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Manning Index of South Australian History
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    Place Names of South Australia - A

    Anna Creek - Appila

    Anna Creek


    It has been suggested that Anna Creek was discovered by P.E. Warburton. However, a Mortlock Library notation says:

    General Notes

    The school between Marree and Oodnadatta opened in 1888 and closed in 1981.

    It and the district are described in the Register,
    26 April 1888, page 6a;
    the pastoral run is described on
    4 June 1891, page 6c:

    Anna Creek - Appila
    Place Names

    Anstey Hill


    On the lower north-east road. George Alexander Anstey (1814-1895) who resided at 'Highercombe' in the 1840s.

    General Notes

    A correspondent to the Register on 29 December 1851, page 2c proffers the following opinion of Mr Anstey:

    Public meetings in respect of Anstey's Hill road are reported in the Express,
    2 August 1872, page 3a,
    10 September 1872, page 3d,
    19 December 1874, page 2g.

    Mr Anstey's obituary is in the Observer,
    23 February 1895, page 29e and
    details of his will on 1 and 29 June 1895, pages 14a and 43d.

    A field naturalists excursion is reported in the Register,
    29 September 1896, page 3g.

    Anna Creek - Appila
    Place Names

    Ansteys Bald Hill

    On Yorke Peninsula.
    A sketch of it appears on page 143 of The Life and Adventures of Edward Snell (Angus & Robertson, 1988) - "Had a very extensive view from the top of [it] extending from Mount Rat to Corney [sic] Point and embracing the whole of Hardwick [sic] Bay - the country eastward was a complete sea of scrub..." A map on page 150 shows that "Anstey's Head Station" was close by.

    Anna Creek - Appila
    Place Names

    Antechamber Bay


    On the eastern coast of Kangaroo Island 14 km south-east of Penneshsaw was discovered by Matthew Flinders on 6 April 1802. In his journal he said: ... We ran a little to leeward into a small bay... It is called Antechamber.

    General Notes

    Its school opened in 1893 and closed in 1914.

    Anna Creek - Appila
    Place Names

    Anzac Highway

    A History of the Road to Glenelg


    An early traveller said he took his first pedestrian trip to Adelaide in company with Major O'Halloran when there was a 'well-defined track made by the wheels of bullock drays' leading away from Holdfast Bay. Nathaniel Hailes trekked to Adelaide in 1839 and has left his memories for us of 'the narrow track [that] meandered along amid an apparently boundless maze of strongly scented shrubs and magnificent gum trees':

    This highway was top-dressed with seaweed, but it was not until 1852 that it was macadamised. In 1845 the first public conveyance ran between these two points in the form of a small spring cart drawn by a Timor pony and driven by a misanthrope named Thomas Haymes. He provided transport twice a week and conveyed passengers at the rate of one shilling each provided they were civil, or otherwise they might tramp it

    In 1846 Mr J. Wiseman advertised that he was about to commence a carriage service to Glenelg in a spring cart and starting from the Adelaide Oyster Rooms in Hindley Street on 5 October. In 1853 competition came from John McDonald who established a service with vehicles named 'Rose', 'Shamrock' and 'Thistle'. Subsequent developments led to R. George & Company conducting the business.

    In 1863, complaints of a 'highly improper' practice of rival omnibus drivers, Messrs McDonald and R. George, indulging in racing their vehicles to the imminent peril of their passengers, were made, while a few months later Mr R. Clisby and another unnamed traveller expressed concern as to the physical condition of some of the horses:

    Coaching From the 1860s

    By 1866 the service was in a parlous state and a citizen raised the matter of insurance policies for aggrieved passengers, while another reported upon the alleged drunkenness of coach drivers:

    By 1872 it was a notorious fact that, following a reduction in fares, a large number of coaches were overloaded. Evening after evening Adelaide sent out its oppressive heat, while dust soiled citizens by thousands thereby enticing them to enjoy a plunge in the sea or the milder luxuries of a stroll along the beach in company with a moderate sea breeze. To meet the extraordinary demands upon them coach proprietors were put to astonishing shifts.

