13 January 1899, page 4c,
    Weekly Herald,
    18 February 1899, page 9b,
    Express,
    2 February 1906, page 1f,
    13 May 1907, page 1d.
    Register,
    7 September 1906, page 3d (testimony from former prisoner).
    A tribute to the society is in the Register,
    5 July 1907, page 7c; also see
    1 February 1908, page 7g,
    6 and 8 February 1909, pages 8h and 7f.

    A meeting of the society is reported in the Register,
    4 February 1911, page 15a.

    "Criminals and Charity" is in the Register,
    2 February 1911, page 6d,
    "Convicts and Charity" on
    3 February 1913, page 6e.

    "An Ex-Prisoner's Gratitude" is in the Advertiser,
    22 January 1910, page 11f.
    "What Is the Riot Act?" in the Chronicle,
    26 August 1911, page 39c.

    Also see Register,
    7 February 1914, page 18e,
    Express,
    24 February 1915, page 3a,
    Register,
    5 and 6 February 1915, pages 4b and 8f-14e,
    7 February 1916, page 7b,
    9 and 10 February 1917, pages 4c and 12a,
    1 February 1919, page 10d,
    3 and 4 February 1920, pages 6b and 10a,
    8 February 1922, page 11a.

    An editorial on the Society is in the Advertiser,
    19 March 1924, page 8g; also see
    Register,
    29 September 1924, page 6f,
    18 March 1925, page 8f,
    6 August 1926, page 11d,
    23 March 1927, page 10f,
    21 and 22 March 1928, pages 8d and 11e,
    The News,
    19 April 1927, page 8g,
    28 July 1933, page 6e.

    "Human Jetsam - The Works of the Prison Gate Home" is discussed in the Register,
    7 June 1904, page 5g.

    Crime and Punishment - Choose again

    Law

    Reformatory Hulk

    The Need for a Floating Reformatory

    (Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    In 1867 a difficulty arose in respect of the best method to deal with the city's 'Arabs', that is, juveniles who roamed the streets and had no fixed abode. At that time judges and special magistrates were authorised to direct that any juvenile offender be sent to a reformatory school. The difficulty, however, was that such a school for either sex had not been established.

    The institution at Brighton was intended to be a home for unconvicted pauper children who were dependent on public or private charity. However, it was apparent that children who had been convicted were sent there, from which some had absconded. Properly, the Destitute Board objected to receiving street 'Arabs' convicted of crime. It was considered that it would be both cruel and impolitic to mix juvenile offenders - possibly old in vice and crime - with children who were simply unfortunate.

    Early in 1875 the Destitute Board was jubilant over the action of the Imperial authorities in placing the Rosario at the disposal of the colony as a training vessel. At that time the most important advantage claimed for the ship reformatory was that it allowed of the safe custody of the lads without having recourse to the gaol-like arrangements of 'high walls, gates and bolts'. It was believed that the health and spirits of the boys would be better on board ship, that their employment would be more varied and attractive and that their behaviour and tractability would improve accordingly.

    As to the question of training, the chairman of the board was careful to explain that only those boys who exhibited a predilection for the sea would be educated as sailors, while to the rest 'useful trades can just as easily be taught on board ship' as on shore. Moreover, it was intended that a piece of land in close proximity would be set apart so that the lads might be trained to use agricultural implements and be practically instructed in farm and garden work.

    All this may have sounded well, but the enquiry arose as to how the custody afforded by the hulk could be so specially safe when many of the boys were to be ashore at times. For the rest, the only means of judging the roseate views expectations of the board was to ascertain how such reformatories had answered in other colonies.

    They had been tried in both Victoria and New South Wales and, unfortunately, for the board's argument, had been found to be signal failures. The experience was that in consequence of higher wages and the greater liberty and comfort offered by shore employments, only a very small proportion of the lads took to the sea. In 1873, out of 52 boys who were apprenticed from the ship Vernon at Sydney, only four chose to become sailors. It was on this account that the system belied in practice all the glowing anticipations which it excited in theory.

    For these reasons there were many in the community who questioned whether the transfer of the reformatory from Ilfracombe to the Rosario would prove to be a success. If we were to have the ship something had to be done with her and the consensus of public opinion was that the interests of the colony would, in the long run, be better served if she was not turned into a school for criminal boys.

