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Manning Index of South Australian History
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    South Australia - Banking and Finance

    General Finance


    Adelaide Coins - Outline of Old History

    (Taken from Geoffrey H.Manning's A Colonial Experience)


    Recently, a curious exhibition was placed in the Public Art Gallery. It was a reminder of a time when money was scarce in South Australia, although gold was plentiful - one of the most singular paradoxes in history. The display was a a collection of Adelaide 'sovereigns', or 1 tokens, coined in 1852, with the dies in striking these and the 5 tokens, authorised under the Bullion Act.

    The object of their being on view was the outcome of an intimation made to the Public Library Board by the president, Mr W.J. Sowden, who mentioned that 1 June would be the jubilee year of the day when the late Robert Kay began his duties as secretary of the SA Institute, on which the Public Library Board was founded.

    Mr Kay, whose death occurred on 24 April 1904, when a young man, was engaged as an assistant at the Government Assay Office when the SA 'sovereigns' and tokens were coined. He used to explain that the convexity of the local sovereigns was due to the fact that, for want of the proper stamping machinery, a heavy road roller had to be used in their production.

    A Backward Glance

    In our modern times it is not easy to imagine the difficulties which had to be overcome by the pioneers of Australia in many of the sudden emergencies that occurred. The quickest return communication with the homeland - with favourable winds both ways - made it a matter of six months or more before help could be sought and obtained from England.

    Probably, it was largely this fact that imbued the first settlers with the resourceful mind for which following generations have become noted. New South Wales, or Botany Bay - as it was then best known - had not long been settled before a financial problem had to be settled in a remarkable way. There were many sorts of foreign currency in circulation, owing to the ships of various nations calling at Port Jackson, and traders found great difficulty in calculating change owing to the diverse values recognised for the same coins.

    To bring to an end the chaos, in 1800 Governor King issued a proclamation announcing that the following coins were to be legal tender for the amounts set opposite them: Guinea, 22 shillings; Johanna, 4; half-Johanna, 2; ducat, 9/6; pagoda, 8/-; Spanish dollar, 5/-; rupee, 2/6; Dutch guilder, 2/-; English shilling, 1/1; new copper coin of 1 ounce, 2d.

    Events in South Australia

    The Bank of SA began business in Adelaide in 1837 in a primitive building. On one occasion three quarter-casks of pennies came out from England and were placed outside the back door for want of room. An idea got abroad that the casks contained silver and some person or persons rolled a cask around the corner of King William Street, where it was broken open, or rather scuttled, in a part of the local scrub.

    The result was a disappointment, as the pennies were old and heavy, and could not be pocketed in sufficient quantity to pay the dishonest prospectors. The scattered content of the cask was abandoned and when the robbery was discovered and the broached cask found, the head clerk had to undertake the tedious cask of counting the pennies - about 50 worth.

    Towards the close of 1851 the exciting news of the gold discovery in Victoria caused a large exodus to the new diggings, which increased during the earlier months of 1852. All the coastal vessels bound for Melbourne were crowded with passengers, while thousands trudged with wheel-barrow or swags, or travelled overland in carts, to the goldfields. Men of all classes joined in the wild rush for wealth, and those who took part in the overland trip recall that along the roads through the Adelaide hills impedimenta of all kinds - stores, flour, tools and other things - were dropped on the way lest the travellers should be outstripped by their fellows. Trade was paralysed and houses were deserted and a local versifier of the day wrote a topical skit on 'The last man in Thebarton' whom a woman, so the story went, 'chained to a table to preserve one male protector in the district!'

    There was a run on the banks early in 1852 and the gold in nuggets, dust or bullion returning from Victoria was not legal tender. It was bought on the diggings as low as 2/16/- an ounce and sent to London to be sold at 4. In the crisis unusual steps were needed to avert financial disaster.

    On 13 January 1852, the Colonial Secretary, B.T. Finniss, asked the manager of the three banks in Adelaide for their opinions on a proposal emanating from local traders, for the establishment of an assay office in Adelaide to receive, assay, melt and coin or stamp the gold brought in. Mr George Tinline, then acting manager of the Bank of South Australia, supported the scheme and recommended a temporary mint in connection with the assay office.

