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    Place Names of South Australia - P

    Parakylia - Parkside



    Near Kingoonya where a post office operated from August 1884 to April 1898. A corruption of the Aboriginal parakilia which was applied to several species of indigenous succulent annual portulacaceous plants, of the genus calandrina found in the drier parts of South Australia. Its presence permitted the use of camels in areas otherwise entirely devoid of water, the animals obtaining both food and water from the fleshy leaves.

    General Notes

    Information on the pastoral property is in the Register,
    26 April 1892, page 5g,
    1 March 1924, page 47b.

    The use of camels in the district is reported in the Register,
    5 February 1924, page 11b.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names



    East of Lyndhurst; corrupted from the Aboriginal padaardlanha - 'hot springs'. In their legend two young warriors fought for the love of a beautiful maiden; the victor, after vanquishing his opponent, reached into the sky, captured a lightning bolt and drove his murder weapon, now converted into a fire stick, deep into the ground. Thus, the springs were created in an instant.

    The Register of 3 October 1868, page 3g says that "Parrabarana" is corrupted from the Aboriginal perrabarrina - "more water".

    General Notes

    The Register of
    16 September 1857 at page 3f has a letter from John Jacob in respect of an exploration undertaken by him in the region.
    His obituary appears on
    29 and 30 August 1910, pages 6a and 6i.

    Aborigines were troublesome during 1858 - see Register,
    25 June (p. 3b),
    16 July (p. 3h),
    26 July (p. 3h) and
    10 August (p. 3a) - see
    26 May 1865, page 5d and
    30 June 1865, page 3g for a report on the killing of sheep by Aborigines;
    also see Parliamentary Paper 124/1865.
    Also see South Australia - Aboriginal Australians.

    "Black Foragers" is in the Observer,
    24 May 1873, page 7g.

    The Parabarana copper mine on Parabarana Creek,"84 miles east of Farina and about two miles SE of Parabarana Hill" was worked in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The Paralana Mine was worked "2 miles NE of Hamilton Mine" at Mount Fitton - see Records of The Mines of South Australia (fourth edition),
    pages 109 and 264 and
    11 November 1899, page 11a.
    Also see South Australia - Mining - Copper.

    Information on its hot springs is in Register,
    3 July 1917, page 5d,
    The News,
    8 December 1924, page 4f,
    18 July 1925, page 62d,
    "Northern Health Resorts" in the Register,
    27 April 1926, page 13e,
    The Mail,
    1 May 1926, page 1d,
    17 July 1926, page 1f,
    31 July 1926, page 49d,
    The News,
    16 November 1926, page 7e.

    "Beneficial Hot Springs" in the Register,
    5 October 1926, page 9f,
    26 March 1927, page 12c; also see
    7 September 1928, page 13a,
    The Mail,
    19 May 1928, page 2g,
    15 September 1928, page 54d.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    1 January 1927, page 34,
    2 April 1927, page 52e,
    15 September 1928, page 52e,
    16 July 1927, page 37.
    Also see South Australia - Health - Miscellany.

    A photograph of a water carrier is in the Chronicle,
    3 December 1927, page 42.
    Also see South Australia - Northern Lands Development and Allied Matters - Water, Artesian Wells and Springs.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names



    Derived from the Aboriginal para -'river' and owie - 'water'.

    General Notes

    Mr Russell's property "Paralowie" is mentioned in the Register,
    30 June 1903, page 6h.

    The school opened in 1980.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names



    A railway station near Wallaroo was named after a local copper mine.

    General Notes

    Also see South Australia - Mining - Copper.

    The Paramatta Mine "situated a little N of Moonta, was worked for many years, with a fair yield..." - see Records of the Mines of South Australia (fourth edition), page 111.

    The mine is described in the Register,
    15 September 1868, page 2g,
    2 September 1870, page 2b.
    The Register of
    3 May 1870, page 3e describes at length a rock boring apparatus at the mine.

    "The Paramatta Mine and its Late Manager" is the subject of a correspondent's letter in the Advertiser,
    13 October 1877, page 2f (supp.).

    "The Paramatta Mines" is the subject of a feature article in the Advertiser,
    2 September 1899, page 11a.
    Its history and reopening is reported in the Register on
    15 October 1900, page 6f; also see
    20 October 1900, page 37a.
    Photographs, etc., are in The Critic,
    21 March 1903, page 21.

    Parliamentary Paper 34/1877 shows the school being conducted by E.M. Pearce;
    it opened in 1871 and was listed as such until 1876;
    also see Advertiser,
    14 July 1874, page 3d.