    These objections brought a halt to negotiations for the Rosario but, undeterred, in 1876 the Chairman of the Destitute Board again suggested a training ship for boys. He was adamant in declaring that the system had proved, in England, that street boys, who lived by their wits, took kindly to a seafaring life and often turned out to be first-rate sailors.

    Therefore, it was evident what could be done with suitable treatment on the most unlikely subjects in the course of a few months and, accordingly, the South Australian authorities considered a floating reformatory for juvenile convicts should receive serious consideration.

    Further, it appeared that it would be possible to obtain a suitably-sized ship for less money than it would take to erect a building for the purpose:

    On summing up the situation a newspaper editor concluded:

    Introduction to the Fitzjames

    The hulk, Fitzjames, was built in 1852 at Ritchibucto, USA, and, under the command of Captain Hamilton, made a few voyages to the colonies with emigrants and was, in her early career, looked upon as a fine vessel.

    During her last trip 'ship fever', caused by over-crowding, broke out and carried off twenty-two of the passengers. Later, she made a voyage to Melbourne with general cargo but it was found that she had been so strained during heavy weather as to require extensive repairs. At that period, however, repairs in Melbourne meant a considerable outlay.

    After a time she was hauled up the Yarra bank and, to save the labour of pumping her, the tide was allowed to ebb and flow in and out of her and experienced seamen opined that she would not put to sea again. Wanting a quarantine hulk our government purchased her with a proviso that she be delivered in this colony.

    Accordingly, she was patched up and towed to Port Adelaide but the voyage was very near to closing her career, as she had only arrived at the anchorage a few hours before a heavy westerly gale came up that would have damaged her seriously in an open sea. She was then taken on to Fletcher's slip in the Port River where she was refastened and caulked and fitted with an iron roof from the break of the poop to the steamhead.

    In October 1876 she was towed out to moorings at Largs Bay where, for some time, she acted a lazaret. By December of that year there were complaints from the medical profession that 'every day proved her unsuitable for the purpose.' Further, they contended that the smell of rotting timber was 'most objectionable', while the conditions on board were no better than the worst immigrant ship.

    With the foundation of a quarantine station on Torrens Island, which I discuss in another chapter, the services of the Fitzjames were dispensed with and she came under the control of the Destitute Department for the reception of the waifs and strays and youthful criminals of our society. This occurred on 5 March 1880 when 35 boys were removed from Ilfracombe to the hulk.

    Discipline played an important part in training the boys; each hour had its duties and they were performed with the regularity of clockwork. They rose at 5.30 am and retired at 8.30 pm and during the intervening space of time they were kept fully employed for their master was not a believer in idleness. A school was conducted on board where the inmates received training in the rudiments of tailoring, carpentering and shoemaking, while a bandmaster was unsparing in his efforts to promote the well-being of the boys. Although many of its inmates committed offences to qualify them for the hulk, the offences were not always serious and in many cases were traceable to parents; so that to be deprived of their liberty, separated from their kin, however unwise, and rest under a stigma, was a punishment in itself so great that it galled most boys in spite of every ameliorating circumstance - this was a deep sting, worse than that of the whip.

    Education on the Reformatory Hulk

    Though the hulk was designed to be a place of reformation, rather than punishment, during the first decade of its operation education was somewhat neglected on board. By the close of 1884 a schoolmaster was employed and the boys had the advantage of the Model School course of instruction. Mr Weippert, the first appointee, was interested in his scholars of whose intelligence and willingness to be taught he commented upon favourably.

    Corporal punishment was necessary, the healthy tone in the school making reproof a sufficient check. Sometimes, as an extraordinary measure, a boy was derived of his evening meal, which was regarded by the inmates as being among the most severest inflictions. The behaviour of the boys, generally, was good, as may be inferred from the fact that for months the dark cell was unused. School opened at 9.30 am and closed at 3.30 pm, with a two hours interval; about 35 boys out of a total of 60 inmates attended the school, including some 'shop-boys' on half time.

