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    South Australia - Industrial Relations

    Editorial Comment

    An Essay on Destitution, Unemployment, Riots and Soup Kitchens - 1837-1900

    (Also see Geoffrey H. Manning, A Colonial Experience, Chapter 107).


    In 1838-1839 land speculation was rife in South Australia and while it was normally the prerogative of the wealthy class it also encompassed some of the working class who had been persuaded to purchase small parcels of land at an exorbitant price, paid for in weekly instalments. On many occasions they were left lamenting when with a payment or two to go they had no ready cash and were obliged to relinquish their land and thus lose hard-earned savings.

    Unemployment and Destitution

    The words "pauper" and "destitute" are all but synonymous but the former was rarely used in the early days of South Australia for, in England, it referred to a person in receipt of Poor Law relief and such a person was disbarred from applying for free emigration.

    Following Governor Gawler's recall and the institution of his successor's harsh fiscal policy a depression settled over the colony causing widespread unemployment and misery. With neither a poor house nor any system of parochial relief for its indigent poor, coupled with Governor Grey's policy towards the unemployed, it remained for the Church to provide some measure of temporary relief.

    Accordingly, The South Australian Philanthropic Institution was founded in August 1841 with, paradoxically, the Governor as Patron! A year later the president was pleased to report that, in total, the sum of 82 had been distributed to needy persons one of whom was a poor widow who had been "seized for a few shillings due for rent, and that the expenses incurred by levying the distress had trebled the original amount" - the institution then "immediately stepped forward and caused the widow's heart to rejoice." The Adelaide Benevolent and Strangers' Friend Society was formed in 1850 and the New Benevolent Society in 1858.

    The founders of South Australia in England realised that many immigrants could be subjected to periods of temporary unemployment and, accordingly, in 1838 Governor Gawler received certain instructions:

    Governor Grey viewed this edict with some concern and considered that the destitute should be treated no differently from a British pauper; he then urged labourers to seek work in the country and tried to reduce the wages paid to those who chose to remain. Alarmed at these measures representatives of the Working Men's Association marched to Government House and presented a petition:

    The Governor nonchalantly responded by docking them a day's pay! Difficulties in defining the bounds for "destitution" prompted the promulgation of regulations in 1842:

    These stipulations, together with other measures, proved successful and "by January 1843 the Governor was able to report that, apart from the hospitalised destitute, there were no demands being made upon the government for assistance, and all the men formerly employed on public works had taken private employment. However, Grey received no thanks; he was abused, harassed and threatened with impeachment by the colonists, and his superiors in London considered that he had acted weakly by condoning a system of public charity to undeserving pauper migrants."

    By 1849 the legislature had authorised the formation of a Destitute Board and two years later plans were drawn up for a Destitute Asylum in what is modern-day Kintore Avenue. The Board's duty was not to administer charity, but to avert actual starvation. The interests of humanity were, however, too strong and it practically administered "charity" but "not of an excessive character".

    However, there were some aspects of its operations which perturbed the local press:

    Before the coming of organised unions, in times of depression and unemployment the working class of the colony invariably sought redress by organising public meetings of dissent. In September 1851 a number of artisans, mechanics and labourers held a mass meeting when several of them recited their grievances; eg, a Mr Malthouse, a mason of Hindmarsh, said he had a wife and seven children and they all would have starved but for the credit he had been able to obtain and that was now all but exhausted. Their subsequent protest to the government met with editorial support from the Register, the Editor of which protested against the edict of "going to the country" to seek work:

    Just prior to an election in 1854 the unemployed gathered on "the north side of the footbridge" and decided that the labour question should be kept prominently before the candidates and to "elect no man as their representative who was opposed to their interests." "there was a painful earnestness and an eloquence higher than that of mere words in the rough, rugged and often ungrammatical pleadings of the men who stood up to tell the simple tale of their sorrows."

    A deputation met the Chief Secretary who made a most revealing statement when he declared that he would speak for himself and his colleagues and declare "that they had been quite unaware of the deep distress existing."

    The Honourable, the Chief Secretary, was uninformed because the daily press was full of complaints at the time; indeed, his colleague, John Colton, MP, said only two months later that while there were those who pleaded for cheap labour, the cottages in which the poorer class lived were generally very inferior and very dirty, and yet the rents were higher and ought to be reduced:

    Further, only one month after the Chief Secretary made his profound statement the editor of the Register castigated the government:

    Riots in the City Streets

    By 1870 it was apparent that this situation had not improved and unemployment agitation assumed "new and more exciting" phases. On 28 February 1870 the Commissioner of Public Works offered, through a deputation, to employ those who wished to work in trenching the New Asylum paddock at piece work rates. This proposal did not satisfy the men at the time and on the following Tuesday a crowd "consisting chiefly of strong, healthy-looking, able-bodied labourers" gathered outside the Treasury Buildings.

    It was soon evident that they were in an angry mood and twenty policemen were summoned; they had no sooner arrived when the men, including many from Thebarton, invaded the building and "commenced ascending the staircase, shouting, howling and vowing vengeance upon the Government." The policemen formed a cordon and attempted to clear the passages when a number of public servants came to their assistance and "by sheer strength [they] succeeded in expelling labourers and the police indiscriminately, and then all the doors were securely bolted."

    "Exasperated at the defeat of their attempt to gain the presence of the Ministers, the assemblage endeavoured to hustle the Commissioner of Public Works; the Commissioner of Police interposed and Mr Colton judiciously retired. Mr Hamilton, as a precautionary measure, then sent for a body of the mounted police." By midday there were over 200 labourers present together with a "large concourse of spectators" who jammed the footpaths avidly awaiting further developments.