    The Chamber of Commerce stepped in with a request for the immediate summoning of the Legislative Council (then the only House) to deal with the subject. It met on 28 January 1852 and on the same day the historic Bullion Act (No.1 of 1852) entitled 'An Act to provide for the assaying of uncoined gold and to make banknotes under certain conditions of legal tender.' On 4 February 1852 a notice was issued that the Treasury would receive gold dust in parcels of not less than 20 ounces; on the first day it received 2,910 ounces and on the second, 951 ounces.

    The first issue of 1 tokens was made on 26 November 1852 and the coinage ceased in the following February and, in that time, 24,648 of this value was coined. It is said that the 5 dies were used for the production of only six tokens; no dies were made for the other values authorised. The original die for one side of the 'sovereigns' having been cracked was soon withdrawn and that fact has made the earlier specimens of the tokens more uncommon.

    In the gold rush days the demand for bank notes was so great that they had to be printed in ordinary type in South Australia. For additional security against forgery the directors, as well as the manager and accountant signed the notes which were issued to the tellers with the ink scarcely dry. Unfortunately, they were numbered in red ink and this gave great trouble in passing them for cancellation through the books, as the ink was obliterated by perspiration dropping from the furrowed brows of the busy workers.

    South Australia was not without several other peculiar expedients to supply circulating media. In 1855 Tilley Cooke had a small number of copper pieces struck, about the size of a farthing. Their inscription on one side only was brief: 'Hindmarsh Hotel, Pirie St., 4d.' No doubt, as people were then as thirsty as they are today, customers were not long in liquidating their change in a manner satisfactory to the inn-keeper.

    Another novelty was the issue by Mr Congrave, an upholsterer, of the little round pieces of leather, used in the trade, as pence and half-pence, the values being stamped on the pieces. Besides these, currency notes were issued for 2d by a few persons in 1852 and other years.

    An old colonist once said that even at such a well-known grocery establishment as that of Mr P. McRostie in Rundle Street, a customer purchasing a small article would tender a note for a few pence issued by, say, a leading draper, and receive in exchange another written note for the amount on its face, less the purchase of the moment, and signed by the shopkeeper, no coin passing in the transaction.

    "Note Currency in the Past" is in the Advertiser,
    8 January 1915, page 8i.
    The issue of bank notes is discussed in the Observer,
    25 April 1868, page 9e.

    "Bank-Note Circulation" is in the Register,
    19 August 1865, page 2e.
    Imitation one pound notes are discussed in the Register,
    24 and 29 October 1881, pages 5a and 5a,
    12 and 14 December 1881, pages 5a and 4f,
    29 October 1881, page 34a,
    5 November 1881, page 36a.

    "Issue of Deceptive Notes" is in the Express,
    24 October 1881, page 3c.
    Forged Bank of Adelaide notes are reported upon in the Register,
    5 November 1891, page 4h,
    7 November 1891, page 31c.

    "The Banknote Tax" is in the Observer,
    23 August 1902, page 34a; also see
    11 October 1902, page 33e.
    "The Eventful History of Bank Notes" is in The Mail,
    5 August 1933, page 17.

    General Notes

    The financial position of the colony is discussed in the Southern Australian,
    12 February 1841, page 2e.

    A plethora of bankruptcies in the early 1840s caused the term "bolters" to be used in respect of those citizens departing the colony without paying their debts. Under the heading "The Adelaide Bolters" the Register printed a poem on 11 March 1843, page 3c which reads in part:

    For a factual example of a "bolter" and his apprehension see Register,
    3, 7, 10, 17 and 25 June 1843, pages 3b, 2d, 3a, 3b and 2f,
    6 September 1843, page 2e; also see
    20 January 1851, page 3e.
    A list of insolvents from June 1841 appears on
    22 November 1843, pages 2e-3; also see
    16 December 1846, page 4d for the ensnarement of another "bolter" and
    21 November 1846, page 4,
    2 January 1847, page 5b,
    23 September 1848, page 2e,
    15 March 1856, page 2h.

    "Insolvency Returns" is in the Observer,
    23 May 1868, page 12b,
    "Fraudulent Insolvents" on
    20 June 1868, page 12a,
    "Insolvency Codes" on
    29 August 1868, page 4.