    Notwithstanding that hardly any boy there above 14 years of age could pass the compulsory standard; that most of the boys before being sent to the hulk were truant boys at the State schools; and that the schooling on the hulk was, until Mr Weippert's arrival, of an unsatisfactory character, the boys above 14 were exempted from attending for even an hour a week the means of instruction so close at hand. It was, however, to their credit that some asked the master for lessons after school, which he was only too ready to give. As the education given was of a plain and practical kind, it was considered desirable that all boys passed the standard or put in half-time until they did so.

    An itinerant reporter described the classes at work:

    In the dining room was a small bookcase and cupboards containing a library of about 300 volumes, including interesting and instructive books. For the most part they were given by the benevolent public, who also sent off a number of periodicals such as Boys' Own Paper, Chambers' Journal, etc. After tea, taken at 5.30 pm, the boys spent the interval until bedtime at 8 pm in reading and self-instruction. The library was well patronised and the schoolmaster, at their request, attended to answer their questions and assist them in their studies.

    The Teaching of Trades on the Hulk

    When the time came for a boy to take a trade, he could choose between shoemaking and tailoring and if this was to be regarded as a life-long choice of a trade, it obviously was too small. To boys, physically or mentally unfit for either it was a choice between Scylla and Charybdis, for nothing develops a vicious disposition so much as an uncongenial life employment. But it did not involve altogether such a serious choice, for boys were apprenticed out from the ship to other trades than the two named.

    Our roving reporter continues:

    Mismanagement of the Boys' Reformatory

    By 1885, it was evident from complaints emanating from the clergy and elsewhere that the efficacy of the hulk as a reformatory left a lot to be desired, and this was confirmed in a report by a commission set up to investigate its management. 'It is, we think, established that neither in method nor results has the management of the Fitzjames been satisfactory' was its conclusion made public late in that year. Thus, the misgivings of 1875, that had been ignored by the authorities, were proven correct.

    No unprejudiced person could have said, after reading the evidence, that the criticism was unjust for, if there was one branch of the department which had been badly managed, it was that which related to the control of juvenile criminals.

    To begin with, it seemed to have been distinctly understood by the authorities that the Fitzjames was a place where boys should be punished for their lapses from virtue. But a reformatory is certainly not a place of punishment. When boys are convicted of an offence they are punished by the State and are afterwards sent to a place where they may be reformed of their evil habits and taught to be useful and honourable members of society.

    However, the system adopted in the management of the hulk was the more plainly illegal because a third of its inmates had never been convicted at all. These boys were under the same discipline as their fellows in misfortune who had been convicted for some offence and thus a system which should have aimed at, and resulted in, the reclaiming of juvenile offenders was made by bad and culpable management to result in an inclusion of the innocent and the convicted under one penalty.

    In the eyes of the Chairman of the Destitute Board, a boy who was destitute was as much deserving of restrictive discipline as a boy who had been convicted and, if this system had been allowed to proceed to its natural result, would have resulted in the formation or enlargement of a dangerous class of criminals.

    As for reformation, there was none on the hulk. Separation from vicious associates, physical training, the moral influence of the place and industrial training was cited in the report of the commission as 'the reformative methods adopted'. But in the due conduct of each and all of these methods it could have been distinctly proved that the hulk, under the management of the Destitute Board, had failed, both signally and palpably.

    The boys, certainly, were kept from associating with people on shore and for two years they were only allowed to go there at intervals of six months and the result of this unnatural and cruel deprivation of the open-air exercise, which every growing boy should have, displayed itself in what the commissioners characterised as 'the pallid and dull appearance of the boys.'

    But even if the authorities congratulated themselves on the enforced freedom from association with the outside world, which their harsh regulations entailed, it should have been pointed out that idle boys are more inclined to communicate evil than those whose bodies and minds are carefully and judiciously exercised, and that the pallid crew of the Fitzjames could have learned more evil from association with their fellows, who were advanced in moral depravity, than they would have by mixing more freely with the outside world.

    In effect, the result of the bad management was to concentrate vice and to give the boys, yet uncontaminated, an opportunity of graduating in vicious courses. The only thing which could have been expected to counterbalance the evils arising from herding the boys together indiscriminately from morning till night was the provision of direct physical, religious, moral and industrial training. But the authorities neglected all these and I have no hesitation in saying that whoever was responsible for the control of the boys showed himself to be unworthy of his position.