    The "Paramatta Orangery" is mentioned in the Observer,
    4 September 1875, page 9b and
    Mr James Bray's "Parramatta" (sic) garden near the Gawler River in the Register,
    13 March 1896, page 3e.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Fruit and Vegetables.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names



    The name was adopted from pastoral lease no. 232 taken up by William Sharples in 1852 - Aboriginal for 'middle'.

    General Notes

    The Register of
    2 January 1858 at page 3g has a report of a bushfire on "Messrs Bowman and Hartnell's station, Parara..."
    Also see South Australia - Natural Disasters - Bushfires
    Details of the pastoral lease on Yorke Peninsula are in the obituary of Parker Bowman; see Register, 16 October 1911, page 6h,
    21 October 1911, page 41a.
    An obituary of Mrs Mary A. Bowman is in the Observer,
    14 July 1923, page 35b.

    A meeting of the Parara Mining and Smelting Company is in the Register,
    29 May 1869, page 3a.
    A subsequent copper discovery there is reported upon and discussed in The Irish Harp,
    11 October 1872, page 5c,
    7, 16 and 26 October 1872, pages 6c, 5a and 5c.
    Also see South Australia - Mining - Copper.

    The mine is described in the Register,
    19 March 1874, page 5e,
    while its winding-up is reported in the Observer of
    12 April 1879, page 7f - it was situated "on a small rise about 2 miles NW of Ardrossan" - see
    Records of the Mines of South Australia (fourth edition),
    page 111; also see
    20 April 1907, page 43c.

    Details of the pastoral lease on Yorke Peninsula are in the obituary of Parker Bowman;
    see Observer, 21 October 1911, page 41a.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names



    An Aboriginal word given to a property held by Messrs Dare and Mundy circa 1858 (lease no. 1892).

    General Notes

    A thunderstorm and hurricane are reported upon in the Express,
    12 November 1883, page 3e,
    the run is described in the Observer,
    20 September 1884, page 9e.

    An obituary of C.G. Dutton, rabbit inspector, is in the Register,
    15 July 1887, page 5a,
    of Christopher Wade on
    3 september 1900, page 5a.

    The Paratoo copper mine stood on section 135, Hundred of Paratoo "two and a half miles from Paratoo Railway siding" - see
    Record of the Mines of South Australia (fourth edition), page 113.

    Also see South Australia - Mining - Coal.

    A gold discovery is reported in the Register,
    10 April 1894, page 7h.

    The run is described in the Register,
    26 August 1884, page 6b,
    8 July 1890, page 6b.
    A sketch is in the Pictorial Australian in
    December 1875.

    "Dust Extraordinary at Paratoo" is in the Register,
    23 March 1900, page 5b.

    Parakylia -Parkside
    Place Names

    Parcoola, Hundred of


    The name was taken from a sheep run pioneered by J. White in 1871 (lease no. 2136). Aboriginal for 'three'.

    General Notes

    A photograph of a load of wool leaving Parcoola station is in the Chronicle,
    5 April 1924, page 37.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names

    Pareora Estate


    Aboriginal for 'winding water'.

    General Notes

    It is described in the Register,
    14 January 1904, page 6f,
    15 September 1910, page 11d; also see
    29 October 1910, page 13e.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names



    John Parham (1821-1897), an early settler in the district, who arrived in the Singapore in 1839.

    General Notes

    The Register of 27 November 1876, page 6c has a letter from Mr George Baker:

    Information on a proposed jetty is in the Express,
    7 October 1876, page 2b,
    10 October 1876, page 6b,
    14 November 1876, page 5e,
    14 October 1876, page 11c.
    Information on Edward Parham is in the Register,
    10 September 1885, page 3e.

    A poem about the port is in the Observer, 18 November 1876, page 14a. The first and last verses read:

    An obituary of John Parham's wife is in the Register,
    28 October 1909, page 5d,
    30 October 1909, page 40a,
    6 November 1909, page 32 (photo.).

    The town is described in the Register,
    8 January 1904, page 6d and
    the port on
    23 October 1909, page 15d:

    The reminiscences of E.C. Lindsay are in the Advertiser,
    19 August 1936, page 25a.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names



    Aboriginal for 'cold place'. The first pastoralist in the immediate vicinity was J.W.D. Dening who took up pastoral lease no. 2290 as from 30 June 1873.

    General Notes

    A photograph of an 1893 parliamentary inspection party is in the Observer,
    17 July 1915, page 29.

    A cricket match against Pinnaroo is reported in the Chronicle,
    13 January 1906, page 16e.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Cricket - Miscellany.

    Its school opened in 1909 and closed in 1945;
    Parilla North School operated from 1921 until 1945 and
    Parilla Well School opened in 1915 and closed in 1943;
    also see Express,
    14 February 1911, page 1g,
    30 September 1911, page 17a,
    4 October 1913, page 17b.
    A photograph of pupils is in the Chronicle,
    14 November 1914, page 28.