    Vehicles that had been pensioned off were refurbished and put back into service. Horses which had long since seen their best days were pressed once more into service and to crown all, every vehicle, old or new, plying for hire, was packed regularly with passengers far beyond its reputed capacity. Coaches licensed to carry 20, through some mysterious process of human compression, were made to carry 30 and so on in like proportion from the smallest wagonette to the heaviest leviathan of all.

    Accordingly, it was all but impossible that this reckless system could continue without resulting in some serious casualty, for horses dropped down constantly or refused to proceed through sheer exhaustion. There were collisions and capsizes due partly to the incompetence of drivers, partly the sharpness of competition on the road; of wheels detached; of belts sprung; and of seats dislocated.

    On being approached, the Mayor of Adelaide, replied that there was only one inspector and 'perhaps it had slipped his mind' which, to those concerned, was a most unsatisfactory reply; indeed:

    Galvanised into action the authorities arranged for corporation officers to undertake surveillance of the Bay road and 'on Sunday last several cases of overloading were detected and information laid against the offenders.'

    In his reminiscences David Shepard recalled that:

    By 1911 the Bay Road had been in a state of disrepair for many years and this prompted the Glenelg corporation to ask the responsible Minister to supply an estimate for the probable cost of repairing the main Adelaide Road from the Old Forest Inn to the Brighton Road and providing a bicycle track from South Terrace, Adelaide to Brighton Road. At the time the highway was under the jurisdiction of several local government bodies which caused confusion in the matter of repairs. Further, it was contended that the government should take sole control, thereby giving 'Glenelg and Adelaide the advantage of a decent roadway.'

    Representations were made again in 1912 when the Mayor of Glenelg, Mr H.J. Pearce, said that it was the third occasion he had waited on the Minister with regard to the Bay Road and that on the first occasion the deputation got nothing, on the second it was given 250 and went on to say that:

    The Hon. W. Rounsevell, who was involved with the deputation, said that if the road was taken as a standard of the State's civilisation it would occupy a poor position, indeed. He had known the road for 60 years and it was worse in 1912 than it had ever been. In reply the Minister said he appreciated the importance of the request, but 'had little money on hand at present' but undertook to look at the matter when the Estimates were prepared for the ensuing financial year.

    For the next few years the notorious Glenelg highway provided ample opportunity for all the resourcefulness and patience of road makers. Macadamisation was tried over and over again, but always fell to pieces under heavy and continuous traffic.

    The Anzac Highway

    In 1917 the President of the Anzac Memorial Highway League approached the then Premier, Mr Crawford Vaughan, suggesting that the Bay Road should be renamed the Anzac Highway; that granite obelisks should be placed at intervals with the names of the battalions sent from South Australia with the battles in which they took part and the names of those who fell be inscribed upon them and that the government should purchase the land on either side of the road for resale after the road had been constructed.

    Following this suggestion the services of the Town Planner was placed at the League's disposal, while at the same time attention was drawn to the bad state of the road, following which it was put into good order. Then a proposal was made to make the road a national highway and a plan was prepared by the Town Planner. The government was subsequently asked to put a proportion of the proposal into operation and the committee planted the outer tree planting scheme.

    In 1918 a valuable suggestion was made by the Adelaide Cement Company, namely, to put down an experimental section of concrete covering one mile of the road. It was pointed out that there was a concrete right of way running from Waymouth Street to the rear of Colton, Palmer and Preston's premises, while Unley had two chains of concrete on the Unley road near the post office and on the side carrying heavy quarry traffic. In respect of the latter, although it had never been surface dressed, it stood up remarkably well after six months of severe work. This venture on the Bay Road was duly carried out in February 1919.