    The religious training was not, to my mind, sufficient. Once a week the Roman Catholic or Protestant clergyman conducted service but, at the time the report was made, none was conducted on a Sunday. This meant that, all occupations being suspended, the boys had nothing to do but to loaf. The board did not allow the Catholic children to go ashore for church because it was 'undesirable to allow boys who were virtually convicts under detention ta attend service on shore.' The reason given was as bad as the practice which it was intended to excuse.

    I can only characterise the educational training system as simply disgraceful in its inefficiency. All the boys were kept reading in the same book from when they first went on board and some of the boys between 13 and 14 years of age were found, on examination, unable to spell such words as 'tea', 'sugar', 'once' and 'window'. This beats even Mr Squeers and, if it were not so serious a calamity that the children were allowed to grow up ignoramuses, the educational system would have been intensely amusing. Boys over 16, however, were not sent to school at all.

    The industrial training was little better than the education. Out of 60 boys in August 1884, 24 were being taught tailoring, 22 shoemaking, two were in the carpenter's shop and the remainder were engaged about the ship. The returns of boys apprenticed from the hulk showed that two had been apprenticed to shoemakers and none at all to tailors and this showed clearly the value of the training given.

    The superintendence was of the most unsatisfactory character and innumerable squabbles occurred. On one occasion a superintendent had to leave his duties in order to serve a week in gaol for debt and, following his resignation, the hulk remained in charge of the boatman, a worthy but illiterate man who, however well qualified for an assistant, was not fit for the difficult position of superintendent of a reformatory.

    The Fitzjames In Extremis

    For many years prior to its demise in 1891 it was pointed out to the authorities that there was a strong likeness between the hulk and a floating coffin and, further, that it was serving no useful purpose as a training institution. Unfortunately, those appealed to were unable to see matters in the same light and let it be understood that, so long as the vessel was able to resist the tendency to founder, they would be perfectly satisfied.

    Measures were taken to keep the old tub afloat, but for the rest the representations made elicited no satisfaction. Little notice was taken, except at rare intervals, of its increasing dilapidation and not much of the question of its value for educational purposes. Thus a double injustice was done to the boys, for their future interests as members of the community were not studied as they might have been and they were subjected to the risk of finding a watery grave. This was, obviously, an objectionable state of things.

    Indeed, sometimes reformation may be best fostered by extinction, but there is an objection in the British mind to a punishment being made severer than a judge imposes by the circumstances under which it has to be served. When the courts condemn a child to confinement in a reformatory they are supposed to mean both that discipline which he there undergoes shall fit him to turn over a new leaf and become a useful member of society, and that his life shall not be placed in jeopardy.

    They certainly did not mean to pass a sentence of death upon him. And yet there was for several years a chance - to which one of our judges was not blind - that the reformatory hulk meant a kind of preparation for the next world to many children. When the judge expressed that opinion the Fitzjames was unsafe and mismanaged and by 1888 its incomparably better management did not compensate for its insecurity.

    Let us look at the situation in June 1888. The hulk, with its 50 boys, was fast breaking up. The youths spent their spare time in pumping, with the knowledge that pump as they might they could not reach the end of their labours - that short of draining the sea they had no prospect of respite. During the early months of 1888 it took the boys two or three hours a day to pump the vessel free, but in June 1888 she made water at an alarming rate, making a little over two inches an hour, causing the boys to average ten hours out of twelve manning the pumps.

    The timbers of the hulk were rotten and likely to break up and set the inmates free and if they could swim to land, so much the better for them; if not, it was opined that 'at any rate we would have tried the experiment of a nautical training for boys.' The system of confinement was radically and irredeemably wrong; the Fitzjames was not a training ship. Its occupants were not taught the mysteries of the seaman's profession for there were no masts upon which they could exercise their agility and knowledge of sails. Nor was there anybody on board in a position to teach them the peculiar arts which belong to the able-bodied seaman on steamers. The hulk was thus in no way - except as regards discipline, and obedience to commands, which might as well have been taught on land.

    The Demise of the Fitzjames

    In July 1888 it was realised that the Fitzjames was nearing the end of its career and she was brought up the river and beached opposite the False Arm where repairs were undertaken to stop the leakage, following which she was to be returned to Largs Bay and 'anchored more to the south so that she may act as a leading light for incoming ocean steamers.' The boys remained on board during the repairing operations.