    The forest reserve is discussed in the Register,
    30 January 1909, page 7a,
    14 July 1909, page 1g.

    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Forestry.

    The town is described in the Register,
    21 December 1911, page 3f,
    30 December 1911, page 16a.
    Photographs are in The Critic,
    22 March 1911, page 18,
    5 April 1911, page 16.

    The opening of the Institute is reported in the Observer,
    10 February 1912, page 54c,
    of a new hall on
    26 April 1913, page 17d.

    Photographs of floods are in the Observer,
    11 October 1913, page 30.
    Also see South Australia - Natural Disasters - floods.

    Biographical details of C. Mueller are in the Register,
    21 May 1915, page 7e.

    A photograph of a football team is in the Chronicle,
    4 November 1937, page 33.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names



    The name was also given to small mining village three miles south of Kanmantoo and taken from the Paringa Mining Company which took up the land under a special survey in partnership with the South Australian Company; it was an alternative name for 'Saint Ives'.

    General Notes

    Also see South Australia - Mining - Coal.

    The village near Mount Barker is mentioned in the Register,
    22 March 1851, page 2d in respect of a lecture held in the public school room.

    Information on the mine is in the Chronicle,
    12 February 1870, page 5b;
    for information on new equipment installed at the mine see Register,
    16 March 1870 (supp.), page 4f and
    6 May 1870, page 5d.
    A photograph is in the Chronicle,
    20 November 1909, page 30.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names



    Daniel Michael P. Cudmore (1811-1891), with his wife and son, James Francis Cudmore (1837-1912), arrived in South Australia from Tasmania on 11 October 1837. After being a brewer, maltster and farmer near Modbury he was bequeathed property in Ireland and after selling it used the proceeds to buy more land. By 1858 he had acquired a property called Paringa on the River Murray.

    H.C. Talbot contends that the name was taken from that of a large waterhole, when the Murray was low, opposite the original homestead, and means, 'whirlpool'; other sources say it means 'land near or about the river', which is the more acceptable derivation. H.M. Cooper, formerly of the SA Museum, said it meant 'place at the river'.

    General Notes

    The opening of the railway is reported in the Register,
    1 October 1913, page 11h;
    a photograph of an accident is in the Observer,
    6 June 1914, page 30.
    "A Much-Needed Bridge" is in the Observer,
    2 December 1922, page 53d,
    6 October 1923, page 13e,
    19 and 28 January 1927, pages 12g and 14a.
    Photographs are in the Observer,
    22 January 1927, page 34,
    12 February 1927, page 32.
    Also see South Australia - Transport - Railways - Miscellany.

    The district is described in the Observer,
    4 September 1909, page 51b.

    The school near Renmark opened in 1913 and became "Wonuarra" in 1920 in which year a new Paringa School opened; see
    25 June 1927, page 49;
    photographs are in the Chronicle,
    10 October 1929, page 37.

    "The Paringa Punt" is in the Register,
    15 and 20 January 1920, pages 6f and 5e,
    17 January 1920, page 29e,
    4 February 1922, page 7a.
    Photographs are in the Chronicle,
    13 June 1914, pages 31-32,
    13 October 1923, page 35,
    23 July 1921, page 25.

    An obituary of Wilhelm Stoeckel is in the Register,
    26 November 1926, page 10h.

    A photograph of a new hall is in the Chronicle,
    3 October 1929, page 38,
    of the bridge on
    20 June 1935, page 38.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names


    In respect of the subdivision at Port Noarlunga (see under "Noarlunga" in Manning's Place Names of South Australia) the Register of 6 September 1923 at page 8e has relevant information on the change of name to Port Noarlunga South.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names

    Paringa Park

    Historical information on Paringa Hall is in The Mail,
    15 December 1928, page 14d.

    An obituary of J.F. Cudmore is in the Register, 19 August 1912, page 6h.

    The opening of Sacred Heart College is reported in the Express,
    15 March 1915, page 4e;
    photographs are in the Chronicle,
    1 June 1933, page 37.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names

    Paris Creek


    On 21 November 1859 Robert Paris registered the purchase of section 3339, Hundred of Kondoparinga. The creek running through it bears his name.

    General Notes

    Contrary to records in the Education Department Parliamentary Paper 26/1875 shows the school being conducted by Louisa Robinson with 39 enrolled pupils.

    A photograph of tobacco growing on Mr W.A. Gordon's property is in the Chronicle,
    17 May 1924, page 38.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Tobacco.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names


    This school opened in 1910 and closed in 1922 when Torrens Vale School opened.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names



    William Parkin (1801-1889) MLC (1866-1877) who founded the 'Parkin Trust' in collaboration with the Congregational Church.