    Finally, the men decided to rush the stores and about 100 of them "formed in rough order in the middle of the street" but with a sudden change of heart they "betook themselves to the vacant space on the Town Hall Acre where one of their number, taking his stand on a mud-cart, harangued them in language which evidently met with general approbation." He said that they were ready to work but that 1/10 (18 cents) a day was insufficient to meet the needs of themselves and families for it would barely suffice to buy food let alone rent, firewood and other necessaries.

    "Amidst general cheering he advised all pick and shovel men to get their tools, collect [sic] at one o'clock, and demand work or bread.' The mob then dispersed and vowed to return in the afternoon. At 1.30 they gathered and marched towards the Treasury where "more than a score of policemen essayed to hold the steps against them" only to be pushed aside and "a most vigorous effort was made to drive into the Treasury door, which shook before the pressure brought to bear against it."

    A melee ensued, the police drew their truncheons and mounted troopers arrived at the gallop and "speedily cleared the pavement..." The men then reassembled "opposite the old and new Post-Office buildings"; stones were propelled and nearby shopkeepers put up their shutters, arrests were made and the fracas continued; finally, order was restored by the police aided and abetted by "peaceable citizens".

    Soup Kitchen for the Destitute

    To alleviate the hunger among many unemployed a soup kitchen was opened in 1870 in the Servants' Home in Hanson Street and became well patronised but there were complaints forthcoming because members of the Catholic community complained of it being open on a Friday "which is observed as a fast day"!

    Those responsible for the largesse dispensed at the kitchen quickly responded:

    The establishment comprised a kitchen with a large copper capable of holding about 150 quarts, and in this 120 lbs. weight of bones (in bags) and 30 lbs. of solid meat (in bags) were placed, added to which there were 30 gallons of water, six bunches of carrots, three bunches of turnips, a few celery tops, and some peas or onions. Thanks to the generosity of a kindly gentleman, bacon was also used for he kindly donated one hundred-weight - it was used sparingly to enrich the soup!

    The meat was on the boil from about 11 o'clock in the morning to 10 o'clock at night, and the vegetables were not put in until the following day - the day of issue. The fat skimmed from the boiler was turned into first class dripping, and sold in quantities of half-pounds to each applicant at the rate of threepence per pound. About 15 pounds of dripping were obtained from each boiling and there was always a ready sale for it.

    Mrs Stapley was in charge of this operation and had a wonderful faculty for economising and utilising the materials at her command. For instance, she would take the refuse beef and bacon after the boiling was completed, and with the aid of pepper and salt and a little spice she made very good potted meat, which was sold for two-pence per cupful.

    The kitchen did not pay, each quart of soup costing about 1 d. and being sold for 1d. The loss was made up for by private benevolence, but it was satisfactory to know that the kitchen was a great boon to deserving families. The system of relief was to issue tickets at one penny each, entitling the holder to one quart of soup, and anyone was at liberty to purchase these tickets, and sell them or give them away to persons in needy circumstances.

    The name of every individual to whom soup was issued was entered in a book and when it was known that help was being given to people in full work the supply was stopped. In April 1870 the average daily issue was from 110 to 120 quarts and the excellence of the soup was undoubted.

    General Notes

    "The Labouring Emigrants" is in the Register,
    21 August 1841, page 2d; also see
    18 and 25 September 1841, pages 3c and 2d,
    16 October 1841, page 2c.

    "Regulation of the Price of Labour" is in the Southern Australian,
    10 August 1841, page 2d; also see
    5 September 1843, page 2a,
    17 May 1844, page 2c.

    Comments on "The Labour Market" are in the Observer,
    29 July 1843, page 4b,
    5 and 12 August 1843, pages 4c-7c, and 7b,
    23 November 1844, page 5a,
    5 February 1845, page 5,
    24 May 1845, page 2a,
    6 September 1845, page 5c,
    7 February 1846, page 6a,
    11 and 18 February 1846, pages 2d and 3a,
    3 April 1847, page 2b,
    7 August 1847, page 5b,
    28 June 1851, page 2b,
    "Labour and Wages" on
    21 November 1846, page 2c; also see
    5 and 9 December 1846, pages 2d and 3a-b.

    The Masters and Servants Act is discussed in the Southern Australian,
    27 October 1840, page 3b,
    10 April 1847, page 2a:

    Also see Register,
    14, 17, 21 and 28 April 1847, pages 2e, 2e, 3b-c and 2e,
    1 and 8 May 1847, pages 2e and 1d-e,
    16 October 1847, page 5b,
    13 July 1878, page 2g.
    Also see Port Adelaide - Industrial Relations.

    An objection by German migrants to the provisions of the act is in the Observer,
    24 April 1847, page 4c.
    For further comment on the Act see Register,
    23 October 1847, page 2e,
    6 and 17 November 1847, pages 3b and 3c,
    24 January 1849, page 4a,
    South Australian,
    13 and 16 April 1847, pages 2d and 3a-4a,
    14 May 1847, page 2f.
    "The Masters and Servant Bill" is in the Observer,
    22 June 1878, page 10f; also see
    14 April 1898, page 2h.

    The conditions of the working classes in England and in South Australia are compared in the South Australian,
    16 September 1845, page 2d,
    "Education for the Working Classes" on
    21 October 1845, page 4a,
    "Supply of Labour" on
    27 November 1846, page 5c.