    By February of 1889 she was moved to moorings at the False Arm and, the following month, taken over from the Destitute Board by the State Children's Council. By September 1889 the vessel had started leaking again and for days the boys were kept at hard work on the pumps for an average of four hours a day, taken from the time allotted for recreation. In June 1890 she broke from her moorings during a heavy breeze and ran aground; the 'boys were called out and having got out the hawser, got her off.' 11 Christmas of 1890 brought a welcome relief to the boys' labours in the form of a distribution of 'Christmas cheer' by certain members of officialdom, who were conveyed to the hulk in the launch Ariel. The boys had 'to sing for their supper' and performed physical and bayonet drills on the upper deck. The governor mouthed some platitudes in telling the boys that they 'should try and be punctual and remember that in Australia they were expected to do their duty, even as the men who had served under Nelson.'

    He then presented them with a magic lantern following which they formed into a single line to receive a small bag of sweets and a card, while Hon. Jenkin Coles offered a prize of five pounds, to be divided into three, for the best behaviour during the coming year. Frank Mitchell, a bright young lad, then stepped out from the ranks and thanked the committee for their kindness. He frankly admitted that at times they caused trouble, but promised on behalf of his comrades renewed efforts in what was right in the future.

    At this time Victoria showed a preference for a land system for the discipline of wayward juveniles, while New South Wales were clearly impressed with the advantages of ship discipline. The vessel which that colony utilised provided all the discipline of a man-of-war, but the Fitzjames never reached, nor was it designed to reach, such a state of development and there was little justification for this.

    Although South Australia has an extensive seaboard, in reality she offered little scope for a naval or maritime career. Accordingly, for some time prior to 1891 it was realised that a land reformatory would best meet the requirements of the colony. Finally, on 28 May 1891 'the rickety old hulk' ceased to be 'the scene of reformatory work' and it was 'vacated by its inmates for quarters at Magill'.

    The Fitzjames was sold on 6 August 1891 for 130 and, at high tide on 10 August 1892, all that remained of the vessel was towed out of the False Arm and brought to Port Adelaide where a quantity of old iron was used for 'stiffening purposes' on the barque, Myrtle Holme. In January 1893 a 'quantity of stout timber' was taken from her and, finally, it was reported that 'the first and last of the old vessel - the keel - is now lying bare on the bank.'

    General Notes

    "Floating Reformatory" is in the Register,
    3 September 1867, page 2c; also see
    Express,
    19 September 1867, page 2b,
    Chronicle,
    28 September 1867, page 1c (supp.).

    "Training Ships and Street Arabs" is in the Chronicle,
    17 July 1869, page 12e.

    Information on the quarantine/reformatory hulk Fitzjames is in the Register,
    10 and 13 June 1876, pages 5b and 5g,
    21 December 1876, page 4g,
    The Lantern,
    8 July 1876, page 9b,
    Express,
    10 June 1876, page 2d,
    Observer,
    3, 10 and 17 June 1876, pages 19e, 8e and 8a,
    Advertiser,
    3 October 1876, page 6c,
    Observer,
    23 December 1876, page 12a,
    14 April 1877, page 11f.
    Register,
    3 April 1877, page 5a for "Jottings from the Quarantine Hulk"; also see
    5, 6, and 11 April, pages 4c-6b, 4e-5c and 4b-5a.
    16 February 1880, page 6d.