    General Notes

    Also see South Australia - Politics.

    Biographical details of William Parkin are in the Register,
    4 November 1862, page 2e,
    10 September 1881, page 35b,
    an obituary on,
    1 June 1889, page 29a,
    1 June 1889, page 5a.

    A humorous poem on his parliamentary performance is in the Register,
    10 January 1871, page 5e; also see
    10 January 1871, page 7b under "Mr Parkin and the Price of Copper".

    "The Parkin Trust in Operation" is in the Observer,
    24 April 1909, page 42e,
    18 December 1909, page 37e.

    Parakylia - Parkside
    Place Names


    How the Parklands Were Saved

    (Taken from Geoffrey H Manning's A Colonial Experience)

    Adelaide is famed today for its beautiful and health-giving Park Lands, but they were not retained without an effort on the part of many pioneers. To Colonel Light must be given the credit of planning such fine reserves, but Governors Hindmarsh and Gawler were the men responsible for saving them for posterity.

    Adelaide's Park Lands were included in the survey made by Colonel Light in 1837. Few people saw the wisdom of the move and for some time the first settlers dumped their huts on the reserves. Government House, then but a hut, was on portion of the Park Lands near where the present vice-regal residence is situated.

    Objection was taken by many to the setting aside of such a large area. But those with greater foresight approved the action and, on 1 January 1838, it was ordered that no building could be erected on these lands without the governor's permission. On 14 May 1838 a further notice was given that those occupying buildings on the Park Lands had to remove same within two months.

    Permission was also refused for any building to be erected on any account and that no works were to be conducted thereon. This notice did not apply to the buildings for immigrants at 'Buffalo Row', which I have described elsewhere. Governor Hindmarsh was strongly opposed because of his action, but he replied that the habitations on these lands had defaced and despoiled the appearance of the reserve. The insinuation was made that as he had acquired some country sections he was trying to drive poor people away from the city to purchase his rural holdings.

    As far back as 1 September 1838 there were complaints about the continued and systematic destruction of ornamental trees in the parklands and a relentless fight was waged by an early newspaper editor to see that this practice was stopped. Wisely, the governor agreed with this course and on 15 September 1838 it was ordered that trees were not to be cut down. It was also decreed that no brick making or lime burning was to take place there, a step which was met with some opposition at first.

    Up until August 1838 people were still living on the Park Lands but an order on the 17th of that month prohibited such intrusions. Several residents petitioned against this edict but the governor said that, 'He must not sacrifice public duty to the convenience of individuals possessed of ample means of support.' Accordingly, he allowed wealthy people or those in comfortable circumstances, thirty days to remove their goods and chattels, while others were compelled to leave by 30 June 1839.

    When Governor Gawler took office he was authorised to purchase the 2,300 acres of Park Lands and this he did on a promissory note for £2,300. On 25 September 1838 it was learned that this note had not been redeemed and the point was raised that the purchase had been only a mock transaction. However, although there was much discussion, the purchase stood.

    Another manner in which they were 'tied up' for citizens was by reserving them under the Waste Lands Act, a quite legal proceeding. Since those early times improvements have been made in all directions, which are now recognised by all as one of the greatest assets of the city. Football, cricket, tennis, golf and many other sports are played on them and their presence gives a picturesqueness to the city which might well be lacking but for the determined attitudes of our first governors and other prominent pioneers.

    As for the spoliation of the Park Lands, an Act of 1849 permitted the government to take 312 acres, this being practically the lands to the north of the city; 60 acres were taken for the cemetery and 8 acres for other purposes. In 1861 a Consolidating Act was passed and governed the municipality until the passing of the Municipal Corporations Act of 1880.

    Under the Act of 1861 the boundaries of the city were made the exterior limits of the Park Lands, and the council, which took control, was given power to construct dams and reservoirs, form walks and carriage drives and carry out such measures as would adapt the Park Lands to the recreative uses of the public. In the Act of 1890, the government reserves appear to have been increased.