    "The Famine Crisis in Ireland - The Labour Crisis in the Australian Colonies" is in the South Australian,
    6 July 1847, page 2d; also see
    17 August 1847, page 2e.
    Also see South Australia - Immigration - Migrants - Irish.

    "The Claims, The Interests and the Duties of the Working Class" is in the SA Gazette & Mining Journal,
    27 January 1849, page 4c.

    "The Rights of Labour" is in the Register,
    15 November 1848, page 2b,
    "The Employers and the Employed" on
    2 March 1850, page 2e:

    "Capital and Labour" is discussed in the Register,
    7 May 1850, page 2d,
    8 May 1854, page 2c,
    "Labour in South Australia" on
    25 December 1850, page 3a.

    "The Labouring Classes" is in the Adelaide Times, 26 June 1851, page 3b:

    "Moral Responsibility of Employers" is in the Register, 14 June 1851, page 2b:

    "The Labour Office" is in the Observer,
    7 February 1852, page 6b,
    "The Labour Question" in the Register, 15, 21 and 24 September 1853, pages 2c, 3d and 3b,
    3 October 1853, page 3c,
    24 and 27 January 1854, pages 2f and 3e,
    22 February 1854, page 2g,
    11 March 1854, page 6a,
    4 April 1854, page 2e,
    4, 5, 7 and 13 October 1854, pages 2c, 2d, 2e and 2c,
    14 November 1854, page 2d,
    31 January 1855, page 2d,
    3 May 1855, page 2d,
    15 March 1856, page 8a,
    27 September 1858, page 3e,
    9 October 1858, pages 5e-7c,
    23 April 1859, page 6b,
    7, 9, 12, 13 and 14 April 1859, pages 3a, 3a, 3g, 2f and 2f,
    28 June 1859, pages 2f-3f,
    25 and 27 July 1859, pages 3g and 2g,
    4 April 1859, page 2e.

    Also see Register,
    10 August 1859, page 2g,
    19, 21 and 29 June 1861, pages 2f, 2h and 2h,
    1 August 1861, page 2f,
    4, 11 and 17 December 1861, pages 2g, 2f and 2f,
    12 April 1862, page 3a,
    21 and 28 December 1861, pages 6f and 5a.

    "Public Work and Wages" is in the Register
    on 23 January 1854, page 2f.

    "Condition of the Working Class" is in the Register,
    10 August 1858, page 2b (supp.).

    "The Unemployed" is in the Register,
    25 July 1855, page 2e,
    "Unemployed Labourers" on
    12 March 1859, page 2f; also see
    16 April 1859, pages 3c-6a.

    "The Employment of Labour" is in the Observer,
    27 October 1855, page 6c,
    "The Employment of the People" on
    10 May 1856, page 6e.

    "Wages and Food" is in the Observer,
    26 June 1858, page 6e.

    "Employment of Surplus Labour" is in the Observer,
    14 January 1860, page 6e.

    The Saturday half-holiday movement is reported upon in the Register,
    11, 15 and 18 August 1860, pages 3h, 2g and 3f,
    3 December 1862, page 2f,
    19 and 20 December 1870, pages 5a-d and 6f
    6 December 1862, page 1g (supp.).

    Under the heading "Labour and Study" the Register of 15 February 1862, page 2f says:

    "Industrial Societies Bill" is in the Observer,
    6 August 1864, page 6b.

    "Important Working-Class Movement" is in the Observer,
    31 December 1864, page 4h,
    "Cooperation Amongst Working Men" on
    11 February 1865, page 6a.

    "On Strikes" is in the Observer,
    8 April 1865, page 1d (supp.); also see
    15 April 1865, page 1c (supp.),
    "Strikes" in the Observer,
    16 January 1869, page 13d,
    3 April 1879, page 3a,
    14 February 1880, page 2d.
    An editorial on strikes is in the Advertiser,
    20 August 1879, page 4e.

    "Trade Strikes and Lockouts" is in the Advertiser,
    19 August 1886, page 4f,
    "Strike Violence" on
    7 May 1897, page 4i,
    "The Right to Strike" on
    6 December 1902, page 6d.

    "Strikes and Lockouts" in The Herald,
    23 March 1907, page 3a,
    "Industrial Unrest" on
    29 June 1907, page 1a,
    "Strikes and Labour Difficulties" on
    15 August 1891, page 4f,
    "Strike Violence" in the Advertiser,
    7 May 1897, page 4i,
    "Strikes" in the Register,
    18 November 1909, page 6c,
    "Arbitration or Strikes" on
    13 November 1913, page 6c.

    "The Right Sort of Labour" is in the Register,
    12 April 1865, page 2b,
    "Labor, Employment and Capital" in the Advertiser,
    1 November 1865, page 2c.
    The rights of capital and labour are discussed in the Express,
    18 January 1868, page 2b,
    10 January 1872, page 2c,
    Weekly Herald,
    22 May 1896, page 4a.

    "The Labour Question" is in the Observer,
    7 July 1866, pages 6c-2e (supp.).

    "Public Works and the Labour Question" is in the Observer,
    7 and 14 July 1866, pages 1b (supp.) and 4h (supp.).

    A discussion on the "government stroke" is in the Observer,
    30 March 1867, page 6f,
    5 and 22 December 1879, pages 7b and 6f.

    "The Protectionist and the Working Man" is in the Register,
    23 April 1867, pages 2b-3a.

    "A Labour Test for the Unemployed" is in the Register,
    24 June 1867, page 2d,
    "Work for the Unemployed" on
    4 July 1867, page 2c,
    "Workers Loss of Wages" on
    18 July 1867, page 2b.

