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    Place Names of South Australia - G



    Early Settlement

    Landing at Holdfast Bay

    (Taken from Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    During mid-November 1836 emigrants from the Cygnet, Rapid and Africaine came ashore at Holdfast Bay a little south of 'Sturt's River' (modern-day Patawalonga) and proceeded inland for about a mile where they pitched their tents and built temporary huts. Robert Gouger, the Colonial Secretary, 'determined on a spot shaded by large gum trees' one of which had been bent in the form of an arch by the prevailing south-westerly winds. His tent was partly supported on the southern side and upwards by this tree now called the memorial tree.

    The surroundings were beautiful but, during the day, concealed many hazards. Swarms of mosquitoes sang, but under cover of night demanded a recompense. Poor Robert Gouger and his delicate wife, Harriet, whose days were numbered, were driven almost to desperation by mosquito attacks. Putting his hand out one night from the couch on which he lay, and touching the ground, he found his hand within an inch of a scorpion.

    To add to these discomforts enormous ants and small frogs came inside the tent to make the acquaintance of the new arrivals. However, there were compensations for game was in great abundance. Not far from his tent were fresh water lagoons caused by overflows of the Sturt River and he could not walk but two hundred yards without stirring up quail, wild duck and water fowl. White cockatoos, parrots and parakeets of splendid plumage spent a merry time in the trees, not knowing, as yet, the fear of man.

    Nearer to the beach was the tent of the Immigration Agent, John Brown. An early immigrant reminisced:

    Christmas Day, 1836, was a Sunday and how conscious were the little band of pioneers to their changed circumstances. Instinctively their minds went back to the dear homeland, with its ice, snow and Yule log burning brightly. They now found themselves on the shores of an unknown country in which there was neither a street, store, church, nor permanent dwelling place. The day was intensely hot, about 100 degrees in the shade.

    Though there was neither church nor ordained minister they gathered at George Kingston's tent where prayers were read and a sermon delivered dealing with the birth of Christ. Following the service the pioneers returned to their makeshift abodes:

    Preparations were made for dinner and upturned casks substituted for tables and boxes did duty as seats. There was neither roast duck, goose, nor turkey, but salt pork, salt beef and parrot pie were attacked with gusto. After dinner, in the cool of the evening, the pioneers strolled down to the beach, looking at the few ships riding at anchor, the last visible links that connected them with Great Britain, thinking of a precious past and speculating to an unknown future.

    The parched grass, known as kangaroo grass, grew in tufts about a foot apart and these harbored innumerable quail and many a brace was brought down. Parrots of gorgeous plumage flew from tree to tree, diversified by bronze-winged pigeons and screaming cockatoos and the new arrivals were startled by merry peals of laughter. At first 'it sounded like some old gentleman cracking his jokes over his wine, when a second by its cachination seemed to have discovered the joke, and then a chorus of loud laughter all round and on our stopping a general solemn silence took place. We subsequently discovered that all this mirth proceeded from those feathered Democrituses of the bush, known as the laughing-jackass.'

    Early on the morning of Wednesday, 28 December 1836, the Buffalo, with Governor Hindmarsh aboard, came into the bay and anchored. At two pm of the same day His Excellency, accompanied by the ladies of his family and other officials, such as the Resident Commissioner, Mr J.H. Fisher, the Colonial Chaplain, Rev Howard, Mr Osmond Gilles, Colonial Treasurer, and Mr George Stevenson, the Governor's private secretary, came ashore to be welcomed by many of those who had fixed their temporary habitations on the plain.

    By three o'clock in the afternoon the marines from the Buffalo were drawn up in a line and the whole of the colonists assembled in front of Mr Gouger's tent. Oaths of office were administered in the privacy of his abode and an announcement was agreed upon 'requiring all to obey laws and declaring the Aborigines to have equal rights and an equal claim to the white man upon the protection of the Government.'

    Mr Gouger then stepped outside and read the commission in public when 'a feue de joie was fired by the marines, the white ensign hoisted, and a salute fired by the ships.' The official draft of the proclamation was then handed to Mr Robert Thomas for copies to be printed on the Stanhope Press housed a little distance away in a reed hut.

    It was these settlers who made the first contact with the Aborigines and one day a passenger from the Africaine, Mr Williams, was out shooting near the lagoons when he came across two natives, a man and a boy, in the act of lighting a fire. They did not observe his approach so, looking to the priming of his gun, he advanced upon them. Startled, they seized their spears, but Mr Williams held out a biscuit, whereupon they came cautiously towards him.

    They exchanged signs of mutual friendship and the white man induced them to go back to Holdfast Bay with him. Together they did a circuit of the settlement. The Aborigines peeped into tents and examined everything that met their eyes and as their confidence increased showed themselves highly delighted with what they saw. They were greatly astonished at the opening and shutting of an umbrella, nor could they understand the working of a lucifer match after the laborious fire-kindling to which they were accustomed.

    They shook hands with everyone, male and female, without being at all abashed, in spite of the fact that they were both stark naked. Afterwards they were taken to the commissioners' stores and fitted out in trousers, flannel shirt and woollen cap. Before they left they slept for three nights before Mr William's camp fire on the bare ground.

    From this visit may be dated the beginning of intercourse between black and white on the Adelaide plains.

    The Township of Glenelg - 1839-1904

    (Taken from an unpublished manuscript by Geoffrey H Manning's Glenelg - A Social History - 1836-1936 - copy in State Library)

    The name ?Glenelg? honours Lord Glenelg, whose baptismal name was Charles Grant. Born in Bengal, India, in 1778 he went to England in 1790 and at the time of founding of South Australia was Secretary of State for the Colonies; he died in 1866.

    In 1839 the South Australian Government called tenders for the purchase of 65 acres of land at Glenelg for one pound per acre. More than 1,000 tenders were submitted and the winner subsequently drawn by ballot. One barrel containing blanks (with the exception of one bearing the word ?Glenelg?) were drawn by the Colonial Chaplain, and a second barrel containing the names of the applicants by Mr (later Sir) John Morphett. William Finke was the holder of the lucky paper and one of a syndicate of six comprising Osmond Gilles (the Colonial Treasurer), Miss E. Blunden (Mr Gilles's ward), J. Oakden (Mr Gilles? nephew), H.R. Wigley SM, Matthew Smith, solicitor and Mr Finke, who was the Chief Clerk in the Treasury. The land grant was issued to W. Finke on 23 March 1839. This land was north of today's Jetty Road and an interested settler, John Bond Phipson was to recall:

    In alienating the Glenelg section care was taken to reserve an acre for a Custom House for government purposes and, on the same day that Finke's tender for the section of Glenelg was formally accepted (9 February 1839), the contract for its construction was secured by Messrs East and Breeze who, by November 1839, were reported to have practically completed the work - the contract price was £340. It was at this time that Governor Gawler requested the proprietors to name the church 'st Peter's? and the public square ?Torrens?.

    Close to the Custom House was a flagstaff serving as a Signal Station for the announcement of the arrival of ships. John Anthony, Customs Officer, had to hoist a flag whenever a vessel was sighted coming up the Gulf, and had instructions that at the same time he was to fire one or two guns. One gun signified the arrival of a ship from one of the other colonies, and two guns of a vessel from England.

    A plan is held in the Lands Department showing the ?Township of Glenelg? as designed and surveyed by Messrs Light and Finniss and Co. in 1839 and approved by Governor Gawler; however, this plan only shows the road pattern and not the allotments and it covers only the land granted to Mr Finke. On 22 January 1855 a plan certified by R.B. Colley, Henry R. Wigley, Osmond Gilles and Matthew Smith, as being a correct plan of the Township of Glenelg, was deposited in the General Registry Office. This plan shows the allotments and covers the same area as Light's plan.

    By the years 1841-1842 there were about half a dozen houses erected at the Bay, and any one of the owners could have turned out his horse at night and catch it readily next morning. There was at that time no bridge across the Sturt River and, when its waters rose, a resident of Glenelg had no alternative other than remain there until they subsided. Accordingly, Sir John Morphett, H.R. Wigley and a few others clubbed together to build the first wooden bridge at a cost of about £45.

    As to the infant village and remnants of the original settlement, in correspondence to the Adelaide Observer in 1877, Mr W.H. Leigh provided extracts from a letter written in 1839:

    Nathaniel Hailes visited the incipient village in 1842 and recalled that:

    By the spring of 1843 it was declared that the pleasant little watering place of Glenelg could truly be called a growing township, although its advances were not made with such ?rapid strides as anticipated by its founders.? It was said that two or three additional bathing machines were to be provided for the ensuing season and that a new host and hostess would greet visitors at the Glenelg Hotel:

    Within six months this ?pleasant marine township? was becoming a favourite resort for sea bathing. There were upwards of 20 houses in the township and immediate neighbourhood, chiefly occupied by ?respectable families both from town and country.? Taking advantages of circumstances, Mr Green has established himself in that ?large and handsome inn and boarding house called the Glenelg Hotel.? This building was well situated and commanded a beautiful view. Mr Green, the licensee, had a number of boarders and many visitors and a great name for ?liquors and vivres (food), accommodation, attendance, and above all, for reasonable charges.?

    Within a further two years many houses were available for rental purposes and, during the summer months of 1845, all available places were engaged for the summer and some of them even taken for a year; accordingly, some holidaying families were obliged to board at the hotel. At this time the permanent residents of the village included the families of Messrs Mundy, Giles, Birrell, H.W. Phillips, King (Gawler Town), Bickford, Fleming, J. Stephens and Mrs Howard. In an effort to extol the attractions of the resort a roving reporter opined that ?we believe no shark has been seen since the foundation of the colony.?

    In September 1849 it was reported that the invalids of Adelaide were taking advantage of the 'salubrious air of this delightful marine township?, while shooting, fishing, bathing, boating, drives and strolls, ?enabled one to pass away the time most agreeably.? The township was extended during the preceding year, having been embellished with several most substantial edifices. Further, it boasted of a chapel, boarding school, three small stores and two large inns.

    By 1851 the town consisted of sixty houses and more than 200 inhabitants, while a new township called New Glenelg was being laid out to the south of the existing one. Within ten years the mere township of former days had become a corporate town and the 'splendid pier erected at the public expense being the point of arrival and departure for the English mails and of passengers to and from the ocean steamships?. A Custom House has been established and Captain Duff appointed Harbour Master and Collector of Customs:

    Visitors to the Bay in March 1857 would have observed a huge machine opposite Government Cottage and a quantity of heavy timber lying adjacent thereto. The machine was driving piles for a bridge to lead over the creek at St Leonards, while the telegraph line from Adelaide was ?quietly opened? on 3 September 1859 when messages were exchanged between the Governor and Mayor of Glenelg. William Jewell became the resident superintendent and conducted telegraph services continuously, except between 10 pm on Saturday and 2 am on Sunday.

    In 1858, the extensive plain that stretched away from the sandhills was dotted over with neat and comfortable homesteads, long lines of hedgerows and regular fencing, with green patches of fruit trees, vines and grass, that indicated an order of things which 22 years before would not have been imagined. The wurleys of the nomadic Aboriginal had given way to the settled home of the white man and pretty cottages and elegant mansions were to be seen at frequent intervals for the entire distance between the Glenelg creek and the rocks below Brighton, ?affording promise that the dry and sandy beach would become one long site of several flourishing villages.?

    By October 1863 many new buildings, comprising large residences as well a several of the cottage order, had been completed. The style of these buildings was a great improvement on those of their predecessors for in the early days of the colony mud walls were predominant, a few cottages being of wood and still fewer of inferior bricks. Later, a 'sort of soft stone? found in the immediate neighbourhood was commonly used. Its appearance was good and some of the houses thus constructed had an imposing look; but there was evidence to show that it would soon decay.

    For example, the walls of two promenades above the beach gave evidence of this as the stones were seen to be ?absolutely retiring from the mortar.? The same was the case with those of several large buildings, in the construction of which ?economy rather than utility had been consulted.? But some houses then being erected construction were, in more than one case, being built of Glen Osmond stone and even cottages had walls of that material 18 inches thick.

    Fish and oysters were abundant at Glenelg, but the supply was ?fitful and uncertain.? To meet this difficulty, the landlord of the principal hotel provided himself with a large floating reservoir, divided into eight compartments in which he kept several varieties of fish, including crayfish and oysters; this was moored to the jetty - the oyster and fishing industries are discussed in another chapter. Other requisites of life were well furnished - the meat, bread and milk were excellent, while vegetable carts traversed the streets daily with garden produce as good as could be bought in Adelaide.

    A fierce gale struck Glenelg on 13 May 1865 and the earthworks at the entrance of the jetty were washed away, while the sea made havoc among the bathing houses, several of which were destroyed. Some had been completely turned around and stood with their doors open facing the promenade. The large boathouse near the pier was ?wholly beaten down?, but the Argus boats in it received no injury. In Jetty Road the water rose as far as the steps and nearly reached the front doors of the Pier Hotel.

    Further south, the stone pillar at the corner of Mr Jaffrey's land (occupied later by Mr J.B. Neales) was carried away. The sandhills were cleared off for a considerable distance and, instead of sloping gently to the strand, they formed perpendicular cliffs, in some instances about ten feet high. A bathing house recently erected a little beyond Mr Scott's road was broken up and its fragments lodged on the south sea wall near the Pier Hotel. The creek rose to an unusual height and the little footbridge over the watercourse near the Town Hall was carried away entirely.