    The Park Lands, as laid out originally, comprised 2,300 acres and of this area 312 acres are utilised for the purposes of the University, Art Gallery, Museum, etc.; virtually all the Park Lands' frontage to North Terrace. The process of spoliation was completed by taking 71 acres for the railway between North Terrace and the river.2

    Sport and the Park Lands

    It may be fairly claimed that the Park Lands are the nursery of metropolitan sports in all seasons. At 1 July 1906 there were no fewer than 212 athletic clubs with permits to hold their games on these reserves. The division was as follows: Cricket clubs, 122; football 42; hockey, 17; tennis, 21; lacrosse, 7; polo, 1; golf, 2. The total licence income for the preceding year was £3,549 and the expenditure £4,098. In respect of the 'Royal and Ancient' game a non-devotee proclaimed:

    A Controversy Within the Corporation

    In 1897 a controversy arose when a bowling green and a crematorium were proposed to be built on the Park Lands and these two extremes of lively recreation and of gruesome associations were the subject of lively debate both within and without our civic chambers. As to the former, the desire to enlarge the scope of the existing regulations in order to admit of the Adelaide Oval being used for general recreation purposes needed little advocacy, but the Editor of the Register, an apparent self-proclaimed non-adherent to the infant game within South Australia, opined:

    As to the proposed crematorium and cremation, generally, it was said:

    Some Personal Reflections

    The idea of Park Lands being laid out around the city is a most beautiful one and after 60-odd years I never walk through them without hallowing the memory of the gallant Colonel Light who, I believe, was primarily responsible for their creation. His intention, of course, was that they should be for the exclusive benefit of the citizens and that there should be no power to rob them of such right - With that understanding and on those terms were the town acres offered for sale and bought.

    Allow me to take you, the reader, back to 1870 and tell of the abuses perpetrated in respect of the Park Lands over the preceding decades. At the outset, in consequence of the neglect of both government and the people, a great portion of the beautiful timber and shrubs growing upon them had been cut down and used as firewood, whilst the majority of the reeds, tea-tree and scrub growing along the banks of the Torrens had been demolished, without the slightest effort to preserve it.

    The next abuse was the appropriation, at different times, by both the government and corporation and about 300 acres had been purloined - I will begin with the first that was taken, namely, a block of land at the foot of North Adelaide Hill, formerly known as the old Government Iron Stores, on which stood a cottage with a nice piece of land, fenced in; next, the paddock on the southern side of the river from the Hindmarsh Bridge, along the Thebarton Road and up to the old slaughter house, which paddock had been used as a farm for several years.

    Then came a cottage near the sheep slaughter house; then the slaughter houses, with all their yards attached; then the gaol, with its wheat paddock, gardens and plantations; then the Telegraph Observatory and the Flagstaff on West Terrace. I would then mention the railway yards and station from the bridge over the line opposite the Black Swan Hotel to Parliament House; the old Governor's garden on the banks of the river, the City Baths, Government Printing Office and Parliament House; the showgrounds, with its buildings and yards, the Hospital and Lunatic Asylum and the large Police Paddock at the back of the Botanic Garden.

    Add to those the old Botanic Garden on the northern side of the river, the waterworks' yards opposite the Lunatic Asylum and the cattle market on North Terrace on North Terrace. Thus it can be seen that the majority of the frontage of North Terrace had been stolen from the citizens.


    As to the future, one does not know the conditions as to present holdings, but the corporation might direct that all existing lessees (except clubs under Act of Parliament) be distinctly and officially informed that these provisions apply: They are tenants at will; no locked gates, citizens must have free access at any time; no charge for admission; also that any intended request must be advertised by the applicant, the corporation undertaking to consider the request and any objections at the same time; citizens still to have the right of demanding a poll. Acts of Parliament should be examined carefully and if necessary amended in the people's interests.

    At the foundation of the city the Park Lands were established as a rich inheritance for countless thousands of people through all generations - What a thing of beauty for the admiration of all observers! Much has been done to hinder this, but many of us, I hope most of us, now realise the true position and say: 'This must cease. Get back to the original intention and stay there, not one inch further will we go.'

    Indulge in sports, of course, but be manly and vigorous about it. There is a lot of 'sentiment and thoughtless good-heartedness in the desire to get a bit of land for one's association. We should sweep it away from now on, and be loyal citizens first and good sportsmen directly afterwards. Let us become united, at least in this, in a determination to in every legal manner possible to resist all future encroachments, lest in the end it be said, reproachfully: 'What fools those people were. The whittling is over, fling away the chips.'

    General Notes

    "Parklands and Government Reserves" at the time of the first survey is the subject of comment by G.S. Kingston in the Advertiser,
    12 November 1877, page 6e.

    "How Parklands Were Saved" is in the Advertiser,
    20 May 1925, page 9a,
    The Mail,
    31 March 1928, page 3a.

    The destruction of trees is discussed in the Register,
    30 June 1838, page 3c; also see
    13 October 1838, page 4d,
    15 August 1840, page 5b,
    3 and 28 February 1844, pages 3c and 2d,
    20 March 1844, page 2d,
    24 April 1844, page 2e.
    "Parklands and the Natives" appears on
    6 February 1841, page 2d.