    "Defrauding Workmen of Their Wages" is in the Register,
    7 March 1867, page 2c,
    9 March 1867, page 6c,
    6 April 1867, page 6d.

    A Labour Test for the Unemployed" is in the Observer,
    29 June 1867, page 6e.

    "Scarcity of Employment" is in the Register,
    29 and 30 July 1867, pages 2c-f and 3f,
    5 and 12 August 1867, pages 2h and 2d.

    "Intercourse Between Masters and Workmen" is in the Register, 17 April 1868, page 2d:

    "The Education of the Working Classes" is in the Register,
    21 July 1868, page 2d.

    "Trades Union" is in the Express,
    18 May 1869, page 2a.

    "The Seven Shillings a Day Question" is in the Observer,
    21 August 1869, page 12g.

    For an interesting dissertation on the "Conditions of the Working Classes in the Bush" see Register,
    13 and 21 December 1869, pages 3a and 2f.

    "The Great Labor Question" is in the Express,
    12 January 1870, page 2b.

    "The Government and the Unemployed" is in the Observer,
    5 March 1870, page 12f.

    "Wage Rates in South Australia" is in the Observer,
    8 and 15 February 1873, pages 9b and 4c,
    15 March 1873, page 13g.

    "A Deficient Labour Supply" is in the Observer,
    8 March 1873, page 12g.

    "The Factory System" is in the Observer,
    29 March 1873, page 13c,
    "Factory Girls" on
    5 April 1873, page 12g.
    Also see South Australia - Women - Industrial Relations.

    "Capital and Trades Unions" is in the Express,
    5 September 1874, page 2b.

    The "Labour Question" is in the Register,
    16, 17 and 19 February 1874, pages 4e, 5a and 5b,
    3 March 1874, page 7c,
    "Working Men's Association" on
    28 August 1876, page 7b,
    "Trade Unions" on
    13 September 1876, page 4e - and on the same day, supplement, page 1a:

    Also see Express,
    1 September 1876, page 2c,
    16 September 1876, page 17g,
    18 and 19 September 1876, pages 4f and 5f,
    4 and 6 October 1876, pages 2c (supp.) and 1c (supp.),
    24 June 1880, page 4d.

    A comment on Trades Unions is in the Express,
    13, 19, 21 and 27 September 1876, pages 3d, 3a, 3f and 3e,
    15 November 1876, page 3c,
    20 October 1877, page 4d.

    "Employers and Workmen" is in the Register,
    8 November 1878, page 4f; also see
    9 and 11 November 1878, pages 5e and 4c,
    16 January 1879 (supp.), page 1c,
    20 January 1879 (supp.), page 1f.

    "Labour and Capital" is in the Farmers Weekly Messenger,
    27 November 1874, page 8d,
    25 January 1879, page 10b,
    12 April 1879, page 6e; also see
    16 and 26 April 1879, pages 7a and 1g (supp.),
    30 December 1884, page 4f,
    6 September 1886, page 6c,
    23 July 1888, page 4h,
    4 December 1888, page 7c,
    15 and 17 May 1889, pages 7h and 6h,
    15 July 1889, page 7h,
    11 February 1890, page 3g,
    30 November 1895, page 9h;
    a lecture on "Labour and Capital" by Mr P.M. Glynn is in the Advertiser,
    13 December 1892, page 7c; also see
    The Herald,
    24 August 1907, page 7a.

    Reduction of wages in the boot trade is discussed and debated in the Register,
    8, 10, 12, 15, 16, 21, 28 and 29 May 1879, pages 5c-6f, 5d, 5a, 5c, 4d-5b-6a, 5c, 6d and 5g,
    30 and 31 May 1879, pages 7b,
    6, 16 and 24 June 1879, pages 7g, 4f and 4g.

    "Machinery and Labour" is in the Register,
    20 May 1879, page 4e,
    "Contractors and Workmen" on
    29 September 1879, page 4c.

    "Socialism and Communism" is in the Register,
    14 March 1881, page 4f.
    "Socialism and Labour" is in the Register,
    30 March 1886, page 4h,
    Also see South Australia - Politics - Socialism.

    "A Fair Day's Wage for a Fair Day's Work" is in the Register,
    21 May 1881, page 4f.

    "The Dignity of Labour and Thrift" is in the Observer,
    24 June 1882, page 33a.

    "The Working Men of South Australia" is in the Register,
    2 September 1882, pages 4g-6d,
    "The Supply of Labour" on
    20 and 21 September 1882, pages 4d and 4e,
    "Trade Unions and Long Hours" on
    23 November 1882, page 4f,
    "Working Men and Politics" on
    11 December 1882, page 4f; also see
    13 January 1883, page 4g.

    "Long Hours of Labour" for railway porters is discussed in the Register,
    17 January 1883, page 4e and
    22 January 1883 (supp.), page 1a,
    while "The Labour Question" appears on
    8 February 1883, pages 4d-5g.

    "The Labour Market and Immigration" and "Labour and Wages" are discussed in the Register,
    23, 25 and 26 June 1883, pages 4e, 7c, 6b-c,
    "The Labour Market" in the Observer,
    23 February 1884, page 24c.

    "The Dearth of Employment" is in the Register,
    21 August 1883, pages 4f-6f,
    25, 27 and 28 February 1885, pages 4e-5h-6f, 4e and 4f,
    3 March 1885, pages 4f-7g.

    A proposed working men's club is discussed in the Register,
    23 October 1883, pages 4f-6b; also see
    1 and 4 December 1885, pages 7e and 7g,
    18 November 1886, page 4g.