    David Shepard, son of Captain Thomas Shepard of the South Australian Company, spent his boyhood at Glenelg in the pre-railway days; served for a time on Warcowie sheep station; was a midshipman on Sir Thomas Elder's ship Collingrove and in later life owned pleasure boats on Torrens Lake. In his reminiscences he mentions no dates, but does provide us with this clue - He and a friend briefly impersonated the Royal Princes Albert Victor and George at their arrival on Glenelg jetty, which suggests that the writer was in his late teens at the time of the Royal Visit in 1881:

    By the end of 1865 the ?utter failure of the commercial anticipations once entertained with reference to the port of Glenelg?, forcibly suggested the desirability of undertaking to render it increasingly attractive as a watering place. It was being realised that Glenelg could not wrest away the marine trade from Port Adelaide while, conversely, Port Adelaide could not compete with Glenelg as a watering place and summer retreat for the citizens of the metropolis and its suburbs - that is supposing justice was done to Glenelg, and an irate ?Glenelgite?, with lingering doubts on this subject, cast some of the blame squarely upon the shoulders of council members:

    Glenelg had, however, improved much in previous years in spite of cold neglect and want of enterprise in certain quarters. There were good shops, good inns and good lodging houses, handsome churches and good schools. The township had improved, but it was the beach that was neglected and yet it was to the beach that the township had to look for progress:

    A decade of expansion followed, but in its wake came the spoliation of the environment, coupled with an increase in noxious odours and outbreaks of fatal diseases. In June 1875 Glenelg was turned into a watering place in an extremely unpleasant sense of the word for much of the municipality was converted into a large lagoon in which houses, fences and other permanent objects stood out like dreary landmarks, roughly indicating the course of the streets, the boundaries of properties and serving as indices of the depth of the water.

    Many residents had to seek shelter elsewhere, houses being permanently injured and the roads seriously damaged. But this was not the worst of the evil for there was an alarming prospect of the watery visitation proving a further source of danger to the community. The presence of so much stagnant water must have ?eventuated to the generation of miasma highly prejudicial to the health of the citizens.? Mr H.R. Wigley was of the opinion that the only remedial action available was to remove obstructions out of the way of the free course of the water down the River Sturt and ?this work the Corporation cannot perform... The matter should receive prompt attention at the hands of the government.?

    The aftermath of this inundation came in the form of a warning given to the citizens of Glenelg in September 1875:

    Four years later an enterprising Editor of the Register assigned one of his reporters to visit the villages stretching along the coast from Semaphore to Marino and in respect of Glenelg and near environs he said:

    It was at this time the ?Health of Towns? became the subject of parliamentary debate until, finally, it was realised that the public health was paramount and that no private interests ought to stand in the way of extensive reforms. At that time Adelaide and environs, including Glenelg, were the scene of fetid gutters, putrefying rubbish heaps, stagnant pools, stinking cellars, noxious trades and disease producing food. Further, many school rooms were ill-ventilated, while many dwellings were unsuitable for the climate, for they protected their inmates neither from winter cold nor summer heat.

    The strongest objection against sanitary reforms was the cost, for they could not be accomplished without considerable expenditure, which meant increased taxation. Unfortunately, people had a great impatience of taxation and, undoubtedly, this was the one reason above all that prevented the carrying out of some grand scheme of drainage in Adelaide and suburbs.

    The ratepayers dreaded the cost and, so long as disease and death kept a distance, they were willing to stand on the brink of danger which could break out at any moment, rather than tax themselves to a moderate amount to avert that danger. It was well known that nothing was more expensive in a family than sickness and the cost of one attack of fever might be more in pounds than a sanitary rate would be in pence. For the public to shut their eyes, generally, to remedial action was the greatest of all follies.

    The best system for Adelaide was a matter for experts and professional men to determine, but the consensus of opinion at the time was for the implementation of a system of deep drainage, than with mere scavenging. All other systems were dirty and offensive, but any would have been an improvement over the apology for the one then operating.

    During following years the importance of sanitary improvement was impressed upon the people, together with the fact that the soil upon which houses and shops were built was being permeated and poisoned by noxious refuse which, instead of being removed, was allowed to sink into the earth. Accordingly, it was to the credit of the government that the question was taken up for there was not a more important question to claim the attention of the legislature.

    At Glenelg and elsewhere there were slaughterhouses to be met with, which were merely wooden sheds and had not been cleansed for years past. Yet they abutted upon streets used by residents and discharged their impurities, without gutter or drainage of any kind, upon the public roads. Pigsties were also to be seen in the same unwholesome state and there were localities where, on account of these causes, property was considerably depreciated in value.

    There was no excuse for such nuisances because land existed in the vicinity that was readily available for the proper carrying on of every trade and where no one needed to be a source of trouble and inconvenience to his neighbours. But, since there were persons who would not do this, it was necessary for the corporation to interfere and thus prevent the neighbourhood from obtaining a bad character in sanitary matters and to prevent continued injury to the inhabitants.

    By 1875 the death rate in South Australia was substantially above the average for the preceding ten years with infant mortality being the largest single contributor - it reached the staggering total of 1,113, ie, 30% of all deaths in the colony. This death rate was the worst in the Australian colonies and at this time and ?in the City of Adelaide [it] was more than 40 per cent greater than in the remainder of the colony? - mute evidence of the wanton neglect of Parliament and Councils in framing and enforcing an adequate Health Act.

    Where sewers were not connected, the cemented and watertight cesspits were a menace to the public health and the authorities suggested that these pits should only be cemented at the sides, leaving the bottoms free. The liquids could then escape and the free use of dry earth, wood ashes, dry slack lime or even carbonised sawdust would be a great preventative of ?unpleasantness?.

    One of the most dangerous customs of the day practised in some households was the habit of throwing the dirty water, etc., into the backyard. The recommended plan was to have a series of holes into which it should be emptied, and the hole frequently covered in and fresh ones provided. In the case of large gardens, where there was no underground drainage, the water was conveyed over the garden by drains made of brick and tarred over.

    Further, it was recommended that all kitchen refuse be carefully collected and burned or carted away. With reference to milk and water it was absolutely necessary that all milk be boiled and water either boiled or filtered; boiled water was potable for two days only. The ordinary filters used in households consisted of alternate layers of sand, gravel and charcoal, the water having first passed through a sponge; unfortunately, many householders failed to clean the filters regularly with the result that they became ineffective.

    No positive action was taken at Glenelg until 23 June 1879 when a meeting of citizens was held. Previously, the government, following a request from the council for an appropriate sum be placed on the Estimates, had refused to subsidise any expenditure spent on drainage works at Glenelg. The government was adamant and it appeared that the only alternative would be to secure the cost of such a scheme against the rates of the township. However, an editor of the Adelaide press had certain misgivings as to the capabilities of council members:

    At the public meeting Mr Chamier said the scheme would cost about £7,000 and Mr Nicholson moved that the council ?take immediate steps to provide for the drainage of Glenelg? because eminent medical men had given evidence that Glenelg was in an unhealthy state from defective drainage and, as health was of paramount importance, it ?behoved everyone to do what was in their power to support the scheme.? Mr H.R. Wigley then rose to his feet and said that the unhealthy condition of Glenelg was caused mainly by the overflow of the Sturt River which the doctors said caused much ill health and, further, it must not be forgotten that the ?government had been most liberal in the past in keeping back its waters that inundated the place on an annual basis.?

    Finally, it was decided that a copy of Mr Chamier's report be furnished to all ratepayers and that the matter be reconsidered at a later date which, in respect of a deep drainage scheme, turned out to be some 21 years later! - namely, 22 February 1900, when Mr F.W. Ralph moved that ?although the present sanitary system is satisfactory, a committee be appointed to enquire as to the advisableness of introducing deep drainage.?

    An outbreak of typhoid fever occurred in May 1884 and ?it was very prevalent around the district.? The outbreak was attributed to the fact that, while watercourses carried all excess water from North Glenelg to the sea via the Patawalonga, at South Glenelg flood waters were trapped behind the sandhills, thereby creating stagnant pools. ?In an endeavour to alleviate the problem a scheme was presented to clear the Sturt drain and to form two main drains running along St Ann's Terrace to Spencer Terrace and along Adelaide Road to Osmond Terrace. From these it was planned to lay sub-radial drains 18 inches wide to Pasquin Street; the main drains to be 24 inches wide, with an outflow to Patawalonga Creek.?

    In January 1885, at a meeting of the Glenelg Local Board of Health, the subject of a ?closet system? was discussed as a means to 'supplement the system now in vogue in the town.? Mr Sabine thought that a dry earth system should be introduced and made compulsory, while the Chairman suggested that all existing cesspits be examined and any faulty ones be condemned and converted to the dry earth system at a cost from 15 shillings to £4.

    It was resolved that as soon as 50 householders signified their intention to adopt the new system the Local Board of Health would take steps to cause such a system to be adopted. The Dry Earth Closet was invented by Henry Moule and he took out a patent for it in 1873 in England. ?This was a compact neat wooden structure with a removal bucket. Concealed within a frame at the back of the seat was a container for dry earth which was released into a bucket by a lever system operated by the right hand.?

    In an interregnum, from 1885 until 1900, letters from Messrs Wigley, Lee and Dr Ferguson give an interesting and amusing insight into the opinions of Glenelg citizens as to the oversight of the town's general health environment:

    A poll was held on 1 December 1902 when ratepayers authorised a scheme, but nothing eventuated until July 1903 when 183 ratepayers wrote to the Commissioner of Public Works requesting that the necessary work be undertaken without any further delay. Subsequently, a public meeting was held when Mr H.D. Gell spoke out against it and said that Glenelg was one of the three healthiest towns in the State, while Mr Thomas Pickup moved for its introduction - this motion was carried by 56 votes to 25, with Mr Gell and five other ratepayers demanding a poll. The Mayor ruled this demand out of order as the ?question had been decided on 1 December 1902 at a poll.? Work commenced in April 1904, when it was expected that ?the drainage scheme would be completed within twelve months.?

    And so we come to the end of Glenelg's 65th year and, perhaps, a fitting close to this chapter could be a citizen's eulogy delivered in 1906 and an opinion of the town rendered in 1908:

    Observer, 12 August 1843, p. 5, 8 September 1849, p. 2, 27 March 1858, p. 8, 14 April 1877, p. 12, Southern Australian, 2 February 1844, p. 3, 11 February 1845, p. 3, Register, 18 May 1839, p 4, 11 March 1857, p. 2, 10 October 1863, p. 2, 15 May 1865 p. 2, 28 June 1875, p. 5, 11 September 1875, p. 4, 8 May 1878, 8 May 1879, p. 5, 23 June 1879, p. 4, 23 March 1880, p. 1 (supp.), 30 April 1884, p. 7, 1 and 10 May 1884, pp. 7 and 5, 24 January 1885, p. 4, 11 and 21 July 1903, pp. 7 and 4, 9 and 14 April 1904, pp. 11 and 4, 12 February 1908, p. 7, Advertiser, 5 September 1859, p. 2, 24 February 1860, p. 3, 1 August 1864, p. 2, 15 November 1865, p. 3, Express & Telegraph, 13 October 1873, p. 2, The Critic, 1 August 1906, pp. 13-19. Dulcie Perry, The Place of Waters, reminiscences of David Shepard, MLSA ref. D 4888 (L).

    Launching of the Vessel OG at Glenelg

    A start to colonial shipbuilding was undertaken at Glenelg on behalf of the South Australian Company when the OG, named after Osmond Gilles, the Colonial Treasurer, was erected and launched. An eyewitness has left us with the following account of the proceedings:

    The vessel OG was a 28 foot cutter of nine tons; it was altered to 35 feet and 12 tons in 1845 and wrecked at Poole's Flat, near Second Valley, in 1854.

    General Notes

    "The First Immigrant Landed at Holdfast Bay" is in the Observer,
    26 December 1868, page 4f.

    George Stevenson's journal is reproduced in Royal Geographical Society Proceedings Volume 30, page 55 and it says, inter alia - "Saturday, December 31 [1836]:

    "Whence Glenelg Got Its Name" is in the Advertiser,
    28 December 1937, page 8h.

    A public meeting in respect of the colony's 21st birthday is reported upon in the Observer,
    5 December 1857, page 6f; also see
    2 January 1858, page 6a.

    An interesting poem concerning the "proclamation" and the Old Gum Tree is in the Observer,
    20 February 1886, page 25e.

    "Proclamation of the State" is in the Observer,
    25 April 1914, page 33a.

    "The First Proclamation Day" is in the Advertiser,
    30 December 1907, page 7d.
    Reminiscences of Proclamation Day in 1836 are in the Advertiser,
    28 December 1910, page 10c,
    28 December 1923, page 8g,
    "Memories of Early Commemorations" on
    28 December 1922, page 9a,
    "The First 28th" on
    23 July 1925, page 12e.

    An old colonist's thoughts in 1836 are recorded in the Register of 12 April 1877 at page 5a:

    Information on the log of HMS Buffalo is in the Register,
    19 and 26 February 1927, pages 12a and 9e.

    "Glenelg in 1837 - An Interesting Letter", by Therese Chauncey dated February 1837, is reproduced in the Advertiser,
    28 December 1897, page 5f.

    "Holdfast Bay in Olden Times" is in the Register,
    23 March 1880, page 1g (supp.),
    3 April 1880, page 567c.
    Reminiscences of early Glenelg are in the Register,
    8 October 1886, page 7f.