    In 1921 the Anzac Memorial Highway League proposed to plant two rows of trees out from either side of the road from the Adelaide Park Lands to East Terrace, Glenelg. The league also intended to plant elm trees from Keswick to Morphettville and Norfolk Island pines from Morphettville to Glenelg. The necessary elm and white cedar trees were procured in 1920 and placed in nurseries.

    But then a difficulty arose when the Unley and West Torrens councils, through their representatives on the league, expressed the desire that ash trees should be substituted for elms on account of the suckering habits of the latter which it was thought be a nuisance to private properties along the road. The league then procured from the Conservator of Forests the ash trees necessary to replace the elms. Working bees were organised in the various section and a public meeting was held on 16 June 1921 to complete arrangements for the Glenelg section.

    Any one approaching Glenelg on Saturday, 25 June 1921 by way of the Bay Road, if unacquainted with the circumstances, might have concluded that an attack by a hostile force was about to be made on the premier seaside resort, and that the inhabitants, to quote a phrase familiar during the war, were 'digging themselves in', for more than 100 men armed with picks, shovels and crowbars were digging holes on each side of the road 'for dear life.' Several women encouraged them by their presence and dispensing refreshments, while the man in charge dashed around on a motor cycle. Following this phase of the work it was concluded that 'when the work is completed it will provide one of the finest thoroughfares in Australia and a lasting and most useful memorial.'

    In February 1923 a deputation approached the government to make an up and down track and 'the centre part left for trams' which, it was believed must run to Glenelg in the course of a few years:

    The Mayor of Glenelg, Mr W. Patterson, said that Glenelg would erect a soldiers' memorial costing 15,000 within the next few months and the people of Glenelg thought it was not asking too much to request the government to provide a highway to the town worthy of the men who gave their lives in defence of the State. In reply the Minister said that the government had decided on a national memorial and that if the committee wished to proceed with the Anzac Highway project the plans should be simplified and he was not prepared to admit that a single track road to the Bay would not suffice for many years even if the traffic increased greatly. In due course the government built a 24-feet wide bituminous concrete road.

    However, the original plans provided for a 30-feet wide track for slow moving vehicles both up and down and on either side an 18-feet track was planned for one-way fast traffic, separated from the middle road by two belts of ornamental gardens, lawns and shrubbery, each 17 feet wide. With these improvements the total width of the highway would have been 132 feet. Finally, the name 'Anzac Highway' was gazetted on 6 November 1924.

    In later years successive governments were approached but a plea of lack of funds came invariably to the league which had, by that time, been instrumental in getting the various councils to rename the old Bay Road, the Anzac Highway. By the latter half of 1926 the Town Planner had drawn up plans for the highway and government surveyors had resurveyed its whole length, but no public appeal was made owing to the promise of the Soldiers' Welfare Recommendation Committee that nothing would be done to interfere with the raising of funds for the soldiers' graves.

    However, Sir Sidney Kidman, with his usual public spirit, placed 250 at the disposal of the league and that enabled a start to be made with the planting of trees. Subsequently he donated a further sum of 250. The league merged into the Tree Planting Advisory Board, with the Attorney-General, Mr W.J. Denny, at its head and the government behind it. This board decided to plant Norfolk Island pines on either side for the whole of the length of the highway.

    Mr Malcom Reid gave 300 in memory of his son, Captain Reginald Reid, but that was not enough to complete the work and an appeal was then made to the public of South Australia and subscribers, by donating two guineas, had the right to have a tree dedicated to the memory of any fallen soldier and a tablet placed on the guard. Those subscribers who had no fallen relatives had the right to nominate one to whom their tree could be dedicated.

    In June 1926 a deputation waited upon the Premier, Mr J. Gunn, and asked that the government should provide for one-way traffic on each side of the existing bituminous strip. One of the delegation. Alderman E. K. Lawton of Glenelg said that:

    By October 1928 many of the trees had succumbed to the elements and a concerned citizen remonstrated with the league:

    Years of indecision and procrastination followed until 1935 when, heeding a hint from the Minister of Employment, Mr S. Jeffries, the committee urging a reconstruction of the highway prepared a modified plan and, during discussions, it was pointed out that for the year ended 30 June 1934 there had been 140 accidents on the highway in which three people were killed and 91 injured.