    A cartoon on a bakers' strike is in The Lantern,
    10 May 1884, page 1.

    "The Labour Difficulty" is in the Register,
    20, 21, 22, 27, 28 and 30 May 1884, pages 4e-6a, 6b, 2c (supp.), 7h, 6d and 4d-6c,
    2, 6 and 12 June 1884, pages 3g, 7g and 7e-g,
    19 July 1884, pages 4f-6g.

    "The Depression and its Remedy" is in the Register,
    4 and 8 October 1884, pages 4h and 2c (supp.); also see
    9 August 1886, page 5a,
    26 August 1886, page 3h.

    "Trades Unions and Their Benefits" is in the Observer,
    6 December 1884, page 33a.

    The Trades and Labour Council is reported upon in the Register
    on 30 May 1885, page 4g.

    "Freaks of Labour" is in the Observer,
    9 January 1886, page 25c.

    "The Protection of Labour" is in the Registeron
    17 April 1886, page 4g:

    "The Government and the Unemployed" is the subject of comment and debate in the Register,
    27 and 30 March 1886, pages 4g-5b-6b and 4g-7a,
    1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13 and 15 April 1886, pages 6g, 6b, 4g-6e-7c, 5b-d-6a, 3h-4g-7e, 5b-6d, 5b, 4f and 3e.

    "Arbitration in Industrial Disputes" is in the Register,
    28 June 1886, page 4g; also see
    2 November 1891, pages 4e-6g,
    8 December 1891, page 4f,
    23 September 1892, page 4f,
    3 and 13 December 1892, pages 4f and 4e,
    23 February 1893, pages 4f-6h,
    4 and 27 September 1894, pages 4f and 5a,
    9 October 1894, page 4f,
    11 and 31 January 1895, pages 4e and 4g,
    9 April 1895, page 4e,
    12 June 1903, pages 4c-7e.

    Boards of Conciliation are discussed in the Register,
    28 March 1888, page 4f,
    18 October 1892, page 6f,
    4 April 1896, page 4d; also see
    3 July 1894, page 4f,
    12 February 1895, page 5b,
    9 and 18 April 1895, pages 4e and 4f,
    4 April 1896, page 4g,
    11 June 1896, page 4g,
    31 August 1896, page 4e,
    4 November 1896, page 7f,
    20 July 1903, page 4d.

    "What Has Trades Unionism Accomplished?" is in the Register,
    14 and 16 September 1886, pages 7g and 7h.

    "The State Board of Conciliation" is in the Advertiser,
    11 January 1895, page 4e.
    "Trades Unions and the Conciliation Act" is in the Register,
    18 April 1895, page 4f.

    An editorial on the "strained relations" between the Trades and Labour Council and employers is in the Register,
    20 August 1888, page 4f.

    "An Australian Labour Federation" is in the Register,
    22 October 1888, page 4f.

    "Women's Trade Unions" is in the Express,
    14 October 1889, page 2b,
    "The Hard Lifes of Working Women" on
    17 October 1889, page 3a; also see
    15 January 1890, page 3f,
    15 January 1890, pages 4g-6e,
    19 February 1890, page 5c.
    Also see South Australia - Women - Industrial Relations.

    A proposal by George W. Cotton, MLC, to create a Department of Labour is commented upon in the Advertiser,
    25 November 1889, page 4c.

    "Profit Sharing" is in the Express,
    5 February 1890, page 6b,
    "Cooperation, Strikes and Profit Sharing" in the Register,
    23 March 1896, page 4e,
    "The Old and New Unionism" on
    20 September 1897, page 4e.

    "Butchers' Hours of Labour" is in the Register,
    5, 11 and 18 February 1890, pages 5b, 6e and 6g,
    6 March 1890, page 5a.

    "Settling Trade Disputes" is in the Register,
    6 and 18 February 1890, pages 4e and 4h,
    "The Abuse of Unionism" on
    15 August 1890, page 4f:

    "Labour Victories and Labour Troubles" is in the Register,
    1 September 1890, page 4d.

    "The Abuse of Unionism" is in the Observer,
    23 August 1890, page 25c,
    20 September 1890, page 42a.

    "The Old and New Unionism" is in the Register,
    12, 13 and 16 September 1890, pages 4g-6h, 7b and 6h-7c,
    15 and 27 October 1890, pages 6a and 6d,
    17 November 1890, page 6c,
    15 December 1890, page 4e.
    "A Reminiscence - New Unionism Proposal in 1890" is in the Register,
    11 July 1912, page 8f.

    "To the Men on Strike" is in the Register,
    27 October 1890, (supp.),
    "The Great Strike of 1890" on
    15, 18 and 22 November 1890, pages 5h, 6a and 6a.

    "Employer and Employed - Present Relations" is in the Observer,
    14 February 1891, page 33d.

    The first annual conference of the General Labourers' Union is reported in the Observer,
    14 February 1891, page 34d.

    "Industrial Disputes" is in the Observer,
    15 August 1891, page 24d.

    "Unionists V Non-Unionists" is in the Observer,
    10 and 17 October 1891, pages 31e and 32a.

    "Wages of Men and Women" is in the Register,
    2 May 1892, page 4f.

    A lecture on "Conciliation" is reproduced in the Express,
    24 October 1892, page 3f.

    "Industrial Disputes" is in the Register on
    12 August 1891, page 4f,
    14 August 1912, page 6c,
    "Industrial Disputes" in the Advertiser,
    7 July 1904, page 4d.