    "Historic Glenelg - Interesting Past Recalled" is in the Advertiser,
    21 August 1915, page 16a; also see
    23 July 1928, pages 8-11.

    "The Cradle of the State - Its Foundation and Development" is in The Mail,
    16 January 1915, page 7.

    An informative article headed "The Birthplace of the State" is in the Advertiser,
    12 November 1924, page 8c.

    "Growth of Glenelg" is in The Mail,
    26 March 1927, page 17a.
    Sketch of the 1830s are in the Observer,
    21 December 1895, page 2 (supp.),
    of the 1870s in the Chronicle,
    30 April 1936, page 32, also see
    Pictorial Australian,
    July 1875, November 1877,
    April 1879, June 1880,
    March 1883, September 1883,
    June 1886, pages 88-89.

    A proposal for a commemoration monument is in the Chronicle,
    22 December 1883, page 5b;
    a proposed memorial to pioneers is discussed in The News,
    4 and 15 May 1936, pages 3g and 7f;
    its opening is reported in the Advertiser,
    28 December 1936, page 11h.

    Foundation Day photographs are in the Chronicle,
    2 January 1904, page 42,
    7 January 1905, page 28.

    "Old Memories" is in the Register,
    3 August 1918, page 9e.

    Glenelg, River - Goodwood
    Place Names



    Examinations at the Albert House Academy are reported in the Register,
    8 April 1856, page 3e.

    Information on a proposed school is in the Register,
    3 July 1858, page 3b.

    The first examinations at the public school are reported in the Register,
    27 November 1860, page 3g; also see
    28 May 1861, page 3e.

    Information on a school is in the Register,
    28 May 1861, page 3e,
    1 June 1861, page 3c,
    12 February 1863, page 3d,
    29 September 1863, page 2g.

    The proposed erection of a schoolhouse is discussed in the Register,
    29 September 1863, page 2g. See
    21 May 1864, page 4a,
    18 June 1864, page 1g (supp.),
    14 June 1864, page 2h for its opening and
    4 January 1865, page 3e.
    A public meeting in respect of a school is reported in the Observer,
    24 September 1864, page 3b; also see
    4 January 1865, page 3b.

    Examinations at the Glenelg Preparatory School are reported in the Register,
    25 June 1868, page 2h.

    Letters in respect of local schools are in the Register,
    8, 9 and 13 December 1869, pages 3b, 3g and 2h.

    Information on the hulk Harriet Hope is in the Register,
    27 September 1876, page 3g,
    30 September 1876, page 8b,
    17 March 1877, page 11d,
    7 and 18 May 1881, pages 5c and 4g-5b-6b-3a (supp.); also see
    17 and 26 August 1881, pages 6f and 5c-6d,
    25 June 1881, page 1132d,
    20 and 27 August 1881, pages 30b and 30b,
    5 September 1881, page 6c and South Australia - Crime, Law and Punishment.
    A proposed school on the Glenelg hulk is discussed in the Advertiser,
    11 April 1877, page 6g.

    Examinations at the Grammar School are reported in the Register,
    19 December 1874, page 7,
    18 December 1875, page 4f,
    19 December 1879, page 6g,
    18 June 1881, page 3e,
    17 December 1891, page 2c and
    those of the Ladies' College in the Register,
    22 June 1883, page 7g.

    A Grammar School sports day is reported in the Chronicle,
    15 November 1884, page 15g.
    A photograph is in the Observer,
    6 January 1917, page 28.
    Reminiscences of the Glenelg Grammar School are in the Advertiser,
    30 November 1936, page 21a.

    Information on local schools is in the Advertiser,
    2 February 1876, page 6b,
    13 September 1879, page 6c,
    2 December 1881, page 3a.
    A photograph of Mrs Hillier's "old school" is in the Observer,
    14 August 1926, page 33.

    Information on Caterer's school is in the Register,
    1 January 1877, page 7b,
    26 August 1892, page 2b and
    the opening of New College on
    4 October 1892, page 4c.
    Mr F.L. Caterer's obituary is in the Register,
    27 and 29 August 1892, pages 5b and 4h-6b.

    The opening of the new public school is reported in the Register,
    1 March 1881, page 5f; also see
    24 July 1885, page 4c.

    Information on Mrs S.G. Kingston's and Miss Dow's school is in the Express,
    19 December 1892, page 3e,
    23 December 1893, page 22b.

    "The New College" is in the Observer,
    8 October 1892, page 30d.

    A farewell to Alexander Kemp, headmaster of the public school, is reported in the Register
    18 September 1895, page 6e,
    21 September 1895, page 13d.

    A speech day at Yoothamurra School is reported in the Register,
    20 December 1895, page 7f.
    A photograph of and information the school is in the Observer,
    25 August 1906, page 30,
    25 August 1906, page 30.

    A St Joseph's School concert is reported in the Express,
    19 December 1901, page 2c.

    A ball in aid of St Peter's Day School, with photographs, is reported in the Observer,
    13 August 1904, page 24.

    An obituary of J.R.P. Parsons, headmaster, is in the Observer,
    12 August 1905, page 38e.

    "Kindergarten at Glenelg" is in the Register,
    11 May 1914, page 6e.

    The unveiling of a Roll of Honour at the Marist Brothers College is in the Chronicle,
    29 September 1917, page 26.

    The laying of the foundation stone of an infants' school is reported in The News,
    24 April 1929;
    for information on its Mothers' Club see
    4 April 1929, page 10c.

    Photographs of a jubilee celebration are in the Chronicle,
    26 March 1931, page 36; also see
    20 April 1933, page 34.
    Photographs of an Arbor Day are in the Observer,
    31 July 1930, page 31.

    Photographs of the Woodlands Girls School are in the Chronicle,
    20 April 1933, page 31,
    13 September 1934, page 36,
    9 May 1935, page 31,
    30 July 1936, page 35,
    of kindergarten students on
    22 August 1935, page 31.

    Glenelg, River - Goodwood
    Place Names


    Jetty, Breakwater and Lighthouses

    Also see South Australia - Maritime Affairs - Lighthouses and Lightships

    A History of the Jetty

    At the time of the foundation of the Glenelg township the proprietors proposed to erect a jetty for, to them, it was ?clear that few large vessels would now go around to the port if facilities for discharging cargoes were provided at Glenelg? and it was suggested that:

    To this end authority was sought from the Governor and, at public meeting held in the Adelaide Court House on 26 November 1839, Captain Alfred Fell moved that a company be formed with a capital of £2,000. By mid-December land had been secured in the township upon which it was proposed to erect warehouses which were to be ?provided with cranes and cellars and other accommodation for the storing of goods.? It was also considered possible ?to bring loaded barges from the ships along one of the natural hollows, actually within the warehouses.? Work commenced in 1840 but, to Governor Gawler's disquiet, nothing further was done although ?a large entertainment was given at Glenelg in honour of driving the first pile.?

    The question of a jetty at Glenelg was next considered in 1850 when, on 1 September, the Glenelg Jetty Committee was formed which, at once, entered into correspondence with the government, having previously themselves subscribed a sum of money to procure plans and estimates for their guidance, which were furnished by Mr Aird, providing for a jetty 1,000 feet in length with six feet of water at the sea end:

    The committee then placed a submission before the Governor, Sir Henry Young, who at the time refused assistance. In October 1851 a meeting took place for the purpose of erecting a pleasure pier at Holdfast Bay. The plan proposed was from a sketch of some standing already paid for by the subscribers. People present stated that the sea bottom was good for piles and that 1,600 feet could be constructed for £1,899 - 'shares [would] be made so easy that every poor man might join, and walk backwards and forwards on the pier at his leisure.? In November 1851 the same parties formed themselves into a company and raised a considerable sum in shares with every prospect of being able to accomplish their object without government aid.

    Then came the gold discovery in Victoria when every kind of local enterprise was abandoned and further movement respecting the jetty was suspended. In July 1853 a memorial signed by ?merchants, ship owners and others? was circulated stating that:

    In September 1853 Mr George Kingston moved in the Legislative Council that the petition be taken into consideration and that an Address be presented to the Governor; this motion was lost by a majority of six, while in December of that year Captain J.F. Duff addressed His Excellency the Governor in respect of the construction of a jetty at Glenelg and in doing so traversed the merits and demerits of both Port Adelaide and Glenelg as ports:

    In answer to this request the Colonial Secretary, B.T. Finniss, responded on behalf of the governor:

    An estimate was made for a jetty at Glenelg in 1854 by Mr Bennett Hays, Colonial Architect, amounting to £10,400 and, after due enquiry, £20,000 were placed on the estimates. A public meeting, convened by Mr R.B. Colley, the Mayor of Glenelg, was held on 6 February 1856 at the Glenelg Hotel to consider an opinion expressed by Mr Dutton in parliament that ?the only fit site for a jetty at Glenelg would be opposite the lightship? but:

    When the erection of the jetty was first determined Mr Hays proposed to place it near the creek in a line with the Adelaide Road, but upon the recommendation of the Jetty Commission the site was changed to ?north of Moseley's hotel? and, until the commencement of its construction, a heated debate raged among various interested citizens who owned land contiguous to the two sites.

    Firstly, Henry Muirhead contended that at the public meeting held in March 1857:

    To this accusation, suggested as being heinous by proponents of the southern site, Mr R.B. Colley, proclaimed that:

    Thomas Lipson, a former colonial Harbour Master, then entered the fray on behalf of the northern site:

    And so the arguments waxed and waned, the following being a small selection from angry participants in a debate that served no good purpose for the government was not to be swayed away from the recommendation of the Jetty Commission:

    After considerable delays the material was landed at a cost of £22,830.16s.7d. In August 1857 work commenced on the jetty designed on a principle patented by a Mr Mitchell in the 1830s and one of the first piles was driven by the Governor on 29 August 1857:

    In October 1857, Henry Graystone was severely injured when a ?key?, which had been screwed into a pile and weighing several hundredweights, suddenly swerved around causing him to lose his balance and to be precipitated on to the hard sand, following which he was removed to a nearby house, Dr Popham was called and it was found that he had sustained several injuries to the spine with compression of the spinal cord, causing total paralysis of the lower half of the body:

    There was much criticism of the standards of work of the English manufacturer, who was responsible for all of the iron work upon the jetty, portion of which first arrived on the Berkshire on 10 March 1857, and to this end the editor of the Observer castigated him:

    The jetty was intended principally for the convenience of small coasting steamers and sailing vessels; also to enable large ships, whose draft of water was too great when deeply laden, to go over the bar entrance at Port Adelaide to discharge part of their cargo; and for the more speedy landing of mails. Its extreme length was 1,250 feet with a depth of 12 feet at low, and 18 feet at high water at the head, where vessels discharged and had a double line of rails laid down upon it. The pier, being exposed in windy weather to a short, choppy sea, was sheltered at the head by a breakwater and upon completion its total cost amounted to £34,294.

    Monday, 25 April 1859, was a proud day for the rising township of Glenelg when upwards of 2,000 people gathered to witness the opening of the jetty by the Governor. From an early hour the Bay Road was dusty with the transit of carriages and ?monster omnibuses? filled with joyous holiday makers, ?all bent on associating a healthy excursion with the celebration of the terminated construction of one of the most important public works in the colony.?

    A ?gross injustice? was inflicted upon the economic welfare of Glenelg in 1862 when one of the cranes was removed from the jetty and, in an effort to ?prevent such an uncalled spoliation?, Henry Moseley addressed the local press:

    On 7 November 1865 the first merchant vessel to discharge cargo at the jetty arrived and to celebrate the occasion a public dinner was held at the Pier Hotel on 15 November. The vessel was the barque Anna, under the command of Captain Watson, and it had sailed from Newcastle, NSW, with 200 tons of coal for Henry Moseley. Due to rough weather the vessel had to anchor off the jetty for three days.

    Later, on 18 November 1865 the Mayor of Glenelg and several gentlemen attended at the hotel for the purpose of presenting Captain Watson with a handsome binocular glass which had been subscribed by those citizens present. A toast was drunk to Mr Moseley ?whose enterprise had been the means of introducing the first cargo of coals into Glenelg? and in reply that gentleman said that:

    The jetty was also used for recreation purposes by many youths of the town and cranes at the head of the jetty were resorted to by adventurous bathers who used them as a diving platform. Many persons had been in the habit of discouraging bathing from off the jetty bulwarks, considering the leap from the steps as quite enough for all purposes of enjoyment. However, in February 1870, a foolhardy youth, whilst plunging from the top of a crane, ?failed to take proper aim?, and fell on his side in the water, to his own evident discomfort.

    During 1872 many adverse opinions were enunciated in the House of Assembly by some members that the Glenelg jetty should not be repaired out of the general revenue and, in support of the legislators, a correspondent under the pseudonym of ?Alert? penned the following:

    At the same time the Register's ?Geoffrey Crabthorn? interposed with a satirical piece and a poem:

    At 8.30 pm on Sunday, 7 September 1873, the wooden lighthouse at the end of the jetty was seen to be on fire and, immediately, a large number of people gathered and emptied the building of its contents, while Mr Bruce, the owner of a cutter, rendered some service by climbing to the cross yard of the signal shaft and hauled up buckets of water which were then thrown on the flames. A little before 9 o?clock Messrs, Thomson, Manuel and Robinson, three drivers of John Hill and Company's omnibuses, chopped away the base with axes and with poles pushed the building over into the sea.