    "A Swindling Bolter Caught" is in the Observer,
    8 May 1869, page 5a,
    12 February 1870, page 3e; also see
    8 and 29 April 1871, pages 2f and 7d,
    "The Insolvency Laws" on
    10 October 1874, page 13e,
    "An Extraordinary Insolvency case" in the Observer,
    17 May 1879, page 13d,
    "Absconding Debtors" in the Express,
    26 April 1871, page 2b,
    3 February 1883, page 5b.

    "Post Office Money Orders" is in the Register,
    23 July 1855, page 2e,
    "Money Orders" in the Register,
    3 June 1857, page 2c,
    1 December 1862, page 2e,
    2 January 1863, page 2g.
    Also see Communications

    "Money-Order System" is in the Register,
    3 October 1860, page 2g,
    5 October 1861, page 1b (supp.); also see
    8 March 1862, page 8c,
    6 December 1862, page 6c.
    An extension of the money order system to South Australia is discussed in the Advertiser,
    12 November 1862, page 3a.
    "Money Orders and Bank Notes" is in the Register,
    19 April 1869, page 3b,
    24 April 1869, page 11f,
    25 July 1874, page 2b.

    "Counterfeit Sovereigns" is in the Register,
    26 June 1856, page 2g,
    17 July 1856, page 3e.
    "Gold Tokens" is in the Observer,
    30 January 1869, page 10f,
    "The Adelaide Sovereign" is in the Express,
    5 December 1907, page 4g.

    "Silver Coin as Legal Tender" is in the Register,
    25 June 1860, page 3c.
    "Silver Coinage" is in the Register,
    24 May 1860, page 2f,
    16 September 1871, page 7g,
    16 November 1898, page 4e,
    "Worn Coin" in the Observer,
    9 October 1869, page 3b,
    "Colonial Coinage" in the Chronicle,
    10 October 1863, page 6b.

    "Silver and Copper Coinage" is in the Observer,
    15 January 1870, page 3g,
    "Silver Coinage in Australia" in the Register,
    18 July 1892, page 4g,
    5 September 1892, page 4g.
    "Mints and Gold Coinage" is in the Register,
    3 August 1899, page 4g.
    Copper coinage is discussed in the Observer,
    23 December 1876, page 14a.

    "Life Assurance" is in the Observer,
    31 May 1851, page 7c,
    "Life Insurance" in the Register,
    17 February 1865, page 2b,
    4 March 1865, page 6e.

    "Life Assurance for the Working Classes" is in the Register,
    30 December 1867, page 2d; also see
    6 March 1869, page 11f,
    16 August 1869, page 2c,
    28 August 1869, page 1f (supp.).
    Photographs of life assurance managers of the 1870s are in the Observer,
    12 January 1929, page 38.

    A lecture on life assurance and comment thereon is in the Observer,
    21 August 1869, pages 10d-13a,
    28 December 1872, page 11b; also see
    13 May 1882, page 5c,
    23 November 1882, page 4d,
    24 May 1884, page 4e,
    23 August 1884, page 24e,
    8 February 1887, page 4d,
    28 and 29 March 1887, pages 4e and 6c,
    5 and 16 April 1887, pages 6a and 6c,
    19 October 1889, page 54c,
    22 April 1892, page 4e,
    4 May 1892, page 4d,
    23 September 1893, page 25b.
    "Some Life Assurance Facts" is in the Observer,
    20 May 1893, page 13d,
    "State Life Assurance" in the Register,
    30 June 1894, page 4f.

    The "Employment of Capital" is in the Register,
    20 December 1852, page 3a.

    The need for the introduction of English capital is discussed in the Register,
    24 April 1858, page 2c.

    "Credit" is in the Observer,
    31 July 1858, page 6d,
    "Borrowed Capital" on
    31 July 1858, page 6d.

    "Inter-Colonial Free Trade" is in the Observer,
    12 March 1859, page 6c,
    "Free Trade" on
    24 December 1859, page 6a,
    25 February 1860, page 5e.

    "The New Solvency Bill" is in the Observer,
    2 and 16 July 1859, pages 6b and 5b.

    "Neglected Sources of Wealth" is in the Register, 5 April 1860, page 2f.