    "The Representation of Labour" is discussed in the Register on 16 February 1892, pages 4f-6d:

    "Recent Strikes and the Lessons They Teach" is in the Observer,
    27 February 1892, page 37c.

    The Factory and Shop Commission is discussed in the Register,
    14 April 1892, page 4f and
    "Wages of Men and Women" on
    2 May 1892, page 4f.

    "The Coercion of Trades Unions" is in the Register,
    5 November 1892, page 4f,
    "Work and Wages" on
    19 May 1893, page 4e.

    "Work for the Unemployed" is in the Register,
    18 July 1893, pages 4h-6b,
    "The Unemployed Problem" on
    19 January 1894, page 4f and
    "The Unemployed, in Government and the Public" on
    5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17 and 21 February 1894, pages 4f, 6b, 4h-6b, 6c, 4g, 4g, 6c, 4f-7d, 4g, 6c and 6d,
    15 October 1896, page 4e.

    "Public Work for the Workless" is in the Advertiser,
    22 January 1900, page 4d,
    "Political Economy and the Unemployed" on
    17, 18 and 22 February 1904, pages 4b-7i, 9a and 9b.
    Also see Adelaide - Destitution.

    "The Labor Problem" is in the Advertiser,
    27 March 1894, page 4c.

    "The Employers' Liability Bill" is in the Advertiser,
    31 October 1894, page 4d,
    7, 13 and 23 November 1894, pages 4e-7a, 3f and 7a,
    17 August 1895, page 4e.

    "Labour and Journalism" is in the Register, 21 February 1895, page 4e:

    "The Living Wage" is discussed in the Advertiser,
    11 and 15 January 1894, pages 3f and 4e,
    4 November 1895, page 5g,
    The Herald,
    21 December 1907, page 4a.

    "Day versus Contract Labor" is in the Advertiser,
    13 and 27 January 1894, pages 4g and 4e.

    "The Factories Act and Labour Disputes" is in the Register,
    28 March 1895, page 4d.

    "Back From New Australia [Mrs Cameron and children]" is in the Register,
    1 and 2 April 1895, pages 5c and 4g.

    "The Tannery Dispute and the Conciliation Board" is in the Register,
    19 April 1895, page 4f.

    "Machinery and Manual Labour" is in the Register,
    30 May 1895, page 4f,
    17 June 1895, page 4e,
    "An Effect of Bootmaking Machinery" on
    6 February 1896, pages 5g-6f.

    "The Minimum Wage Question" is discussed in the Observer,
    14 March 1896, page 41e,
    11 August 1900, page 24d,
    2 March 1896, page 4d,
    6, 8 and 23 October 1906, pages 10a, 6i and 6g,
    "A Minimum Wage - A Dangerous Scheme" on
    7 and 9 August 1900, pages 4c and 5i,
    "Address on the Minimum Wage" on
    6, 8 and 23 October 1906, pages 10a, 6c and 6g; also see Advertiser,
    6 and 8 October 1906, pages 11b and 8h.

    "The State Board of Conciliation" is in the Register,
    4 April 1896, pages 4g-6c.

    "The Factory Inspector's Report" is in the Register,
    2 October 1896, pages 4g-7c.

    "The Factories Act" is discussed in the Advertiser,
    2 October 1896, pages 4i-6c,
    24 July 1897, page 4f,
    5 and 7 July 1898, pages 7a and 6e,
    18 and 24 November 1899, pages 10a and 4e;
    "Our Factories - The Annual Report" on
    4 July 1900, page 8a.

    "Factories and More Laws!" is in the Observer,
    25 November 1899, page 41a.

    Compulsory arbitration is discussed in the Weekly Herald,
    15 July 1899, page 3b,
    24, 29 and 31 August 1922, pages 7b, 7g and 7g,
    2, 11, 15 and 18 September 1922, pages 10f, 11f, 12h and 9b.

    The Workmen's Compensation Bill is discussed in the Observer,
    3 December 1898, page 24e,
    "Compensation to Workmen" in the Advertiser on
    6 September 1898, page 4f,
    14 October 1898, page 5h; also see
    29 November 1898, page 4f,
    17 October 1899, page 4f,
    8 August 1900, page 7b,
    27 September 1900, page 4d,
    28 and 31 May 1901, pages 3d and 6g,
    1 June 1901, page 9a,
    14 August 1906, page 6b,
    22 October 1924, page 11d,
    The Herald,
    27 July 1907, page 2c,
    9 November 1907, page 4a.

    Appeals to the Supreme Court in respect of workers' compensation are discussed in the Advertiser,
    28 November 1902, page 7f,
    6 December 1902, page 8h; also see
    17 August 1906, page 4c,
    7 August 1907, page 6b,
    30 November 1908, page 4c,
    29 September 1909, page 4c,
    2 October 1909, page 15g,
    25 August 1910, page 4c,
    29 November 1911, page 14d,
    8 December 1911, page 15c.

    "Factories and Fashions" is in the Register,
    20 July 1900, page 4d,
    "The Factory Bill" on
    22 October 1900, page 4e.

    "Factory Legislation" is in the Advertiser,
    10, 20 and 28 July 1900, pages 4d, 4d and 9c,
    26 October 1900, page 4e,
    6 August 1901, page 4c,
    1 October 1902, page 6c,
    24 November 1904, page 6d,
    7 August 1905, page 4c,
    29 August 1906, page 8b,
    28 December 1906, page 5g,
    27 November 1907, page 8c,
    11 April 1908, page 10f,
    8 December 1910, page 11f.

    "Industrial Legislation" is in the Register,
    26 November 1900, page 4c,
    1 December 1900, page 25b.