    Just before the fire originated two young boys, the sons of Mr Fischer of the Pier Hotel and Mr Bungert, a butcher of Freeman Street, Adelaide, were in the tower attending to the lamp. Fischer asked Bungert for a light and the latter, having struck a match, threw it on the floor just below the lamp. There was some cotton soaked in kerosene there and it ignited thus causing the destruction of the building. The Government arranged a temporary light in its stead by affixing it to the flagstaff, while a week or two later the Marine Board approved plans ?for the proposed additions to the Glenelg jetty and of the new lighthouse to be erected thereon.?

    In his reminiscences held in the State Library, David Shepard recalls that:

    The brig Waverley was seen off the jetty at 3 am on 30 December 1873 when a strong south-easterly breeze was blowing and Mr Newett, the mail contractor, who was awaiting the arrival of the P&O's Company ship Milora fired a rocket to warn the brig away. The course of the vessel was altered but too late to prevent a collision with the end of the jetty. A pile driving engine was rolled over and a portion of the flagstaff carried away while the Regatta Committee was inconvenienced when a temporary office, erected the previous day by means of canvas and rope, was destroyed, the chairs and tables being smashed and ?generally disposed of.? Several young men were sleeping at the site and one was injured during the collision.

    The jetty was the scene of a tragedy in July 1876 when Mrs Mary McCarthy was crushed by a truck driven by an employee of Mr Bowker, of Glenelg. At a trial, where Mr McCarthy sought to recover damages for the injuries sustained by his wife, it was reported that it was almost impossible for any person to pass between the truck and the railing without being crushed, although one witness asserted that he had seen the truck pass men and boys who were leaning over the railing. The jury awarded Mrs McCarthy £45 which, ?though it will doubtless be of great service to the family, who are people in humble circumstances, will yet badly compensate the poor woman for the pain she has suffered...?

    Prior to 1876 ornamental lamps were used with varying success in the lighthouse; sometimes burning well, but at others in stormy weather, when light was most needed, became extinguished. All difficulties in this respect were overcome in 1876 when these old oil and kerosene lamps were replaced by their ?more modern and brilliant rival, gas.? In trials carried out aboard the cutter, Rosa, the general illumination of the new lamps was to be seen all but eight miles from the shore.

    In April 1882 a deputation from the Glenelg corporation waited upon the Treasurer, Hon. Lavington Glyde, and asked that the Government take steps to lengthen the jetty by about a quarter of a mile, thus permitting the largest vessels to come up and anchor there:

    Another deputation to the Treasurer occurred in 1885 when he was informed that:

    The Treasurer responded that he could not recommend the expenditure but would consult his colleagues.

    The lighthouse and flagstaff at the end of the jetty were provided with a complete set of international signal flags but were put to little use by the lighthouse keeper and, in 1882, Mr Allchurch said that he had not an occasion to use them for three years. However, complaints were made by the master of the Roma that on running up the gulf in thick weather he had mistaken the Glenelg light tower for that of Semaphore. Mr W.E. Slade, the Deputy Assistant Engineer, considered that no lighthouse was required at Glenelg because mail steamers had ceased to call there and recommended its immediate removal and replacement by an ?ordinary jetty light.?

    In 1907 it was proposed to build a pavilion on the jetty to 'supply refreshments of every description on a separate platform? at the north-west corner just inside the L-Head. It was to be constructed on piles with a jarrah floor and built of wood and covering an area of 60 by 45 feet. The main room was to be 15 feet high with a promenade roof around the centre storey terminating with a lookout, with a fancy iron railing. It was to be glazed with leadlight windows and at night lighted with several large lamps. During rough weather patrons would be protected from wind and rain with canvas walls and roofing. The pavilion itself was to be fitted with marble top tables and fancy chairs, while lounge chairs were to be placed outside. In addition, the existing invalids? awning at the extreme end of the jetty was to be removed and ?a more fanciful one erected.?

    The pavilion was erected by Messrs Sigalis & Company at a cost of nearly £2,300 and opened by the Premier, Thomas Price, on 26 October 1907. It was fitted up with ?the latest American principle with temperate drinking fountains?, while a lift was provided for conveying refreshments from the kitchen to each floor. In the course of his opening address Mr Price intimated that:

    To conclude this history of Glenelg's jetties it might be appropriate to recall that, on 1 December 1920, Mr H.W. Varley placed a lighted match to a beacon which had been erected at the sea end of the jetty in the memory of his son, who was killed in France in May 1918. Mr Varley had the complete cooperation of the Marine Board when he offered to erect the light which had a radius of ten miles.

    General Notes

    The proposed formation of a company to construct a pier and erect warehouses is advertised in the Southern Australian, 19 December 1839, page 1d.

    The proposed erection of a "pleasure pier" is reported in the Adelaide Times,
    25 October 1851, page 8e; also see
    14 July 1853, page 2c.

    Comments on a proposed jetty and an account of a "private" jetty in 1850 are in the Register,
    15 August 1853, page 3b; also see
    20 August 1853, page 6d,
    8 October 1853, page 3c,
    31 December 1853, page 3d,
    26 January 1856, page 4c and
    7 February 1856, page 3b
    15 August 1856, page 2f.

    Public meetings in connection with a jetty are reported in the Observer,
    6 June 1857, page 3f.

    For further references see Register,
    11 and 21 March 1857, pages 2e and 2h,
    3 June 1857, page 2f,
    31 August 1857, page 2e,
    14 March 1857, page 6h,
    28 March 1857, page 3f,
    5 September 1857, page 3c,
    27 March 1858, page 8c,
    21, 25 and 26 March 1857, pages 2h, 3a and 3a,
    6 April 1857, page 3a,
    2 June 1857, page 3f,
    3, 5, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 25 and
    27 August 1857, pages 3d, 4c, 3f, 3d, 2h, 3f, 3e, 3h and 3f.

    The commencement of the government structure is reported in the Register,
    31 August 1857, page 2e; also see
    28 October 1857, page 3h,
    25 March 1858, page 2h;
    its opening is recorded on
    26 April 1859, page 3c; also see
    28 March 1859, page 3d.

    Correspondence relating to the cost of the jetty, etc, is in Parliamentary Paper 53/1857.
    Complaints re the removal of the crane is reported in the Register on 30 August 1862, page 3f.

    A report on a proposed breakwater is in Parliamentary Paper 31/1859.
    An editorial in respect of a proposed breakwater is in the Register,
    5 May 1859, page 2h; also see
    15 June 1859, page 2g,
    2 April 1859, page 2d,
    26 September 1877, page 5f,
    28 January 1909, page 4f,
    15 March 1909, page 4h,
    30 December 1910, page 4c,
    12 January 1911, page 4a,
    21 August 1912, page 9e.
    A photograph is in the Observer,
    20 March 1909, page 29,
    13 and 27 March 1915, pages 28 and 29,
    3 June 1915, page 6d.

    A letter re the need for a light on the jetty is in the Register of
    12 August 1859, page 3a.
    The destruction of the lighthouse at the end of the jetty is reported in the Observer,
    13 September 1873, page 10a; also see
    4 October 1873, page 8a,
    16 December 1876, page 3f.
    Its proposed lengthening is reported in the Register,
    12 April 1882, page 6c.

    A Glenelg Regatta is described in the Register,
    29 December 1859, page 3e,
    30 January 1875, page 4d.

    The arrival and discharge of the first merchant vessel at the jetty is reported in the Register,
    16 and 21 November 1865, pages 3h and 2g; also see
    18 November 1865, page 7e.

    A warning against diving off the jetty and instances of death and injury by so doing are recited in the Register,
    8 February 1870, page 5d.
    Early newspaper references in respect of jetties are in the Register,
    17 January 1924, page 9h.

    Satirical comment on the jetty is in the Register,
    30 April 1872, page 5e,
    1 May 1872, page 5c.

    The removal of rails from the jetty is reported in the Express,
    2 May 1872, page 2d.

    A proposed pavilion on the jetty is discussed in the Observer,
    4 May 1907, page 28a;
    its opening is reported in the Advertiser,
    28 October 1907, page 11a.
    Photographs of an on-shore pavilion are in the Observer,
    4 May 1907, page 28.

    A report of a ship colliding with the jetty is in the Observer,
    3 January 1874, page 8b.

    Information on the jetty is in the Register,
    11 and 29 August 1885, pages 6g and 5b.

    An article on the lighthouse is in the Register,
    15 December 1876, page 5a.

    For information on the Beatrice Light see 17 May 1883, page 4g and below.
    Also see South Australia - Maritime Affairs - Lighthouses and Lightships

    "The Glenelg Light" is in the Register,
    16 and 17 September 1881, pages 4g and 6e.

    The "Beatrice Lightship" is mentioned in the Register on
    17 May 1883, page 4g,
    19, 24 and 25 December 1885, pages 5b, 6c and 7g,
    28 January 1886, page 5c,
    5, 11, 12, 23, 26 and 27 February 1886, pages 5c, 7d, 5c-7d, 5d, 4g and 6d,
    3 and 4 March 1886, pages 5a and 4h-7d,
    11, 12, 15, 19 and 22 March 1886, pages 5a, 5a, 5d, 7h and 7c.
    Also see Advertiser,
    30 January 1886, page 4e.

    Information on a hulk is in the Register,
    18 May 1881, page 4g-5b-3a (supp.); also see
    17 August 1881, page 6f,
    5 September 1881, page 6c and note South Australia - Crime, Law and Punishment - Law - Reformatory Hulk.

    On at page 5b in the Register a lady expressed surprise at:

    A male chauvinist of the day responded on 10 February 1872, page 6f: An accident on the jetty is reported in the Observer,
    21 October 1876, page 7f.

    Lighting of the jetty is discussed in the Express,
    15 December 1876, page 2d and
    concerts on the jetty in the Register,
    28 January 1878, page 5c,
    2 February 1879, page 5a; also see
    11 November 1882, page 2c (supp.).

    "The Russian Squadron at Glenelg" is in the Chronicle,
    4 March 1882, pages 5f-10d.

    "Lighthouse and Flagstaff on Jetty" is in the Register,
    24 September 1891, page 5b.

    A proposed harbour is discussed in the Register,
    14, 16 and 18 March 1907, pages 5c-9c, 5d and 4f,
    4 August 1913, page 7c;
    27 February 1915, page 7f for a report on a proposed breakwater,
    18 October 1915, page 6f,
    1 March 1916, page 5f,
    29 and 30 June 1916, pages 5a and 4c,
    12, 13, 14 and 21 July 1916, pages 8h, 5b, 6g and 4c-e,
    24 August 1916, page 6b,
    9 July 1917, page 4g,
    8 February 1921, page 6b.

    A proposed pavilion on the jetty is discussed in the Register,
    27 October 1905, page 5b;
    its opening is reported on
    28 October 1907, page 6e;
    a photograph is in the Chronicle,
    2 November 1907, page 29,
    of May's Band on
    3 February 1917, page 28.

    "Glenelg's Concrete Breakwater" is in the Register,
    13 and 15 March 1909, pages 8g and 4e; also see
    29 and 30 December 1910, pages 4e and 6c,
    7 January 1911, page 15h,
    30 April 1914, page 6e,
    6 and 23 May 1914, pages 8e and 15c,
    27 February 1915, page 7f,
    1 March 1916, page 5f,
    29 and 30 June 1916, pages 5a and 4c,
    13, 21 and 26 July 1916, pages 5b, 4c-e and 9a,
    2, 4, 9 and 24 August 1916, pages 5d, 6g, 11d and 6b-7b,
    5 and 8 September 1916, pages 4e and 7e,
    8 November 1916, page 6e,
    7 February 1917, page 6h,
    9 and 10 July 1917, pages 4f and 4b-f,
    6, 12 and 19 September 1917, pages 4d, 10c and 6d-9e,
    3, 25 and 26 October 1917, pages 7g, 9c and 4h,
    17 September 1918, page 4e,
    22 December 1919, page 6g,
    30 December 1919, page 4e,
    17 September 1920, page 6i,
    8 February 1921, page 6b,
    29 May 1922, page 6d,
    1 August 1922, page 6e.
    A history of the breakwater is in the Register,
    2 September 1921, page 7e,
    24 October 1922, page 6f,
    "Breakwater - Harbour for Rats" appears on
    25 March 1925, page 10a;
    17 June 1925, page 8h.
    The removal of the breakwater is reported upon in The Mail,
    14 November 1925, page 4f.
    Also see Patawalonga.

    "Gales in the Gulf - Excitement at the Seaside" is in the Register,
    3 October 1910, page 7a.
    Photographs of storm damage are in The Critic,
    9 January 1904, page 5,
    22 May 1915, page 27.

    The lighting of the Varley Memorial Light is reported in the Advertiser,
    3 December 1920, page 6g.

    "Demolition of Breakwater Jetty" is in the Register,
    14 March 1929, page 12e.

    "Indolent Anglers at Glenelg" is in The News,
    7 November 1935, page 2f.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Fishing

    Glenelg, River - Goodwood
    Place Names



    Also see Adelaide - Larrikinism

    Crime, Larrikinism and Wanton Mischief

    (Taken from an Unpublished Manuscript by Geoffrey H Manning's A Social History of Glenelg - 1836-1936 - copy in State Library) Glenelg was visited by several cabloads of the most degraded of both sexes... Terpischorean performances resembling the war dances of the untutored savages, with intervals of noisy attention to the bottles of liquor... the awful arm of the law as represented by the ubiquitous [Sergeant] Allchurch was in this instance conspicuous by its absence...
    (Register, 16 December 1876, p. 6.)