    The project finally came towards fruition in 1937 when, in April, it was announced that 'work was going to begin soon' and a suggestion was made that the beauty of the highway would be enhanced if something were done to do away with loud, unsightly hoardings which marred the road. Plans were ratified in August 1937 with 22 per cent of the cost being borne by the various councils; it was completed in 1939 when 'the Anzac Highway brought a new status symbol to South Australia and today it is a visually exciting highway, contributing greatly to Adelaide's impression of space and grace.'

    General Notes

    A trotting match on the Bay Road is reported in the Register,
    5 October 1866, page 2d,
    5 June 1869, page 4b:

    An article on the Half-Way Stables of the coaching days is in The News,
    1 January 1930, page 9c.

    "The Bay Road" is in the Register,
    17 June 1911, page 14h,
    "Our Oldest Highway" on
    13 March 1912, page 9a.
    Information on its reconstruction is in the Advertiser,
    7 March 1918, page 6f.
    A photograph of the laying of a concrete road is in The Critic,
    19 February 1919, page 6; also see
    16, 18, 23 and 27 June 1921, pages 6f, 8g, 5c and 4e,
    16 February 1923, page 11c.

    The planting of memorial trees on the highway is reported in the Register,
    15 September 1925, page 9d; also see
    28 October 1925, page 7h,
    10 February 1926, page 10f,
    9 April 1926, page 8g,
    17 April 1926, page 17e,
    13 May 1926, page 14f,
    9 October 1928, page 8h.
    Also see South Australia - World War I - Memorials to the Fallen.

    A proposal for additional tracks is traversed in the Register,
    30 June 1926, page 11e; also see
    The Mail,
    14 September 1935, page 2b,
    12 December 1936, page 8a.
    23 April 1937, page 29c,
    12 August 1937, page 17h,
    The News,
    23 April 1937, page 4d,
    5 August 1937, page 10d.

    Information on and a photograph of the Forest Inn are in the Advertiser,
    12 March 1937, page 27b.

    "Lighting of Anzac Highway" is in the Advertiser,
    23 November 1937, page 20b.
    Also see Adelaide - Lighting the City and Homes.

    Anna Creek - Appila
    Place Names

    Apatoonganie Hill


    Near Lake Gregory. The 'Apatoonganie Run' was established by T. Neaylon in 1877 (lease no. 2789). Aboriginal for 'stinking water'.

    General Notes

    A sketch of the property is in the Pictorial Australian in August 1884, page 124.

    Anna Creek - Appila
    Place Names



    It lies about 25 km south of Burra and derives its name either from the Aboriginal word meaning 'place where there is water' or a corruption of 'Appinga', the name of the Aboriginal tribe which inhabited the locality. It was the site of the first smelter in the north, as Burra ore was first smelted there in January 1849 and by 1851, with four furnaces in constant use, the works supported a population of about 100. The smelter, village and hotel stood on section 1594 and was created by Charles Mounsey Penny, who registered the land grant of the section in January 1849. Other historians have credited C. Septimus Penney (sic) as erecting the smelter, but findings in the General Registry Office do not support this contention. In 1851 a roving reporter said:

    General Notes

    Also see South Australia - Mining - Copper.

    Information on the smelter is in the Observer,
    13 January 1849, page 1c.

    The formation of a police station is reported in the Adelaide Times,
    25 September 1850, page 3d:

    Also see South Australia - Police.

    The village is described in the Register,
    27 March 1856, page 2f-h and
    7 November 1873, page 7c:

    Its school opened in 1864 and closed in 1937;
    see Observer, 21 April 1877, page 7e.