    Shooting in the Parklands is reported in the Register,
    2 March 1844, page 3b; also see
    27 May 1846, page 2a,
    15 August 1849, page 4a.
    "Parkland Nuisances" is discussed on
    7 January 1850, page 2d and
    their denudation on
    13 July 1853, page 2f,
    27 April 1854, page 3g.

    An Aboriginal corroboree is reported in the Adelaide Times on 18 December 1848, page 4b: "The Charge for Depasturing on the Park Lands" is in the Observer,
    25 December 1852, page 6b.

    "Cottagers on the Park Lands" is in the Observer,
    12 November 1853.

    Public buildings on the parklands are described in the Register,
    8 March 1855, page 3d,
    1 December 1860, page 2h.
    Encroachment upon them on
    14 June 1855, page 3e.
    An exhibition of rocket-practice appears on
    8 September 1860, page 2h.

    "Coal on the Park Lands" is in the Observer,
    30 October 1858, page 6h.
    Also see Place Names - Medindie and Place Names - Nailsworth.

    Editorials, etc, appear in the Register,
    3 July 1856, page 2g,
    13 August 1856, page 2b,
    19 September 1856, page 2e,
    8 July 1857, page 2d and
    19 March 1858, page 2g; also see
    3 July 1858, page 3d,
    20 July 1858, page 3e,
    22 April 1859, page 3d,
    22 July 1859, page 3b,
    15 October 1859, page 3c,
    23 November 1859, page 2g,
    23 December 1859, page 2g.

    "Parks and Markets" is in the Farm & Garden,
    8 March 1860, page 150. Also see Adelaide - Markets
    and Register,
    18 July 1861, page 2e and
    26 July 1866, page 3a,
    16 January 1869, page 8e,
    3 June 1870, page 5d,
    11 February 1871, page 6a,
    18 and 19 September 1871, pages 5f and 3f,
    9 May 1874, page 6b,
    6, 7 and 8 August 1874, pages 7c, 7a-b and 7a-c,
    27 and 29 October 1874, pages 5a and 4g-6g,
    29 January 1875, page 7a,
    22 and 23 December 1875, pages 4g-6c and 5f.
    For a comprehensive report on "Their Use, Abuse and Improvement" see Register,
    6 July 1870, page 6b.

    A report of rifle butts is in the Register,
    22 November 1859, page 2g,
    21 May 1861, page 3e,
    26 November 1859, page 6h,
    9 April 1861, page 2g,
    30 March 1861, page 4e,
    13 April 1861, page 6f,
    24 August 1861, page 8d,
    15 October 1861, page 2e;
    their removal is reported in the Register on
    7 June 1877, page 5d; also see
    6 September 1877, page 5c and
    16 February 1878, page 5b.
    Sketches are in the SA Figaro,
    13 June 1877, pages 3-4.
    Also see South Australia - Sport - Rifle Shooting.

    "The Parklands and the City Poor" is in the Advertiser,
    2 December 1863, page 2g:

    "Leasing the Parklands" is in the Advertiser,
    22 February 1864, page 3a,
    19 November 1864, page 4g (supp.).

    "Cow-Keeping" is discussed in the Register,
    2, 15 and 25 August 1864, pages 3d, 3g and 3a.

    For a legal opinion on the rights of the SA Government to alienate the Parklands, see Register,
    18 July 1865, page 3d and
    27 June 1879, page 5a.
    Comprehensive dissertations on this subject and the various Reserves appear on
    12 November 1877, pages 4d and 6f; also see
    10 July 1878 (supp.), page 2e,
    24 September 1878 (supp.), page 2c,
    1 May 1878, pages 4f-7c,
    21 and 27 April 1880, pages 4d and 7d; also see
    10 August 1885, page 6f,
    4 June 1889, pages 4g-5a,
    11 October 1900, page 4c.

    "Sticking-up" is discussed in the Observer,
    24 February 1866, page 7e.

    A daring case of highway robbery, by a gentleman calling himself Captain Thunderbolt, in the vicinity of the North Parklands is reported in the Register, 8 September 1866, page 2d when it was said, inter alia:

    The said Captain continued his deprivations in the Payneham and Stepney area until the long arm of the law ensnared him - for some entertaining reading see
    20 and 27 October 1866, pages 2d and
    7 and 30 November 1866, pages 2d.
    Also see the Express,
    28 March 1866, page 2c,
    13 August 1921, page 11a.

    A proposal to plant olive trees is in the Register,
    1 June 1867, page 3b; also see
    13 June 1868, page 9c,
    10 June 1871, page 13e.
    "Olives in the Parklands" is in the Register,
    6 June 1871, page 5d; also see
    10 September 1883, page 6c.
    Also see South Australia - Industries - Rural, Primary and Secondary - Olives.