    For the first two to three decades of European settlement in South Australia the people always prided themselves - and with sufficient reason - on the good order prevailing within the community. There were none of those violent crimes which disgraced and terrified the neighbouring colonies. In no part of Her Majesty's dominions had life and property been safer than in South Australia.

    The people lived in the utmost security thinking it quite an unnecessary precaution in many places to use bolts and bars. Doors were left unlocked and property exposed in what people in other lands would call a most reckless deed. Our comparative immunity from crime may be ascribed to various causes - The class of persons who came here were, as a whole, of a superior order and the working classes were industrious and provident, with some considerable amount of education in their ranks. It is questionable whether in any part of the British dominions could such a provident, industrious, well-conducted community be found.

    Our immigrants were well selected and many of them, in the course of a few years, raised themselves to positions of comfort and not a few became wealthy and respected. From such a well-conducted working class dangerous crimes were not anticipated. We always set our faces against the convict element mingling in our population and, from time to time, when the foundations of the colony were laid, there was always a wise jealousy and a commendable vigilance exercised to guard against the convict taint.

    Our laws against the admission of transportees, from whatever quarter they might have attempted to come, were most firm - some would say arbitrary - and on the whole our vigilance was rewarded. We succeeded in practically keeping away from us the accursed evil of convictism. Those violent deeds which were so rife in the other colonies can, in almost every instance, be traced back to the influence, direct or indirect, of the existing felonry amongst them.

    A third reason for the orderliness of our population and the safety of property was the fact that we had no poor amongst us, in the sense in which that word is used in the old countries of Europe. There were, of course, isolated cases in which some suffered from insufficient means. The people, generally, had plenty of work and good wages and the labouring class had comforts here which it would have been impossible to obtain in the old country. Then, in addition, the population as a whole was a religious one - proverbially, a colony of churches and church going people. These, then, it was believed, were amongst the causes which produced the safe and healthy state of society.

    Sadly, by the late 1850s there became a need for increased vigilance when a spate of robberies of a daring character occurred; shops and dwelling houses were entered forcibly, stables were visited by the light-fingered gentry, where both horses and harness disappeared. Our peaceful serenity was disturbed and the people had to look about them to see to the better protection of their property. Watch-dogs were brought into service and life-preservers and revolvers were taken up by some for the purpose of ?moral suasion.?

    A system of local police had been authorised in 1852 and gave civic authorities the right to nominate a sufficient number of persons to be sworn in. Disobedience of orders or breach of duty were punishable by a fine, while services were recompensed by a fee payable on account of a particular service in which a constable may have been engaged. Accordingly, a Glenelg resident, Mr Davie, was appointed as ?Constable, Inspector of Nuisances and Messenger? and in ?a rather ineffectual way endeavoured to control the youth of the town who ?congregated of an evening in front of shop windows, using foul and obscene language, and creating a great disturbance?.?

    However, it was clear that neither the District Council Acts nor the Police Acts contained any definite statement of the functions which a district constable might exercise. A code of instructions was issued in 1860, but there was good reason to believe that the directions it contained were ultra vires. For instance, a district constable arrested a man for a breach of the peace and when tried before a special magistrate in Adelaide ?Mr Beddome decided that the law was against him and Mr Downer, on appeal, upheld that decision but only inflicted a nominal fine, as the constable had evidently acted bona fides and without evil intention.? Thus with a simple desire to properly discharge his duty, a special constable could make arrests in the manner directed in the semi-official ?instructions? and find himself exposed to the discomfort and loss of an adverse action at law if his authority was called into question.

    Some time prior to 1864 a police constable was stationed permanently at Glenelg for in January of that year a meeting was held in the Government schoolroom to consider a proposal from the government which, apparently, desired ?to remove the policeman?. The Corporation thought that the greater part of the £70 they paid for this purpose might be saved, inasmuch as, instead of having the policeman under the existing system, it could engage, as in the 1850s, a man who could combine the duties of special constable with the ?avocation of labourer under the Corporation.? Mr H.B.T. Strangways reminded the meeting that the idea of police protection was first broached about three years before and that:

    His appeal for the reintroduction of the system of special constables was defeated, and it is apparent that the government reconsidered its edict, for in 1865 Police Constable Badman took up the position which he held until 1868 when PC Allchurch arrived. Interested readers are referred to Dulcie Perry's book, The Place of Waters, for the exploits of the latter officer who retired from the position in 1897.


    It would appear the term ?larrikin? did not appear in our vocabulary until the early 1870s and its origin is said to rest with a policeman with a rich, thick Irish brogue who transformed the word ?larking? into ?laraking?. Larrikinism is a development of modern civilisation and a very objectionable one and Australian society appears to be a peculiarly congenial soil for the production of this type of life. There is nothing corresponding exactly to it in England; but the ?hoodlum? of America is a brother to the ?larrikin? of Australia.

    If Charles Darwin was challenged to explain the origin of the larrikin species, it may be supposed that he would refer to the superabundance of physical energy derived from the British stock; to the inordinate growth of the doctrine of liberty; to the comparatively large amount of leisure obtained in these days by all classes of society; to the ease with which money is obtained, leading to indulgence in a host of excesses that penurious times forbade; to the want of exercise of proper parental authority and to the early maturity of the physical constitution in Australia, resulting, not infrequently, in the attainment of a man's stature before the mental powers are matured.

    The growth of larrikinism has been gradual, but steady, and flourishes most where population is dense. Its freaks vary according to circumstances and opportunity and range from such petty foolery as breaking gates off their hinges, ?removing sign boards and jostling foot passengers, to the barbarity of murdering Chinamen by torture, or assaulting and maiming the police.?

    Nothing comes amiss to the larrikin, provided it is sufficiently foolish and mischievous. In his esteem there is naught that is sacred. The beauty of a flower, the grace of a tree, are nothing to him but objects for the gratification of his craze for destructiveness. The rights of property, the inviolability of the person, the tenderness claimed for the weak, the reverence due to the aged, all have no meaning to him - especially if the vigilance of the police can be eluded.

    The larrikin is a gregarious animal - I had almost written, beast. Combination is an essential condition of his operations, and he is an arrant coward. He plays his highest jinks at the expense of the defenceless, or when he believes himself supported by such a number of accomplices that he can depend on a practical immunity from chastisement.

    Late in 1872 Mr James P. Boucaut introduced a Bill into the House of Assembly for the more effectual punishment of juvenile offenders which, when carried into law, was expected to be of great service to the community. It dealt with male offenders under the age of sixteen years and provided the ?wholesome and salutary punishment? of flogging for a number of offences which were specified as:

    For each or any of these offences the courts could sentence an offender to be once or twice whipped, either in substitution of, or in addition to, any sentence with which, by law, such offender could then be punished. In respect of whippings, the number of strokes were limited to twenty five - as to this aspect of ?criminal reform?.

    At the time, it was expected that this law would have:

    Over the next two decades the efficacy of the new laws, aimed at stamping out the menace, may be gauged from random newspaper reports:

    A Robinson Crusoe at Glenelg

    In August 1871 a decently dressed boy, aged about 14 years, was reported to Police Constable Allchurch as having been living for some days in Robinson Crusoe style upon the northern side of the bay creek. By the aid of pistol and powder he procured his rations of small birds which he cooked in a tin pot and supplemented by bread obtained from some ?loose boys? belonging to Glenelg, who seemed to act as so many ?Man Fridays.? He was brought before the magistrates as a neglected child, but at the same time a woman of respectable appearance appeared and claimed she was his mother and the wife of Mr Antonio Gannoni, a well known cab driver on the Kensington road.

    She said that her son had been sent to collect the rent of a cottage belonging to his father but had disappeared with about one pound in his possession. The boy admitted having taken the money and bought a pistol and added that he had ran away because he had been whipped. The mother assured the bench that he had only been moderately corrected for misconduct. The charge was withdrawn and the boy was handed over to his mother.

    A Visitor's Complaint

    In December 1874 scenes of debauchery disturbed a citizen who lodged a complaint in the Adelaide press to which the Editor and the Mayor of Glenelg, Mr Wigley, responded:

    I and many others were deeply grieved at the scenes which took place at a drinking and dancing booth erected in the vicinity of the Pier and Parade Hotels. During the whole of the day it was crowded with prostitutes and roughs of the lowest class and fights were continually taking place... But the scenes that took place during the night were infinitely worse...

    It is difficult to determine in what way to fairly apportion the blame of these disgraceful occurrences. Our correspondent suggests that much of it is attributable to the Glenelg Corporation and notwithstanding the reply of His Worship the Mayor printed in another column we agree with him that they cannot be held guiltless in the matter... The course they adopted had the effect of giving unconditional leave to certain individuals to erect booths upon the beach and keep them open for several days.

    The booth was sold by Mr Townsend by public auction for the council who did not know ?the character of the booth before they granted a stand for its erection, and that a permit was given to keep it open long after every hotel and public house were closed?, namely, from 11pm to 6 am by two Adelaide magistrates, after Mr Beddome (and I believe the resident magistrate at Glenelg) and myself had refused to grant one. The council applied to and obtained from the Commissioner of Police constables, who with a local policemen were engaged all night in keeping order as far as practicable at the same booth.

    A New Chum's Brush With Glenelg's By-laws

    In September 1879 a newly arrived migrant from the United Kingdom fell foul of the corporation's officialdom and was so incensed he wrote to the Editor of the Register and in his preamble pointed out that he had been fined £1 for riding upon the footpath of Colley Reserve, while on the same day an habitually drunken woman was fined to the extent of 10 shillings in the Port Adelaide Court. He continued:

    Glenelg Cyclists in Trouble

    In 1897 the civic authorities ??waxed exceedingly wrath? with that section of cyclists who converted the footpaths into bicycle tracks and, war having been formally declared, Corporal Allchurch and PC Hansberry reconnoitered while the town clerk, Mr J.P. Bickford, it was ?whispered?, took lessons in the art of laying information:

    Crackers and Constables

    In 1910, at the time of the celebration of Guy Fawke's Day at Glenelg the local police were reinforced by five constables when a large crowd assembled in Moseley Square to witness the customary baptism of fire arranged for the police. Large crackers and smaller packages were exploded at frequent intervals until ten o?clock when, apparently upon an arranged signal, matters livened up and a perfect fusillade of reports was heard from all directions. Senior Constable Reilly had his men well in hand and for the next hour they were kept busy trying to locate the offenders, but the darkness made this impossible. Shortly after 10 pm the fire alarm in Jetty Road was broken and the firemen, who turned out promptly to the call, were greeted with shouts and hoots by a section of the crowd.

    A more serious incident occurred shortly after 11 pm when a large, jagged stone, thrown at Constable Harrold from the lane adjoining the Pier Hotel struck MC Clark upon the head, cut through his cap and inflicted a deep wound... The offender was promptly seized by a plainclothes officer. Constable Keen rushed to his comrade's assistance and was promptly felled with a bottle. A general mixup followed. The supposed law breaker was rescued by the crowd and the police, bearing all the marks of rough usage, supported their two injured comrades and returned to the station. The police, with batons drawn, then stepped out in a body and the crowd soon dispersed...

    Illegal Tea Selling on the Beach

    The persistency of Mrs Martha C. Dally, in selling tea and hot water upon the beach without a permit and in continued defiance of the law, led to her appearance before the local court in January 1914. After receiving leniency from the magistrate, on the next day Mrs Dally took up a situation upon the beach and resumed her competition with the holder of a permit who had paid for the rights of sale. Hauled before the bench again she was rewarded with the imposition of a £5 fine with £2 costs; in default one month's imprisonment.

    General Notes

    The conduct of some citizens on 28 December 1874 prompted the Editor of the Register to Express concern at the "Outraging of Public Propriety" - "All night drinking, dancing and [indulgence] in scandalous immoralities". See
    31 December 1874, page 4e and
    7 January 1875, page 6c.

    "Rough Visitors at Glenelg" is in the Register, 16 December 1876, page 6c:

    "Drunkenness on Sundays" is in the Register, 17 November 1910, page 6c: Glenelg, River - Goodwood
    Place Names


    Public Buildings

    A report on the laying of the foundation stone of the Pier Hotel is in the Register,
    9 June 1856, page 3g; also see
    18 January 1877, page 6f,
    19 March 1910, page 5d,
    3 June 1910, page 6f,
    23 February 1911, page 4d,
    18 March 1911, page 12i,
    4 October 1912, page 6f,
    23 November 1912, page 17f.
    The "artistic talent" of J.D. Stone in the billiard room of the Pier Hotel is reported upon in the Register,
    7 November 1876, page 6b.
    The opening of its ballroom is reported in the Register,
    26 May 1928, page 12a.

    Information on Mr Magarey's proposed residence is in the Observer,
    1 August 1863, page 4g.

    The controversy surrounding the "Government Cottage" and its history are explored in the Register,
    16, 17, 18 May 1872, pages 4e, 5d and 5d; also see
    21 May 1872, page 5c,
    21 May 1872 (supp.), page 10d,
    27 and 28 May 1872, pages 4f and 6f,
    15 and 17 March 1879, pages 6e and 4c-6f,
    12, 14, 19, 20, 22, 24 and 26 July 1882, pages 5c, 6e, 4g, 6c, 1f (supp.), 6a and 7a,
    5 August 1882, page 37a,
    5 October 1882, page 6c,
    21 May 1889, page 6f.
    Its history is to be found on
    28 August 1883, page 7a.
    A history of the cottage is at the end of this section

    Building improvements during 1873 are discussed in the Chronicle,
    10 January 1874, page 6c,
    8 January 1874, page 2e.