    Anna Creek - Appila
    Place Names

    Appealinna Hill


    Near Wilpena. The 'Appealinna Run' (lease no. 1784) was established by J.W. Gleeson, W.L. Beare and A. King in 1868. It was formerly lease no. 466 taken up by J. Wills in 1856 'at Pasmore'. The name was also adopted for a copper mine about 65 km NNE of Hawker; abandoned in 1860-61 it reopened in 1896.

    General Notes

    Also see South Australia - Mining - Copper.

    A history of the copper mine is in the Register, 10 July 1897, page 7h:

    Anna Creek - Appila
    Place Names



    An Aboriginal word meaning 'hunting ground'. The town 24 km north-east of Laura was laid out as 'Yarrowie' in 1872 and first offered for sale on 4 June 1874, the present name being adopted and proclaimed on 20 February 1941.

    General Notes

    The district is described in the Observer,
    12 October 1872, page 13.

    A kangaroo hunt is reported in the Observer,
    1 August 1874, page 9g.
    Also see South Australia - Flora and Fauna - Marsupials and Mammals.

    Its school was opened in 1876 as "Yarrowie", becoming "Appila-Yarrowie" about 1881 and Appila in 1919.
    Appila North School opened in 1924 and became "Yandiah" in 1924; it closed in 1968.
    Appila West School opened in 1879 and closed in 1893.
    A photograph of students is in the Chronicle,
    15 June 1933, page 32.

    Information on its water supply is in the Advertiser,
    18 January 1877, page 6c.
    Information on a government well is in the Register,
    7 February 1884, page 5b.
    Also see South Australia - Communications - Telephones.

    A local show is reported in the Observer,
    5 October 1878, page 6a,
    7 October 1882 (supp.), page 2a (See South Australia - Agricultural, Floricultural and Horticultural Shows) and
    a Catholic picnic on
    26 May 1883, page 7b.

    The Observer of 12 October 1878, page 14c describes the laying of the foundation stone of the Primitive Methodist Church.

    Its inaugural athletics meeting is reported in the Register,
    9 January 1879 (supp.), page 1b; also see
    4 January 1883, page 6d,
    8 January 1881, page 78e,
    23 January 1886, page 21e,
    9 January 1904, page 35d.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Athletics and Gymnastics.

    "Disorder at Appila-Yarrowie" is in the Chronicle,
    7 February 1880, page 11e:

    The town is described in the Register,
    19 March 1903, page 3h,
    4 April 1903, page 11.

    "Early Farming on the Appila Plain" is in the Register,
    21 March 1910, page 10e.
    "The Hundred of Appila - Some Casual Notes" is in the Observer,
    23 May 1914, page 13b.

    Photographs of and information on two early settlers, Messrs Martin and Jeschke, are in the Observer,
    23 May 1903, page 24b.
    Mr Martin's reminiscences are in the Observer,
    20 March 1920, page 45e.

    The Advertiser of 22 August 1904, page 9a says:

    Information on and photographs of the opening of the Lutheran parsonage at Pine Creek are in the Chronicle,
    20 July 1907, page 30,
    5 October 1907, page 30,
    of dam cleaning on
    12 April 1934, page 36,
    of a football team on
    17 October 1935, page 36.

    The reminiscences of Paul Martin are in the Register,
    9 March 1920, page 7c and
    an obituary in the Observer,
    25 December 1930, page 26a.

    Appila - Obituaries

    An obituary of C.W.H. Hirsch is in the Register, 29 July 1902, page 6d,
    of Peter Zwar on 4 July 1917, page 6f.

    An obituary of J.S. Jaeschke is in the Observer, 5 December 1908, page 40c,
    of J.C. Pech on 4 July 1914, page 39a,
    of Carl Wurst on 19 September 1914, page 23a,
    of Mrs Sophia M. Seaman on 3 November 1917, page 20a,
    of J. Breuer on 19 January 1918, page 11d,
    of J.H. Bottrall on 7 September 1918, page 18a,
    of W.H. Wait on 17 December 1927, page 49b.

    Anna Creek - Appila