    "Ramifications of the New Factory Act" is discussed in the Register,
    14, 15 and 16 January 1901, pages 4c-6i, 3g and 7e.

    "Factory Legislation" is in the Register,
    21 August 1901, pages 4d-6f.

    "The New Factories Bill" is in the Register,
    22 November 1907, page 4c,
    3 December 1907, pages 6c-9d.

    "Factories Act and Laundries" is in the Advertiser,
    5, 12 and 30 June 1909, pages 13e, 11i and 7e.

    "Work and Wages" is in the Advertiser,
    28 May 1897, page 4f,
    "Trades Unionism and Industrial Anarchy" on
    3 and 4 September 1897, pages 6e and 4e,
    "Public Works for the Workless" on
    22 January 1900, page 4d.

    "A Minimum Wage - A Dangerous Scheme" is in the Register,
    7 August 1900, page 4c,
    11 August 1900, page 24d.

    "The Factory Acts and the Wages Boards" is in the Register,
    31 July 1901, page 4c.

    Information on Wages Boards is in the Register,
    14 and 23 October 1901, pages 7h and 4d,
    19 November 1901, page 4f,
    14 December 1901, page 8h,
    17 and 25 September 1902, pages 4b and 4c,
    12 June 1903, page 3f,
    23 and 24 November 1904, pages 6e and 5b,
    3 October 1905, pages 4f-8g,
    The Herald,
    15 April 1905, page 6d,
    23 December 1905, page 9a,
    3 and 11 October 1905, pages 4f-8g and 3f,
    22 November 1905, page 4f,
    30 June 1906, page 6f, 14,
    14, 16 and 17 August 1906, pages 6c, 4c and 9h.
    Photographs of the members of the first Wages Boards are in the Chronicle,
    6 July 1907, page 30,
    24 August 1907, page 31.

    Also see Advertiser,
    28 August 1906, page 6d,
    24 December 1906, page 4e,
    1 February 1907, page 6b,
    23 and 24 May 1907, pages 4b and 4i,
    18 September 1907, page 6c,
    4 September 1908, page 4d,
    3 and 23 May 1907, pages 4d and 4b,
    The Herald,
    25 May 1907, page 6b,
    23 September 1908, page 6c,
    5 November 1908, page 8d,
    10 and 17 November 1908, pages 4c and 4d,
    28 June 1909, page 8g,
    13 and 19 October 1909, pages 8e and 4b,
    10 December 1909, page 7a,
    1 February 1910, page 10g,
    11 October 1910, page 4b.

    "Capital and Labour" is discussed in the Register,
    28 September 1903, page 4c:

    "The Leap in the Dark - Preference to Unionists" is in the Register,
    2 August 1904, page 4c,
    "Preference to Unionists" is in the Register,
    31 October 1911, page 6b,
    14 November 1911, page 11g,
    28 July 1914, page 6c.

    "Freedom of Contract" is in the Advertiser,
    8 April 1905, page 6d:

    "The Worker and the Cost of Living" is in the Register,
    10 July 1905, page 4b.

    "How Some Working Men Suffer" is in the Advertiser,
    22 August 1905, page 4e,
    "Unemployment and State Aid" in the Register,
    16 January 1906, page 4c.

    "The Labour Market" is discussed in the Register,
    15, 17, 18, 19 and 21 June 1907, pages 9e, 5a, 3b, 7b and 6e.

    "Class Against Class" is in The Herald,
    20 July 1907, page 6c,
    "The Court and Wages" on
    19 December 1908, page 1a.

    "The Unemployed" is in the Register,
    24 March 1908, page 4b.

    "Unionism" is in the Register,
    4 May 1909, page 7c.
    A cartoon is in The Critic,
    22 February 1911, page 3.

    "Blow to Workers - Effect of Wages Boards" is in the Register,
    28 June 1909, page 8g,
    "Wages Boards" on
    19 October 1909, page 4b.

    "Employer and Employee" is in the Register,
    23 March 1908, page 3e,
    "What is a Living Wage" on
    28 July 1909, page 6c,
    "Strained Industrial Relations" on
    23 December 1909, page 6c,
    "Men and Machinery" on
    6, 15 and 16 April 1910, pages 6d, 4c and 15g,
    "A Fair Day's Work" on
    1 August 1910, page 6c.

    "What Is a Living Wage?" is in the Observer,
    31 July 1909, page 33d.

    "Who Rules Adelaide" is in the Register,
    14 October 1910, pages 6c-7f:

    "Anarchy in Adelaide" is in the Register,
    14 December 1910, page 6c; also see
    15, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22 and 23 December 1910, pages 6c, 6c, 14d, 6c, 4c, 4c and 4c.

    "Industrial Arbitration" is in the Register,
    7 November 1911, page 6c,
    12 December 1911, page 6e,
    17 October 1912, page 6c.

    "The Unemployed Bogey" is in the Register,
    14 May 1912, page 4e.

    "Workers and Industrial Peace" is in the Register,
    19 November 1912, page 6e,
    "Piecework or Daywork" on
    19 November 1913, page 12e.

    "Men and Machinery" is in the Register on
    10 January 1914, page 12f,
    "Strikes in Wartime" on
    29 October 1915, page 6c,
    "Workers and Wages" on
    3 November 1915, page 6c,
    "Selfish Strikers" on
    7 December 1915, page 6d.

    "Labour Unrest" is in the Register,
    24 February 1916, page 4c,
    "Industrial Unrest" on
    19 April 1916, page 4c,
    "The Right to Strike" on
    28 June 1916, page 6c,
    "An Industrial Cancer" on
    27 July 1916, page 4c.