    New buildings are commented upon in the Register,
    1 January 1878, page 7c,
    2 January 1880, page 5g,
    4 January 1879, page 5d,
    10 January 1880, page 72c.

    Mr W. Bickford's house is described in the Register,
    18 July 1885, page 7b.

    An article on an exhibition of "walking on the bottom of the sea" is reported in the Express,
    20 January 1873, page 2d.

    Foureur and Kritzner's Aerated Water factory is described in the Register,
    12 January 1875, page 5c.

    The subject of the local gasworks and the lighting of the town is discussed in the Register,
    17 August 1875, page 6b.
    Also see Adelaide - Lighting the City and Homes

    A proposed aquarium is discussed in the Register,
    13 December 1875, page 3g; also see
    29 May 1876, page 6a and
    13 June 1876, page 6a,
    29 August 1876, page 2b,
    13 March 1886, page 5c,
    20 and 21 October 1893, pages 7f and 4g,
    17 November 1893, page 5c,
    3 February 1894, page 5b; also see
    15 December 1921, page 6g,
    29 March 1922, page 6e,
    The Mail,
    15 July 1922, page 6e (includes a sketch of the 1893 proposal).
    Also see Adelaide - Entertainment and the Arts - Miscellany for an essay on Aquariums.

    Information on a proposed Institute is in the Chronicle,
    30 May 1874, page 7d;
    the laying of its foundation stone is reported in the Register,
    13 December 1875, page 5; also see
    15 January 1876, page 11b,
    13 January 1877, page 6d.
    Its opening in the Register,
    22 October 1877, pages 5b and 6a; also see
    23 October 1877, page 5g,
    25 February 1884, page 5a (unveiling clock) - also see
    20 January 1886, page 5f,
    18 February 1886, page 7b.
    A history of the Institute is at the end of this section

    A presentation to the Institute's secretary, John Lee, is reported in the Register,
    1 December 1877, -page 5f.

    The impecunity of the Institute is discussed in the Register,
    14 August 1885, page 6h; also see
    11 December 1886, pages 5a-6h,
    28 January 1887, page 7h,
    22 March 1887, page 7c,
    27 May 1887, page 5d,
    10 and 15 June 1887, pages 7f and 7h.

    For an entertaining letter from W.R. Wigley in respect of the defacing of the foundation stone see Observer,
    11 December 1886, page 15b,
    27 June 1887, page 7a; also see
    29 June 1887, page 7h,
    15 June 1898, page 6f.
    Its reopening is reported on
    12 March 1895, page 7e.
    A new Institute is discussed on
    29 March 1915, page 3i and
    9 April 1915, page 7c. Also see
    10 April 1915, page 3h.

    The Glenelg Institute

    By 1872 there were 63 Institutes established in the colony and Mr H.R. Wigley was of the opinion that it was a ?disgrace? that Glenelg had no such edifice. Accordingly, the Mayor, Mr J. Souttar, called a public meeting on 28 May 1874 at which Mr Rowland Rees, MP, recalled that three years previously he had taken, with others, steps to form one in the town, while he understood that, in 1856, Mr J.M. Mitchell had taken up the question.

    The foundation stone was laid on 11 December 1875 by Sir Henry Ayers ?during a lull in the prevailing showers of rain? and afterwards he made a speech from the balcony of the Pier Hotel. Glen Osmond stone was used at the front with cornices and other dressings, carried out in cement, with rusticated quoins; Mr E.W. Wright was the architect and the contractor, Mr David Miller erected it at a cost of £5,300 on land given by the government at the north-western corner of Jetty Road, immediately opposite the Pier Hotel. The opening took place on 20 October 1877 at which the Governor, Sir William F.D. Jervois, officiated.

    As an adornment to the building a new clock presented by the Mayor, Mr T. King, MP was unveiled by the Mrs T. King, on 23 February 1884. It was the work of Messrs Thomas Baily & Company of Manchester, England and erected by Mr Harding acting for Mr J.W. Davis of Rundle Street.

    By August 1885 the Institute was in ?unfortunate pecuniary circumstances.? The building had cost about £6,000, exclusive of £485 spent in the completion of the tower for the clock, and towards this, in donations and government subsidy, the committee had received £5,173 17s 1d.. Since its opening nearly £700 had been outlaid on furniture and library periodicals; all this had culminated in a bank overdraft of a little in excess of £173, while a loan of £3,000 was on the books in the Building Fund.

    Further, the Mayor admitted that the library was poorly stocked with old literature and agreed with Mr Kemp that a better class of reading material should be obtainable, while Mr Billiatt suggested that the matter should be placed before the Minister of Education with a view of having the Institute transformed into a Town Hall, but the Mayor explained that such a course was impracticable because one member could upset any movement which aimed at the accomplishment of such an undertaking. After due consideration it was considered that the Institute committee should undertake a house-to-house canvass of the town.

    A visitor to the town complained of the light on the clock being extinguished at night and, in response Henry Lee, the Secretary of the Institute, and Mr John G. Ark, offered the following comments:

    A month later Mr Lee was to lament the fact that the Institute committee had decided to dispense with the lighting of the clock and commented that it had also to pay £9 per annum to have it wound and appealed to the general public to understand the dilemma in which it was placed.

    In 1884 the Institute was mortgaged to George Main to secure £3,000 at 7 per cent and due for repayment in August 1885. Income was insufficient for the day to day conduct of the body and, at a meeting of ratepayers on 10 December 1886, it was said that £108 interest was due and Mr Main's attorney had issued writs against the trustees to recover the amount due and that it would be a ?lasting disgrace to Glenelg if the property of the trustees were confiscated, or if they were arrested.?

    To the problems confronting the citizens of Glenelg the Adelaide press was to opine that the reading public at Glenelg was either very small or else very illiberal, while very few seemed to ?care a jot whether the Institute paid its way or not.? and that it would be a disgrace to the town in which the colony was proclaimed if, on its jubilee year, the trustees were incarcerated.

    Unperturbed, the irrepressible Mr W.R. Wigley, with tongue in cheek, addressed his fellow citizens:

    The ratepayers were not devoid of sympathy and decided to solve the immediate problem by authorising the Corporation to purchase the Institute but it was pointed out that:

    Upon the transfer being effected an ?act of cool effrontery and petty snobbishness? occurred when the Town's ?Fathers? decided to obliterate the original foundation stone as explained by an irate taxpayer:

    Later the corporation made a grant of £570 to the Institute committee and a building, subsidised by the government, was built and from 1885 to 1888 it was conducted in what was, by 1915, to become the rate collectors? room, but the subscription list became so extenuated that it ceased to exist in 1888 and for seven years the town was without an Institute, but strong efforts were made to resuscitate it with the result that on 11 March 1895 it was reopened by Sir J.H. Gordon. the Chief Secretary.

    In 1898 its financial position was improved substantially by a donation from Sir Thomas Elder. The council then entered into a bargain with the Institute committee that the latter should spend £300 on a building to form part of the Town Hall, in return for which they should have a lease for 30 years at a peppercorn rental. In 1908, mainly through the efforts of the then Mayor, Mr H.W. Varley, the government made them a grant to purchase land on which a new Institute was erected and duly opened on 8 April 1915.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Masonic Hall is reported in the Register,
    27 July 1903, page 6g;
    a photograph is in the Observer,
    1 August 1903, page 26,
    26 December 1903, page 24.
    Also see South Australia - Miscellany - Freemasonry

    The Glenelg and Marion Abattoirs

    A proposed abattoirs is discussed in the Register,
    9 October 1909, page 6h; also see
    28 January 1911, page 11f,
    4 February 1911, page 12g,
    6 and 8 March 1911, pages 6f and 5c.
    "No Abattoirs for Glenelg" appears on
    22 July 1911, page 16g; also see
    9 August 1913, page 15d,
    8 and 31 October 1913, pages 13e and 6f,
    5 November 1913, page 14a,
    15 November 1920, page 6e.
    Also see Adelaide - Public Health - Slaughterhouses and Abattoirs

    Owing to the difficulty of obtaining a meat supply for Glenelg and district from Gepp's Cross abattoirs, both local butchers and residents objected strongly to becoming incorporated with the metropolitan abattoirs scheme. It was during the mayoralty of Mr H.W. Varley in 1908 that the matter was taken up. On 19 April 1909 the Glenelg corporation was urged to take action and conferences followed until 1913 when a public meeting was held. largely as a result of the efforts of Councillor Olifent, when the council was directed to take immediate action to provide a local slaughterhouse. A poll followed on 1 November 1913 which favoured the proposition; three proposals were considered and the one put forward by local butchers was adopted and these men then proceeded to erect an abattoirs close to the Oaklands railway station on 15 acres of land. The entire cost was borne by the butchers who, for the following 21 years, paid the Marion council a peppercorn rental for the property in order that the latter would have legal control at the end of that term. It was formally opened on 23 February 1915.

    "New Picture Palace" is in the Express,
    24 August 1917, page 3d,
    "Remodelled Picture Theatre - The Strand" in the Register,
    8 July 1927, page 10g.
    The opening of a new theatre is reported in the The News,
    21 August 1936, page 9.
    Also see South Australia - Entertainment and the Arts - Moving Pictures and Television

    The Anzac Hostel

    "The Anzac Hostel" is in the Register,
    7 June 1920, page 8g.
    In 1920 Glenelg was proud of the fact that it had been selected as the site in South Australia for an ?Anzac Hostel? The house selected for the purpose fronted The Mall with Bate Street on the south side and Margate Street at the rear. It was formerly the residence of Mr Jury who ?parted with it for a moderate sum as an earnest appreciation of the men who had placed their all at the service of their country. He had already given a son to that country and his name should be perpetasted as one of the patriots of South Australia.? Matron O?Donnell, author of ?Letters of an Australian Army Sister?, was put in charge and had as assistants, Nurses Stacey, Perrin, Magarey, Jackson and Dorsch.

    The Anzac Hostel provided special accommodation for men suffering from the effects of war service who did not require hospital treatment. About 20 men were kept there for some time, but, owing to deaths and other causes, that number was reduced to six for which a staff of eight was required. It closed as from 31 July 1929.

    A photograph of the laying of the foundation stone of the Soldiers' Memorial Hall is in the Chronicle,
    13 October 1923, page 45a and
    of its opening on
    29 November 1924, page 37.
    Also see South Australia - World War I - Memorials to the Fallen

    Glenelg Soldiers? Memorial Hall

    Glenelg residents were proud of the fact that the district sent about 1,000 men to the front during the Great War of 1914-1918 and how to adequately commemorate the services of those soldiers exercised the minds of the municipal authorities. In February 1920, when the Town Hall had become totally inadequate for the requirements of Glenelg, it was decided to enlarge it. However, at a public meeting held on 18 May 1921 the Mayor, Mr Frank Smith, advised the audience that the proposal had been delayed because the corporation had been unable to obtain a piece of land to the east of, and adjoining the Town Hall and, accordingly, the whole proposition needed to be reconsidered.

    By June 1921 it had been decided that a memorial building would be erected on land at the rear of the Town Hall and abutting Colley reserve and the Mayor was pleased to advise that ?already applications have been received fro the leasing of the new hall and a large kiosk which was to be erected on the ground floor.?

    In February 1922 a fund raising event in the form of a cooking competition was held when members of the ladies? committee approached the proprietors of Anchor Self-raising Flour. G. Wood, Son & Co. Ltd who kindly donated £25 in prizes. By this and other means £3,000 were raised, culminating in a Chinese Fair in Moseley Square in January 1923. On 7 October a memorial tablet was unveiled by the Governor-General, Lord Forster, in the presence of a large number of citizens and on 22 November 1924 it was opened by Mrs G. Heithersay, ?a lady who sent more sons to the front than any other lady in the district.?

    The opening of a new town hall is reported in the Register,
    5 June 1925, page 14g.

    Government Cottage

    When Glenelg was laid out two acres were reserved for the Church of England and for public buildings of the township. The Church site was conveyed to trustees and the government was allowed the use of the other acre, where it put up buildings for the use of the governors, ?who took a delight in ozone, iodine and sea bathing? and its only title to the property was a possessory one, which was no title at all, because time neither ran for or against the governments. There is no doubt that the government received one pound for it because the land was measured by a competent surveyor.
    (Register, 8 October 1886, p. 7, 21 May 1889, p. 6.)

    The alienation of several reserves within the township of Glenelg in 1839 has been discussed in Chapter 4, but there is one important fact that should be noted, namely, that on the survey made in the 1850s, 65 acres were found to be comprised within the section, including the reserve, and as was mentioned in the grant, £65 had been paid for that number of acres. If this contention is correct it can be seen that the government had received £1 for the acre known as the Government Cottage acre, just as it had done for the other portion of the section.

    After these arrangements had been entered into with the proprietors the government desired to establish a Custom House at Glenelg and, with the consent of the trustees of the acre, it was permitted to erect a small cottage on it. Afterwards it was used by various governors as a summer residence where stables were erected for their convenience. It might be said that the burgesses of Glenelg had allowed the land to go to the government by permitting this to be done, but the fact was that corporation was not in a position to erect a Town Hall and they felt it was a good thing for the place that a governor should reside there during the summer.