    An editorial on barrack accommodation for the 50th Regiment on the North Parklands is in the Register,
    23 January 1868, page 2e.
    Also see South Australia - Defence of the Colony.

    "What Can be Done With the Park Lands?" is in the Advertiser,
    5 January 1869, page 2f.

    "A Scene in the Park Lands" is in the Observer,
    12 December 1874, page 3c.

    "Invasions of the Park Lands" is in the Chronicle,
    4 May 1878, page 4e.

    A letter re encroachment upon the Parklands is in the Observer,
    24 August 1878, page 23d; also see
    24 and 27 August 1878, pages 2c (supp.) and 6a,
    7 and 9 September 1878, pages 4c and 4d-6d,
    23 and 29 August 1900, pages 3h and 6h.

    An editorial "The City Parks and Squares" is in the Register,
    15 May 1878, page 4d.

    The Register of
    27 June 1879 at page 5a talks of the alienation of the parklands -
    for later comment see
    28 June 1879, pages 4g and 1a-d (supp.),
    5, 22, 26 and 29 July 1879, pages 6d, 6e, 6g and 7a; also see
    17 February 1880, page 6e,
    6 April 1880, page 6d,
    25 August 1880, page 4e.

    In 1880 sporting bodies commenced a push for the Parklands to be made available for sporting activity - see
    8, 18 (supp.) and 19 May, pages 4e, 1f and 6e,
    5 and 8 June, pages 7a and 6e-2b (supp.); also see
    4 May 1905, page 3b,
    27 February 1906, page 3f.

    Also see South Australia - Sport - Archery.

    "Oval on the South Park Lands" is in the Express,
    24 October 1882, pages 2b-3d,
    24 January 1894, page 2c,
    "The Public Property in the Park Lands" on
    27 September 1883, pages 2b-3b; also see
    6 September 1886, pages 2d-3c,
    5 September 1888, page 4b.

    "The Outrage on the Park Lands" is in the Register,
    26 November 1884, page 7a,
    11 December 1884, page 4e.

    "The Parks for the People" is in the Register,
    2 October 1885, page 7h.

    "Horses in the Park Lands" is in the Express,
    15 May 1889, page 2b.

    An editorial headed "The City Fathers and the People's Parks" is in the Register, 3 August 1897, page 4e:

    "Despoiling the People's Parks" is in the Register,
    11 October 1900, pages 4c-8i.

    "Our Park Lands" is in the Advertiser,
    17 October 1900, page 4d,
    "Protect the Park Lands" on
    28 September 1901, page 6c.

    "Adelaide's Playgrounds" is in the Register,
    14 July 1902, page 4g.
    Also see Adelaide Entertainment and the Arts - Miscellany - Playgrounds.

    For further comment on proposed alienation of the Parklands see Register,
    13 and 27 October 1902, pages 3g and 2i,
    18 November 1902, page 4g.
    23 December 1902, page 8b,
    29 August 1916, page 4i.
    Further information on "alienation" appears on
    1, 4, 5 and 7 November 1919, pages 6d-i, 6e, 7f and 9d.

    "The Lungs of the City" is in the Register,
    22 January 1903, page 3h.

    "Trees in the City Park Lands" is in the Observer,
    7 March 1903, page 25b.

    "Preserve the Parklands - A League Formed" is in the Advertiser,
    20 May 1903, page 6e.

    "The People's Parks" is in the Register,
    19 and 20 May 1903, pages 4d and 3i; also see
    10 and 11 September 1906, pages 4d-f and 6f,
    1 February 1907, page 6h,
    25 August 1908, page 3f.
    Photographs are in the Chronicle,
    15 December 1906, page 2 (supp.).

    A supposed "gallows" tree situated between the River Torrens and the Adelaide Oval is discussed in the Observer,
    7 and 14 November 1903, pages 24e and 23e.

    A comment on Sunday sport on the parklands is made in the Register, 4 May 1905, page 3b:

    The desecration of Sundays by the playing of "pitch and toss" is reported in the Register,
    15 August 1905, page 4g,
    18 September 1906, page 4e.
    Also see South Australia - Religion - Breaking the Sabbath.

    "Should the Park Lands be Planted? - A Note of Warning" is in the Advertiser,
    22 May 1906, page 9g.

    "Protest Against Eminent Domain Bill" is in the Register,
    5, 6, 10 and 11 September 1906, pages 4f, 3d, 4d and 11a.

    "The Nursery of Sports" is in the Register,
    10 July 1906, page 4h,
    "Preserve the People's Parks" on
    15 and 16 November 1907, pages 4c and 5h; also see
    26 and 27 August 1908, pages 9g and 6e.