    Also see The Lantern,
    7 January 1882, page 6 and 7,
    Observer,
    21 February 1880, page 323a,
    7 January 1882, page 8d,
    Register,
    8 May 1880, page 5b,
    Advertiser,
    8 and 14 July 1880, pages 6e and 1a (supp.),
    Register,
    22 February 1881, page 5d,
    7 March 1881, page 5d,
    6 June 1881, page 6g,
    22 August 1881, page 5d,
    28 October 1881 (supp.), page 2b,
    2 November 1881, page 6g,
    4 January 1882, page 4g,
    7 May 1884, page 7b,
    21 May 1884, page 4h,
    19 and 28 June 1884, pages 7c and 7e,
    26 July 1884, pages 5a-2a (supp.),
    9 and 14 August 1884, pages 2d (supp.) and 7f,
    Chronicle,
    17 and 24 May 1884, pages 7e and 8c,
    Express,
    21 May 1884, page 7b,
    26 July 1884, page 3b,
    21 November 1884, page 2c,
    27 December 1884, page 6c,
    Observer,
    17 and 24 May 1884, pages 27c and 34d,
    15 and 22 November 1884, pages 8d and 26a,
    14 February 1885, page 38b,
    Register,
    14 August 1884, page 7f,
    4 October 1884, page 1h (supp.),
    1, 12 and 21 November 1884, pages 5d, 5f and 5a-6f,
    Chronicle,
    11 October 1884, page 8f,
    22 November 1884, pages 4f-22c,
    6 December 1884, page 5g,
    3 January 1885, page 8c,
    The Lantern,
    7 February 1885, page 21,
    Register,
    21 and 26 October 1885, pages 7c and 5c,
    Advertiser,
    21 May 1884, page 6d,
    15, 21 and 29 November 1884, pages 5a, 6g and 4f,
    3 January 1885, page 7c,
    Observer,
    3 and 31 January 1885, pages 29e and 25d.

    Also see Register,
    3, 27 and 30 January 1885, pages 5c, 4h and 5a,
    12 and 14 February 1885, pages 5c and 7c (the latter is a history of the hulk),
    21 October 1885, page 7c-d,
    9 November 1885, page 4e,
    29 December 1885, page 5b,
    Observer,
    2 January 1886, page 34e,
    27 March 1886, page 13c,
    17 April 1886, page 35c,
    Express,
    17 February 1886, page 4e,
    Register,
    8, 20 and 24 March 1886, pages 5d, 6c and 3f,
    13 and 14 April 1886, pages 6g and 6g-7c,
    11 May 1886, page 7e,
    9 and 22 October 1886, pages 6h and 7a,
    22 November 1886, page 5a,
    7 January 1887, page 4h,
    4 February 1887, page 5b,
    29 and 30 April 1887, page 7f and 3g,
    18 and 19 July 1887, pages 5b and 5b,
    6 January 1888, page 5b,
    Express,
    9 October 1886, page 4c,
    4 February 1887, page 3d,
    The Lantern,
    26 January 1887, page 8 (cartoon),
    Observer,
    12 February 1887, page 8c,
    Express,
    26 April 1887, page 4a,
    Register,
    29 and 30 April 1887, pages 7f and 3g,
    19 July 1887, page 5b,
    6 January 1888, page 5b,
    Observer,
    7 January 1888, page 29e,
    23 June 1888, page 31e,
    10 August 1889, page 33c,
    14 February 1891, page 29d,
    30 May 1891, page 29d, Express,
    10 December 1887, page 4c,
    6 January 1888, page 2e,
    22 June 1888, page 2e.

    Also see Register,
    22, 23, 25 and 29 June 1888, pages 4g-h-6h, 4h, 5a and 5b,
    11 and 13 August 1888, pages 5b,
    10 August 1888, page 4h,
    3 and 24 September 1888, pages 5c and 5b,
    24 September 1888, page 5b,
    20 February 1889, page 5c,
    18 March 1889, page 7a,
    5 August 1889, page 6e,
    20 September 1889, page 5a,
    1 January 1890, page 6b,
    17 June 1890, page 5c,
    1 January 1891, page 6d,
    7 March 1891, page 5d,
    19 May 1891, page 6h (retrospect of),
    7 March 1891, page 5d,
    9 and 29 May 1891, pages 5c and 4f,
    7 August 1891, page 5g,
    18 May 1892, page 5a,
    11 August 1892, page 5b,
    5 and 27 January 1893, pages 5c and 7h,
    29 May 1893, page 6f.

    The opinions of juvenile inmates on the Fitzjames as to the "Best Use of a Pound Note" are in the Advertiser,
    21 June 1886, page 7d.

    Information on the convict hulk, Success, is in the Register,
    29 May 1894, page 7a.
    An obituary of Mrs Catherine Allan whose husband took "the old prison hulk, Success, from Port Adelaide to England..." is in the Observer,
    10 February 1917, page 22b.
    A complete history of the vessel is in the Observer,
    29 December 1923, page 62b.

    Crime and Punishment - Choose again