    In course of time, when Glenelg was declared a corporation its jurisdiction only extended to the old township, but then it was found that the whole of the roads, reserves and ways and rights were vested in the gentlemen already mentioned. It was then arranged that a survey should be made after which all the parties concerned agreed to convey the streets, reserves, etc., to the corporation. This was done and a plan lodged in the General Registry Office.

    By 1845 the occupant of the cottage, John Anthony, had been transferred to Port Adelaide and in 1846 tenders were invited for the lease of the residence, the successful applicant being John Hance at an annual rental of £12. By March of 1849 the cottage was occupied by the Governor Sir Henry Fox Young, as did his successor Sir Richard MacDonnell. In 1855 it was let for a period, free of rent, to Edmund Levi and a friend and it was said that ?these two gentlemen thoroughly appreciated the governor's hospitality and made themselves quite at home.? In the 1860s Sir Dominick Daly was 'so pleased and satisfied? with the cottage that after a few additions and alterations he and his wife were regular visitors.

    Upon the arrival of Sir James Fergusson it was 'soon discovered? that it was too small and too insignificant a structure to be dignified with the title of a vice-regal marine residence and therefore, with short intervals of nurses and children it remained empty until 1871 when it was let, but not rent free this time, to Mr Charles Fisher. A year later an impecunious government attempted to sell it on the plea that His Excellency did not like it, although it had been a favourite with his three immediate predecessors.

    It was at this time that Mr John Chambers, Mr Finke's agent, agreed to convey the land to the corporation if it would pay the expense of the deed, so that it was clear that any claim from the government was a myth. However, the Chief Secretary, Sir Arthur Blyth, brought in a Bill to allow the government to sell the cottage and the facts he mentioned were embodied in a petition which was signed by the Chief Justice and Mr Justice Boucaut, and upon enquiry Sir Arthur did not hesitate to say that if the government had any title at all it was simply a possessory one.

    The morning press were less then impressed with the government's intentions and opined that:

    A Glenelg resident under the pen-name ?Alert? also castigated the government:

    A public meeting was held to consider the proposal at Glenelg on 27 May 1872 and prior to this the morning press declared that in view of the comments made by ?Alert?, and assuming his statements to be factual, the inhabitants had a strong case to bring before the Assembly and whatever form the question may take the government should not, even if the course was open to them, think of entrenching themselves behind the plea that undisturbed possession for more than 20 years gave them special rights in connection with the property.

    At the meeting presided over by the Mayor, Mr R.B. Colley Mr W.R. Wigley traversed the history of the property and in conclusion fired a shot across the bow of the governor:

    The Bill was not enacted and the corporation did not obtain the freehold title to the property, but the government in its wisdom executed a lease to Messrs W.R. Wigley and W.L. Reid in their respective capacities of Mayor and Councillor, before the Institute was completed and at a peppercorn rental; Mr Wigley explained:

    To all this the morning press aired its opinion at some length and concluded that:

    In 1886, following the Patawalonga debacle which is discussed elsewhere, Mr W.R. Wigley said:

    In May 1889 a deputation from the corporation waited upon the Commissioner of Crown Land, Mr J. Coles, who informed them that the government was satisfied that the title to the reserve was held by it and was a good and valid title and exercising the right of ownership the government had let the cottage to Mr Billiatt from whom they received a substantial amount of rent:

    By 1940 the southern portion of the land was occupied by the Holdfast Bay Bowling Club when it was purchased by the SA Brewing Company Ltd who demolished the building in 1969 following the removal of the club to its new premises at St Leonards.

    Register, 16, 17, 18, 21, 27 and 28 May 1872, pp. 4, 5, 5, 5-10 (supp.), 4 and 6, 15 and 17 March 1879, pp. 6 and 4-6, 28 August 1883, p. 8, 8 October 1886, p. 7, Historic Glenelg, Birthplace of South Australia, pp 24-28.

    Glenelg, River - Goodwood
    Place Names



    The opening of the Independent Chapel is reported in the South Australian,
    10 March 1848, page 2c.
    A history of the Independent Chapel by William Hitchcox is in the Register,
    20 September 1899, page 6h,
    30 September 1899, page 33a.

    The opening of St Peter's Church is reported in the Adelaide Times,
    31 March 1852, page 3e; also see
    19 January 1881, page 3c;
    its consecration in the Register,
    21 May 1883, page 5g; also see
    21 January 1889, page 2d.
    The installation of a stained glass window is reported upon in the Register,
    13 May 1905, page 7b; also see
    7 June 1913, page 14h for information on a memorial window.
    A history appears on
    1 March 1924, page 6; also see
    The News,
    23 October 1928, page 6c.

    The opening of a Primitive Methodist Chapel is reported in the Register,
    19 September 1856, page 3d.

    "The Roman Catholics at Glenelg" is in the Register,
    16 February 1858, page 3c.

    A proposed Congregational Chapel is discussed in the Register,
    17 March 1859, page 3a and
    its opening on
    6 and 9 December 1859, pages 3d and 3g; also see the
    17 February 1864, page 2c.

    The laying of the foundation stone of a Congregational Church is reported in the Register,
    28 October 1879, page 6e - its plans are described on
    23 September 1879, page 5a.
    A history appears
    5 January 1924.

    "Congregationalism at Glenelg" is in the Advertiser,
    20 April 1893, page 7g; also see
    27 August 1924, page 15f,
    The News,
    28 February 1928, page 8c.
    Its diamond jubilee is reported in the Observer,
    23 October 1909, page 46a.
    8 November 1909, page 6e.
    Photographs are in the Chronicle,
    13 November 1909, page 30.

    The laying of the foundation stone of the Wesleyan Church is reported in the Register,
    6 June 1876, page 6d and
    its opening on
    4 January 1877, page 6c;
    a sketch is in Frearson's Weekly,
    7 September 1878, page 215; also see
    6 May 1882, page 6f,
    30 August 1924, page 4,
    The News,
    1 January 1929, page 6g.

    An obituary of Rev A Sells is in the Register,
    2 January 1888, page 5a,
    of Canon Green on
    25 July 1904, page 6d.

    The laying of the foundation stone of St Mary's Hall is reported in the Register,
    29 January 1894, page 3g,
    29 January 1894, page 3e.

    A soldiers' memorial chapel is reported upon in the Register,
    26 and 29 March 1920, pages 6g and 3e,
    "A Unique Memorial" is in the Register,
    3 December 1920, page 6g.

    A photograph of a combined churches outdoor service is in the Observer,
    10 December 1921, page 25.

    Opening of Our Lady of Victories Church is reported in the Register,
    17 November 1927, page 10g,
    21 November 1927, page 12f.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    26 November 1927, page 35.

    The laying of the foundation stone and the opening of Our Lady of Victories Church is reported in the Register,
    4 October 1926, page 15c,
    17 November 1927, page 10g,
    21 November 1927, page 12f.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    26 November 1927, page 35.

    Glenelg, River - Goodwood
    Place Names


    Coach Services

    Also see Anzac Highway and Adelaide - Transport - Cabs and Omnibuses.

    Cruelty to horses engaged on public conveyances is reported in the Advertiser,
    8 February 1864, page 3c.

    A complaint about the coach service from Adelaide is in the Register, 22 February 1866, page 2f - "... In order that they maintain their former prestige they must take greater care of their axles... As regards passengers they must:

    Hints for improving facilities are in the Register,
    15 March 1866, page 2d,
    while an article on "Overloading Omnibuses" appears on
    23 January 1872, page 5b; also see
    30 January 1872, page 5c.

    Reckless coach driving is the cause for complaint in the Register,
    6 July 1868, page 2f.

    An editorial on coach services is in the Advertiser,
    22 January 1872, page 2e; also see
    31 January 1872, page 2f.

    Complaints from a passenger in respect of smoking on omnibuses and the prevalence of dirty boots is set out in the Register, 20 April 1874, page 6e.

    Glenelg - Obituaries

    An obituary of a former Mayor, J.J. Barclay, is in the Register,
    22 May 1867, page 2c;
    also see 28 May 1867, page 2h, 12 June 1867, page 2f.

    An obituary of John Howard is in the Register, 5 February 1869, page 2f,
    of T. Sheppard on 2 September 1890, page 3c,
    of Henry Measday on 29 November 1890, page 5c,
    of Mrs E.W. Andrews on 26 April 1892, page 5b,
    of E.M. Martin on 5 June 1894, page 5c,
    of T.G.F. Magarey on 7 August 1894, page 5b,
    of James Brouard on 13 June 1895, page 5b,
    of Mrs Elizabeth Lyle on 13 June 1895, page 5a,
    of James Virgo on 15 February 1899, page 5a.

    An obituary of William Sanders is in the Register, 4 August 1880, page 5a,
    of W.M. Letchford on 14 December 1880, page 5b,
    of John McDonald on 16 September 1884, page 5c,
    of Elias Salom on 18 February 1885, page 5b,
    of William Hill on 12 September 1885, page 5b,
    of J. Hanlin on 3 May 1888, page 5c,
    of Dr James Dunlop on 5 July 1888, page 4h,
    of Mrs Philip Lee on 24 October 1888, page 5a,
    of Edwin Sawtell on 23 October 1889, page 6g.

    An obituary of Mrs Veysey is in the Register, 26 September 1882, page 4g,
    of Daniel Fisher on 3 June 1884, page 5c,
    of Mrs Hamilton on 4 May 1886, page 5e,
    of Dr Hugh Ferguson on 27 June 1887, page 5b,
    of J.A Kirkpatrick on 2 August 1889, page 5c.

    An obituary of W.R. Wigley is in theRegister, 7 May 1890, pages 5h-6e,
    of Mrs T.H. Bowen on 25 July 1890, page 4h,
    of James Hooper on 14 April 1891, page 5a,
    of James Crook, builder, on 11 May 1893, page 5b,
    of William Phelps on 21 December 1893, page 5c,
    of William Sanders on 30 January 1894, page 5b,
    of Mrs T.U. Scrutton on 6 November 1894, page 6h,
    of Charles Day on 14 October 1895, page 6e, 18 November 1895, page 6c,
    of Mrs Alfred Day on 21 October 1895, page 5b.

    An obituary of Mrs A. Atkinson is in the Observer, 3 December 1892, page 31a,
    of E.M. Martin on 9 June 1894, page 30c,
    of H.J. Moseley on 14 July 1894, page 43d.

    An obituary of F.J. West is in the Register, 2 September 1895, page 5a,
    of James Liddle on 14 April 1896, page 5b,
    of W.G. Cooper on 21 April 1896, page 5c.

    1 An obituary of Robert C. Castle is in the Observer, 20 June 1896, page 44a,
    of Mrs Amand Wright on 15 August 1896, page 15c,
    of J.H.C. Eitzen on 31 July 1897, page 16d,
    of Mrs Sarah Sparks on 8 January 1898, page 30b,
    of James Virgo on 18 February 1899, page 15a,
    of Samuel Milbourne on 10 June 1899, page 15d.

    An obituary of Miss E.B. Sabine is in the Register, 23 February 1901, page 7c,
    of Charles Wyld on 15 June 1901, page 4h,
    of S.B. Church on 29 August 1901, page 5a,
    of W.J. Clark on 24 March 1902, page 5c,
    of Mrs James Beckwith on 5 May 1902, page 5b,
    of Dr Henry Wooldridge on 15 July 1902, page 5b,
    of M. White, builder, on 6 September 1902, page 7a,
    of P.H. Burden on 7 October 1902, page 5b,
    of W.B. Sells on 31 October 1902, page 5a.

    An obituary of Mrs Ann Francis is in the Observer, 1 March 1902, page 27e,
    of T.C. Arthur on 20 September 1902, page 37b,
    of Mrs M.A. Edwards on 14 March 1903, page 22e,
    of Rev Whitmore Carr on 23 May 1903, page 34e,
    of George Hambidge on 21 May 1903, page 33b,
    of Mrs Arthur Hardy on 25 June 1904, page 34b,
    of W.S. Bickford on 17 December 1904, page 44e,
    of William Maddern on 2 September 1905, page 38b.

    An obituary of Mrs M.A. Edwards is in the Register, 13 March 1903, page 5a,
    of J.F. Yuill on 1 April 1903, page 5a,
    of A.B. Lakeman on 18 July 1903, page 7c,
    of Mrs W.S. Whitington on 7 October 1903, page 5a - Also see South Australia - Maritime Affairs - Steamships for information on her husband.

    An obituary of A.A. Atkinson is in the Register, 21 December 1903, page 5a,
    of William Lapthorne on 5 January 1904, page 6f,
    of C.A. Bleechmore on 25 April 1904, page 5a,
    of George Hambridge on 16 and 17 May 1904, pages 4f and 3c,
    of Samuel Cook on 20 June 1904, page 4g,
    of W.S. Bickford on 14 December 1904, page 5b.

    An obituary of T.U. Scrutton is in the Register, 3 February 1905, page 5b,
    of Mrs Odgers on 24 February 1905, page 5b,
    of William Maddern on 25 August 1905, page 4g,
    of R.N. Colley on 18 September 1905, page 5b,
    of T.J.C. Mann on 3 October 1905, page 5b.

    An obituary of Samuel Summers is in the Register, 13 June 1906, page 4i,
    of John F. Tidmarsh on 12 November 1906, page 6f, of
    J.A. Charlton on 5 October 1907, page 9b, of
    E.H. Bayer on 21 October 1908, page 8h.