    "Fire Insurance" is in the Observer,
    1 December 1860, page 6c,
    "State Fire Insurance" in the Register,
    26 July 1898, page 4d,
    21 September 1898, page 3h,
    19 and 28 October 1898, pages 7d and 6c.
    "State Insurance" is in The News,
    19 August 1924, page 11e,
    5 November 1924, page 10f,
    26 September 1924, page 8e,
    21 January 1925, page 9d.
    See Adelaide - Fires and the Fire Brigade.

    "Dangerous Currency" is in the Register on
    7 June 1861, page 2h,
    "Legal Tender" in the Advertiser,
    11 June 1860, page 2f.

    "Commercial Morality" is discussed in the Register,
    27 February 1862, page 2g,
    24 March 1862, page 2e,
    17 June 1868, page 2c,
    25 December 1875, page 5b.

    The "Adelaide Wesleyan Penny Bank" is reported upon in the Express,
    11 January 1864, page 2d,
    25 July 1864, page 2d,
    29 October 1864, page 2d,
    Register on
    29 October 1864, page 2f,
    4 November 1865, page 2e,
    3 November 1866, page 2d.
    A proposal to establish "penny banks in connection with post offices and schools" is traversed in the Advertiser,
    24 September 1885, page 4e; also see
    14 August 1886, page 30b,
    9 October 1886, page 36d.

    "Colonial Bonds" is in the Observer,
    24 February 1866, page 6e.

    "The Protection of Shareholders" is in the Register,
    5 May 1869, page 2d,
    "Sworn Brokers" on
    29 May 1869, page 3c.

    "The Shameful Monopoly [of a Gas Company]" is in the Observer,
    31 July 1869, page 12c.

    "The New Fiscal System" is in the Observer,
    26 March 1870, page 2g,
    "Inter-Colonial Free Trade and Responsibility" on
    18 June 1870, pages 10 and 13a,
    12 August 1871, page 13d,
    9 September 1871, page 12c,
    "Border Duties" on
    3 February 1872, page 13c,
    17 January 1874, page 13e.

    "The New Tariff" is in the Observer,
    10 and 17 September 1870, pages 4e and 9g; also see
    15 October 1870, page 13f.

    "The Moral of Insurance Balance Sheets" is in the Observer,
    20 August 1870, page 13b.
    Information on and sketches of an "Insurance Conspiracy Case" are in Frearson's Weekly,
    18 March 1882, pages 89 and supplement; also see
    29 July 1882, page 34c.

    "The Late Under-Treasurer", William S. Hutton, is in the Observer,
    3 December 1870, page 8d.

    "Dividend-Paying Companies" is in the Chronicle,
    4 January 1873, pages 8b-9c.

    "The Border Duties Question" is in the Observer,
    24 May 1873, page 4b,
    7 and 14 June 1873, pages 3g and 2g.

    "Inter-Colonial Free Trade" is in the Observer,
    20 June 1874, page 9a,
    18 September 1875, page 10e.

    A description of a typewriter used in Mr G.W. Cotton's office is in the Observer,
    18 September 1875, page 7c; also see
    3 June 1876, page 20e.
    A description of a typewriter is in the Observer,
    18 September 1875, page 7c; also see
    3 June 1876, page 20e,
    4 and 12 June 1897, pages 5c and 5c,
    12 February 1898, page 5b (Remington),
    25 June 1898, page 5f.
    See Adelaide - Newspapers - Newspaper Vendors and Almanacs.

    "Imperial Claims Against South Australia" is in the Observer,
    16 June 1877, page 18a.

    "The Working Classes and Friendly and Cooperative Societies" is in the Advertiser,
    4 September 1879, page 7f.

    "The Money Market" is in the Observer,
    12 February 1881, page 276d.

    An editorial on the Trustees, Executors and Agency Company (Limited) is in the Advertiser,
    17 March 1880, page 4d.

    "The Insurance Conspiracy Case" is in the Observer,
    6 May 1882, page 34b.

    "Public Companies and Their Promoters" is in the Chronicle,
    27 May 1882, page 4c.

    "Business Prospects" is in the Register,
    25 May 1883, page 4c.

    Information on token coins circulated in SA is in the Register,
    10 July 1883, page 6d,
    8 September 1909, page 6f,
    21 June 1911, page 6g,
    23 and 28 January 1918, pages 8e and 6e,
    7 February 1918, page 4e.