    "State Employees and Arbitration" is in the Register on
    1 August 1916, page 4d,
    "The Strike Mania" on
    10 November 1916, page 4c,
    "The Reform of Unionism" on
    30 November 1916, page 4c.

    "Workers and Education" is in the Register,
    17 April 1917, page 4d,
    "Unionism and Industry" on
    30 May 1917, page 6b,
    "Enemies Within the Gates" on
    13 and 14 August 1917, pages 4b and 5c,
    "A Cure for Industrial Unrest" on
    5 August 1918, page 6b.

    "Arbitration Courts" is in the Register,
    6 July 1917, pages 4b-6f.

    "Workers and Wealth" is in the Register,
    13 August 1918, page 4b,
    "Conscription and Unionism" on
    19 August 1918, page 4b,
    "Towards Industrial Harmony" on
    1 November 1918, page 4b,
    "Production and Pay" on
    2 December 1918, page 4b.

    "One Big Union" is in the Register,
    15 January 1919, page 6b,
    10 February 1919, page 4h,
    "Less Work for More Pay" on
    24 February 1919, page 4b,
    "Wage Earner's Trials" on
    11 April 1919, pages 6c-7c.

    "Cost of Living" is in the Advertiser,
    28 June 1919, page 6h,
    6 August 1919, page 6f.

    "Strikes and Anarchy" is in the Register on
    10 June 1919, page 6b,
    "Wages and Profiteering" on
    12 June 1919, page 6b, "Men, Women and Guns" on
    23 August 1919, page 6b,
    "The Right to Loaf" on
    6 September 1919, page 8b.

    "Industrial Peace and Progress" is in the Register,
    17 September 1919, page 6c,
    "Industrial Welfare" on
    26 November 1919, page 6b,
    "Employers and Employed" on
    15 January 1920, page 6c,
    "The Workers' Outlook" on
    16 January 1920, page 6d.

    "Forty Hours a Week" is in the Observer,
    17 April 1920, page 27e,
    "Forty-Hour Week" in the Register,
    9 June 1926, page 8d,
    The News,
    28 September 1936, page 4c.

    "The 44-Hour Week" is discussed in the Register,
    14 July 1925, pages 8c-9c,
    29 September 1925, page 8c,
    22 September 1926, page 12d,
    28 February 1927, page 8d,
    10 September 1925, page 12f,
    13 January 1926, page 8d,
    14 and 19 July 1927, pages 13d and 12e,
    4 November 1927, page 12h,
    19 March 1931, page 9f.

    "Loafing for a Living" is in the Register on
    3 and 6 May 1920, pages 6d and 3e,
    "Work, Wages and Families" on
    26 June 1920, page 6f,
    "Wages and Work" on
    9 July 1920, page 6c,
    "Commonsense and Wages" on
    9 August 1920, page 4d.

    "Employers in a Quandary" is in the Register,
    7 October 1920, page 6d,
    "Humanizing Industry" on
    8 November 1920, page 6d,
    "Wages, Waste and Work" on
    8 December 1920, page 6c.

    "Wages and Cost of Living" is in the Advertiser,
    25 November 1920, page 6e,
    "Work and Wages" on
    1 February 1921, page 4b,
    2 June 1921, page 6e.

    "Present Day Unionism" is in the Register,
    16 and 17 January 1921, pages 9g and 3g,
    "The Unemployed" on
    1 July 1921, page 4e,
    "Out of Work" on
    23 June 1922, pages 6d-7d.

    "The Problems of Industry" is in the Advertiser,
    21 and 24 June 1921, pages 6f and 7a,
    "Work and Wages - What is Today's Problem?" on
    30 January 1922, page 7a.

    A series of articles on industrial arbitration commence in the Advertiser on
    23 August 1922, page 7d and continue on a regular basis until
    25 September 1922, page 11c.

    "The Australian as a Worker" is in the Register,
    19 January 1924, page 12e.

    "The Unemployment Problem" is in the Advertiser,
    14 July 1924, page 8f,
    6 August 1924, page 15a,
    "A Solution to the Problem" on
    14 August 1924, page 12b.

    "A Union of Employers" is in the Register,
    24 October 1924, page 8e,
    "Arbitration for Everybody" on
    29 October 1924, pages 8d-10a.

    "Arbitration and Government Servants" is in the Advertiser,
    4 December 1924, page 21d.

    "Compulsory Unionism" is in the Register,
    17 December 1925, pages 8b-9c,
    "Industrial Disputes - Methods of Settlement" on
    2 August 1926, page 11d.

    "Industrial Arbitration" is in the Advertiser,
    3 March 1927, page 15f.

    Internecine trouble within the hairdressing industry is discussed in the Register,
    19 July 1927, page 8c under the heading "The Barber Kept Shaving":

    "Union Tyranny" is in the Register,
    24 August 1927, page 8c,
    "Work and Wages" on
    1 November 1927, page 8c.

    "Shorter Hours and Unemployment" is in the Advertiser,
    10 November 1927, page 12h.

    "Militant Unemployed - Treasury Building Stormed" is in the Register,
    29 November 1927, page 11a.

    "Industrial Strife and the Christian Spirit" is in the Advertiser,
    29 March 1929, page 8g:

    "Trade Unionism Endangered" is in the Advertiser,
    1 September 1930, page 8d,
    "Industrial Arbitration" on
    15 October 1934, page 15d.

    Also see South Australia - The Depression Years - 1930 to 1936.

    Industrial Relations - Choose again