    An obituary of William Clutterbuck is in the Register, 30 November 1907, page 9f,
    of Robert Cooper on 21 April 1908, page 4g,
    of M.B. Jenkins on 21 May 1908, page 5a,
    of Mrs Ellen Thompson on 25 May 1908, page 6g,
    of Francis J. Whitby on 13 January 1909, page 7a,
    of J.A. Muller on 9 March 1909, page 7a,
    of Edward Simms on 2 September 1909, page 4f.

    An obituary of Francis J. Whitby is in the Observer, 16 January 1909, page 38a,
    of W. Comley on 4 February 1911, page 39a,
    of S.T. Rugless on 11 May 1912, page 41a,
    of Robert Buchanan on 31 August 1912, page 41a,
    of George Bishop, hotelier, on 19 October 1912, page 41a.

    An obituary of Henry J. Trew is in the Register, 7 April 1910, page 4g,
    of Walter Bermingham on 12 September 1910, page 4g,
    of William Storrie on 23 December 1910, page 4g.,
    of Frederick Doswell on 7 December 1911, page 6g,
    of J.A.N. Thieus on 7 June 1912, page 6i,
    of Robert Buchanan on 24 August 1912, page 15a.,
    of George Bishop on 12 October 1912, page 15b.

    An obituary of R.L. Massey, baker, is in the Observer, 3 May 1913, page 41a,
    of M. MacCallum on 14 June 1913, page 41a,
    of John Fidge on 4 October 1913, page 41a,
    of C.H. Oliver on 20 December 1913, page 41a,
    of E.V. Fischer on 5 September 1914, page 46a,
    of Benjamin Hooper on 14 November 1914, page 42a,
    of Mrs Mary Giles on 9 October 1915, page 46a,
    of Mrs Mary Virgo on 13 November 1915, page 46a,
    of Henry Partridge on 25 December 1915, page 44a.

    An obituary of W. Comley is in the Register, 27 January 1911, page 5a,
    of J.S. Prockter (Procktor?) on 26 October 1911, page 6i,
    of Patrick Gay on 31 October 1911, page 6g,
    of Samuel T. Rugless on 4 May 1912, page 12i,
    of R.L. Massey on 26 April 1913, page 17c,
    of Mrs Rebecca Foale on 9 May 1913, page 4h,
    of C.P.H. Nalty on 21 May 1913, page 12i,
    of M. MacCallum on 6 June 1913, page 12g,
    of Mrs E.J. Acraman on 23 August 1913, page 14h,
    of John Fidge on 26 September 1913, page 6a,
    of C.H. Oliver on 12 December 1913, page 14a.

    An obituary of Benjamin Hooper, "the founder of Glenelg's first drum and fife band and a founder of the Holdfast Bay Yacht Club", is in the Register,
    6 November 1914, page 4g.

    An obituary of E.W. Howard is in the Register, 21 January 1915, page 4g,
    of John McCann on 1 March 1915, page 6h,
    of Dr J.I. Sangster on 14 June 1915, page 6i,
    of Edwin Austin on 21 August 1915, page 8h,
    of Mrs Mary Giles on 2 October 1915, page 8h, of Edward Hennigs on 21 October 1915, page 4h, of Alfred J. Roberts on 6 December 1915, page 7.

    An obituary of Mrs Ruth Rugless is in the Observer, 5 February 1916, page 46b,
    of John Newitt on 6 May 1916, page 33c,
    of H.H. Wright on 23 September 1916, page 35b,
    of J.B. Chapman on 25 November 1916, page 21a,
    of G.A. Bradford on 7 July 1917, page 19c,
    of James C. Stone on 24 August 1918, page 19a,
    of James Oliver on 28 December 1918, page 19a,
    of Thomas Ferris on 28 December 1918, page 19a,
    of Mrs Frances J. Winwood on 25 January 1919, page 34a,
    of Thomas Griggs on 22 March 1919, page 13d,
    of J.T. Kither on 17 May 1919, page 14a,
    of George Jones on 6 September 1919, page 14a,
    of Mrs Mary E.L. Wigley on 20 December 1919, page 24b.

    An obituary of Mrs Laura M. West is in the Register, 16 February 1914, page 8a,
    of John T. Kither on 20 April 1914, page 10b,
    of E.V. Fischer on 29 August 1914, page 13a,
    of Henry Partridge on 22 December 1915, page 4g,
    of John Newitt on 1 May 1916, page 4i,
    of J.B. Champion on 22 and 25 November 1916, pages 6h and 5e,
    of John Inverarity on 15 May 1917, page 4e,
    of William Collins on 13 October 1917, page 6f.

    An obituary of Edward Sawyers is in the Register, 12 June 1918, page 6g,
    of James C. Stone on 16 August 1918, page 6g,
    of J.H. Gurr on 18 October 1918, page 4g,
    of Thomas Ferris on 23 December 1918, page 6g,
    of James Oliver on 24 December 1918, page 6g,
    of J.G.L. Garthwaite on 30 December 1918, page 4e,
    of Mrs Frances J. Winwood on 22 January 1919, page 6g,
    of Thomas Griggs on 15 March 1919, page 6g,
    of Mrs Mary Hamilton on 20 March 1919, page 6g,
    of John T. Kither on 13 May 1919, page 4e,
    of George Jones on 30 August 1919, page 9a,
    of Hugh J. Pearce on 4 November 1919, page 6g.

    An obituary of Edwin A. Mayfield is in the Observer, 10 April 1920, page 27a,
    of H.W. Hedger on 3 July 1920, page 13a,
    of Mrs Emma Pinnington on 24 July 1920, page 12a,
    of A.W. Baker on 7 August 1920, page 12b,
    of Richard Harry on 7 August 1920, page 12b,
    of Patrick Healey on 21 August 1920, page 12d,
    of F.B. Andrews on 28 August 1920, page 12d,
    of James Creasey on 2 October 1920, page 31a,
    of John Mack on 18 December 1920, page 43b,
    of B.W. Jelley on 25 December 1920, page 13a,
    of H.R. Fenton on 19 February 1921, page 34c,
    of A.F. Weaver on 30 April 1921, page 34b, 7 May 1921, page 31d,
    of J.P. Bickford on 11 June 1921, page 34b.

    An obituary of Mrs T.A. Hicks is in the Register, 13 May 1920, page 7a,
    of John Morris on 8 June 1920, page 7a,
    of H.W. Hedger on 29 June 1920, page 4h,
    of Mrs Emma Pinnington on 21 July 1920, page 7b,
    of Alfred W. Baker on 3 August 1920, page 5b,
    of Richard Harry on 4 August 1920, page 8d,
    of Mrs E.E. Bode on 10 August 1920, page 4h,
    of F.B. Andrews on 24 August 1920, page 4h,
    of G.G. Wollaston on 16 September 1920, page 4b,
    of James Creasy on 25 September 1920, page 4h,
    of H.B. Perryman on 6 December 1920, page 6h,
    of John Mack on 11 December 1920, page 10e,
    of B.W. Jelley on 21 December 1920, page 8f.

    An obituary of Harry R. Fenton is in the Register, 17 February 1921, page 6g,
    of W.C. Medlyn on 28 February 1921, page 9d,
    of Alfred F. Weaver on 28 April 1921, page 9a,
    of C.B. Warnes on 7 June 1921, page 6h,
    of John P. Bickford on 9 June 1921, page 6i,
    of Mrs Catherine J. Garrett on 31 December 1921, page 8e,
    of John Heithersay on 24 June 1922, page 6i,
    of Walter W. Berry on 28 October 1922, page 8f,
    of Mrs John Tassie on 5 February 1923, page 6f,
    of Albert C. Weir on 27 February 1923, page 8h,
    of Joseph A. Warncken on 5 May 1923, page 8i,
    of Charles Irwin on 20 August 1923, page 9d,
    of Mrs Elizabeth A. Glandfield on 21 August 1923, page 8h,
    of Mrs Eliza M. Smyth on 1 September 1923, page 8h,
    of Frank Bonython on 27 September 1923, page 6g,
    of Dr Paul Guinand on 17 October 1923, page 11f,
    of Colonel Henry Hampton on 27 October 1923, page 10g,
    of Mrs Elizabeth A. Ferris on 5 November 1923, page 8g.

    An obituary of Mrs Catherine Garrett is in the Observer, 7 January 1922, page 33c,
    of W.E. Fuller on 29 April 1922, page 19b,
    of E.T. Measday on 8 July 1922, page 20c,
    of Mrs Lavinia Aunger on 2 September 1922, page 20a,
    of Mrs John Tassie on 10 February 1923, page 35b,
    of A.C. Weir on 3 March 1923, page 35b,
    of Joseph Warncken on 12 May 1923, page 35c,
    of Enoch Comley on 12 May 1923, page 35c,
    of Charles Irwin on 25 August 1923, page 38d,
    of Mrs Elizabeth A. Glandfield on 25 August 1923, page 39c,
    of John Brunton on 9 February 1924, page 45b,
    of B.D. Colvin on 22 March 1924, page 39c,
    of William Rowe on 5 April 1924, page 45d,
    of W.J. Player on 24 and 31 May 1924, pages 45c and 60d.

    An obituary of John Brunton is in the Register, 6 February 1924, page 8h,
    of Mrs Mary Melville on 7 February 1924, page 6g,
    of William W. Andrews on 25 February 1924, page 8f,
    of B.D. Colvin on 15 March 1924, page 8g,
    of William Rowe on 31 March 1924, page 8h,
    of Mrs Johannah Roache on 15 May 1924, page 8h,
    of W.J. Player on 20 May 1924, page 8g,
    of Miss Mabel Hardy on 18 July 1924, page 8g,
    of John Davidson on 16 August 1924, page 8g,
    of Miss Emily Edwards on 1 September 1924, page 6g,
    of Charles A. Bayer on 13 September 1924, pasge 9e,
    of F.W. Wilbraham on 19 and 20 December 1924, pages 15c and 13e.

    An obituary of Hugh McColl is in the Observer, 31 January 1925, page 43d-e,
    of G.S. Hall on 20 June 1925, page 43b,
    of Mary A. Measday on 29 May 1926, page 28c,
    of E.C. Haddrick on 18 September 1926, page 39d,
    of G.P. Morris on 1 January 1927, page 36d,
    of Mrs Annie O. Padman on 19 February 1927, page 45e,
    of Mrs Hannah White on 29 October 1927, page 48b,
    of Tom Liddle and Patrick Feeney on 4 February 1928, page 49b,
    of Charles Tucker on 30 June 1928, page 49b,
    of A.H. Middleton on 7 July 1928, page 49c,
    of Thomas Howard on 28 July 1928, page 49a,
    of Alfred Martin on 4 August 1928, page 49a.

    An obituary of Clement Phillipson is in the Register, 4 February 1925, page 11d,
    of Alexander Wald on 18 April 1925, page 14h,
    of Henry V. Moyle on 18 May 1925, page 6g,
    of George S. Hale on 15 June 1925, page 6h,
    of Miss Blanche A. Wright on 8 September 1925, page 12e.

    An obituary of John C. Cairns is in the Register, 4 February 1926, page 8f,
    of Mrs Helen Gillies on 15 March 1926, page 8g,
    of Frank Olifent on 18 May 1926, page 15a,
    of Mrs Mary A. Measday on 26 May 1926, page 11b,
    of R.A. Sanders on 9 June 1926, page 10h,
    of John Hayles on 11 June 1926, page 10c,
    of Mrs Elizabeth M. Kildea on 29 June 1926, page 8h,
    of Edwin C. Broomhead on 7 July 1926, page 8g,
    of Miss J.C. Finlayson on 10 July 1926, page 13e,
    of E.C. Haddrick on 14 September 1926, page 11d,
    of M.M. Middleton on 11 August 1926, page 10b,
    of Charles Colyer on 20 and 22 December 1926, pages 11d and 10d,
    of Mrs Oceana Cock and George P. Morris on 23 December 1926, page 8g.

    An obituary of Thomas Gregory is in the Register, 18 January 1927, page 10b,
    of James F. Kildea on 25 January 1927, page 12e,
    of Mrs Emilie McKittrick on 27 January 1927, page 13h,
    of Mrs Annie O. Padman on 11 February 1927, page 8f,
    of William E. Weeden on 5 March 1927, page 12c,
    of H.W. Varley on 29 March 1927, page 12f,
    of Mrs Selina Mankey on 27 April 1927, page 8g,
    of Henry W. Tickle on 4 May 1927, page 20a,
    of Albert F. Lee on 12 July 1927, page 11c,
    of Mrs Hannah White on 24 October 1927, page 11b,
    of William Rufus on 8 November 1927, page 15c,
    of Mrs Laura Anstey on 21 November 1927, page 12b.

    An obituary of Mrs Ada R. Laycock is in the Registrer, 17 January 1928, page 8h,
    of Tom Liddle on 28 January 1928, page 17d,
    of Patrick Feeney on 30 January 1928, page 8h,
    of Mrs Harriet Terry on 6 June 1928, page 6c,
    of Augustus H. Middleton on 3 July 1928, page 11a,
    of Richard J. Oliver on 5 July 1928, page 3c,
    of Thomas Heward on 19 July 1928, page 11f,
    of Alfred Martin on 28 July 1928, page 11b,
    of William Green on 9 August 1928, page 11c.

    An obituary of Julian Ayers is in the Register, 15 January 1929, page 13f.

    An obituary of Samuel J. Jacobs is in the Advertiser, 5 January 1937, page 16a.

    Glenelg, River - Goodwood