    "Another Attack on the Park Lands" is in the Register,
    25, 26 and 27 August 1908, pages 3f, 2g and 6e.

    The Register of 1 February 1910 at page 5a reports on:

    "Preserve the Parklands! - Praise and Criticism" is in the Register,
    16 June 1910, pages 5e-6c; also see
    27, 28 and 30 September 1910, pages 7d, 6c and 9g,
    3 October 1910, page 8f and
    16 and 23 June 1910, pages 10b and 8i,
    1 and 22 July 1910, pages 9b and 7h,
    9 August 1910, page 6c,
    21 and 27 September 1910, pages 10d and 8c-9c.

    "Federal Buildings on Park Lands" is in the Register,
    30 August 1911, page 4f.

    "Depasturing on Park Lands - Rights of District Councils" is in the Advertiser,
    9 March 1912, page 7h.

    "The People's Inheritance" is in the Register,
    28 October 1912, page 6f.

    "Filching the Park Lands - Mr A.T. Saunders on the Warpath" is in The Mail,
    18 January 1913, page 9a.

    The approval for the establishment of a Deer Park is reported in the Register,
    27 March 1913, page 8e; also see
    5 September 1913, page 11e.

    "Government House and People's Parks" is in the Register,
    15 October 1913, page 12e,
    18 November 1913, page 5c,
    "The Park Lands - A Pioneer's Warning" of 1870 on
    29 December 1913, page 9b,
    "Alleged Immorality - Park Lands by Night" on
    21 April 1914, page 7c.

    "Stealing the Parklands" is in the Register,
    12 December 1913, page 14f.

    "The Park Lands - A Pioneer's Warnings" is in the Observer,
    3 January 1914, page 49a.

    An editorial headed "The Park Lands" is in the Register,
    17 March 1914, page 6c.
    A proposal for a Luna Park is reported on
    13 and 15 June 1914, pages 18f and 6c-9e.

    "Pawning the Park Lands" is in the Register,
    16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27 June 1914, pages 6c-h, 8h, 10h, 8c, 15f-18a, 12b, 8c, 6f-8d, 10i, 10d and 14d-i,
    13 July 1914, page 17a.

    "Park Lands Wanted - For Tennis and Tramway" is in the Register,
    24 August 1915, page 9f,
    8, 10 and 11 September 1915, pages 7b, 6c and 5b,
    2 and 5 October 1915, pages 12a and 4c,
    "Control of the Parks" on
    14 and 29 August 1916, pages 4c and 4i.

    "The People's Parks - Big Areas Gone" is in the Advertiser,
    31 August 1915, page 7a,
    "Encroaching on Public Reserves" on
    22 and 23 March 1916, pages 6d-g and 8f,
    "No More Alienation" on
    27 September 1918, page 7e,
    "The Parklands - A Backward Glance" on
    5 November 1919, page 11a.

    "A People's Inheritance" is in the Register,
    1 November 1919, page 6d-i; also see
    5, 6, 7 and 8 November 1919, pages 7f, 3h, 9d and 6e.

    "Polls for Athletic Areas" is in the Observer,
    8 November 1919, page 14e.

    "Recreation on Park Lands" is in the Register,
    13 September 1921, page 6f.

    "The Horse Killer" is in the Register,
    10 July 1922, page 7d.

    "Naturalists Make Inspection" is in The News,
    11 September 1923, page 5e.

    "Derelicts Sleep Out" is in The Mail,
    8 August 1925, page 1b.

    "Parkland Pastures - Substantial Revenue Derived" is in The Mail,
    14 August 1926, page 1e.

    "Hands Off the Parks - Parade Ground Again" is in the Register,
    15 February 1927, page 13f; also see
    15 February 1927, page 12g,
    8 March 1927, page 12h.

    A proposal to remove the Parade Ground is reported in the Advertiser,
    28 August 1934, page 8h,
    1 December 1934, page 22e,
    "Spoiling a Vista" on
    7 December 1934, page 24g.

    Historical information and newspaper references are in the Register,
    12 December 1927, page 15g.

    Information on a "Wattle Grove" is in the Register,
    9 July 1928, page 13d.

    "Preserving the Parklands" is in the Advertiser,
    10 May 1933, page 14f,
    "Playgrounds of Adelaide" on
    16 October 1933, page 16e.

    "Make More Use of the Parklands" is in The News,
    26 February 1934, page 4e.

    "Our Parklands - In Years to Come" is in The News,
    3 September 1934, page 6e.

    "Saturday Afternoons in the Parklands" is in the Advertiser,
    27 June 1936, page 11c.

    Parakylia - Parkside