    "Adelaide Coins - Outline of Old History" is in the Register,
    1 June 1909, page 5a.
    "The Half-Crown - Proposed Abolition" is in the Observer,
    31 July 1909, page 51d.
    "Adelaide Coin Collection [of Mr A. Chitty]" is in the Register,
    5 January 1912, page 6f,
    "Australian Coinage - 100 Years" is in the Register,
    19 July 1913, page 17g.
    An editorial on the time-payment system is in the Advertiser,
    11 January 1884, page 4d; also see
    10 and 11 January 1884, pages 2c and 3c.

    "A National Crisis" is in the Register, 24 August 1885, page 4g.

    An annual general meeting of the Adelaide Society of Accountants is reported in the Register,
    28 November 1885, page 5a,
    31 January 1891, page 6g,
    30 January 1893, page 3h,
    1 February 1894, page 6d,
    24 January 1895, page 7e,
    "Institute of Accountants" is in the Register,
    26 March 1900, page 3f,
    4 March 1901, page 8d; also see
    20, 22 and 26 July 1905, pages 3h-4e, 6h and 7d.

    "Accountancy as a Profession" is discussed in the Advertiser,
    19 January 1901, page 8d.
    Problems associated with accountancy examinations are traversed in the Advertiser,
    7 June 1905, page 4c,
    26 July 1905, page 6f.
    A photograph of members of the Commonwealth Institute of Accountants is in the Chronicle,
    5 June 1926, page 40.
    "Public Accountants - Royal Charter Explained" is in the Register,
    7 and 10 July 1928, pages 9c and 10 (photo.),
    7 August 1928, page 11f.

    A letter written by a clerk is in the Express,
    16 December 1885, page 7d.

    "Finances of the Colony" is in the Register on
    30 April 1886, page 6f and
    1 May 1886, page 4e.

    "The AMP Society and Its Management" is in the Register,
    8 June 1886, page 7f.

    "Remedies for the Commercial Depression" is in the Advertiser,
    17 and 29 June 1886, pages 3g and 4f.

    A poem titled "The Money Lender" is in The Lantern,
    23 October 1886, page 19.
    See South Australia - Miscellany - Pawnbrokers.

    "The Financial Position" is in the Register,
    10 February 1887, page 4e.

    A poem titled "The [Debt] Collector" is in The Lantern,
    27 August 1887, page 19.

    A presentation to James Kirker, insurance company secretary, is reported in the Register,
    15 December 1888, page 5c.

    "Liability of Directors and Promoters" is in the Register,
    12 July 1890, page 5a,
    22 September 1890, page 4e.

    A memorial to J.H.H. Vakins is discussed in the Observer,
    15 August 1891, page 31b.

    An obituary of R.E. Tapley, the founder of Mutual Insurance Company in 1846 is in the Observer,
    13 June 1891, page 31a,
    of George Boothby on
    8 July 1893, page 30c,
    of William Main on
    23 October 1897, page 13b,
    of Frederick Wright on
    14 April 1900, page 28d,
    of Thomas Gill, senior, on
    10 January 1903, page 34a.

    Biographical details of H.C.E. Muecke are in the Observer,
    20 November 1897, page 16d.

    Colonial borrowings are discussed under the heading "Wanted to Borrow" in the Register,
    20 November 1891, page 4e; also see
    9 March 1892, page 4d.

    "Bimetallism" is discussed in the Register,
    6 and 9 June 1893, pages 7a and 6e,
    11, 12, 18 and 29 August 1893, pages 7a, 7e, 4g and 4g-7d,
    12 and 14 June 1894, pages 4f and 4f-7e,
    6 June 1893, page 7a,
    2, 12, 18, 19, 22 and 30 August 1893, pages 6c, 5h, 6e, 6a, 6g and 4f,
    18 and 29 September 1893, pages 7e and 3f,
    27 December 1893, page 5c,
    18 and 23 April 1894, pages 6d and 6f,
    20 September 1894, page 7b,
    26 December 1894, page 5f,
    9 and 18 January 1895, pages 4e and 5a,
    29 September 1896, page 4f,
    3 October 1896, page 41a,
    22 April 1897, page 4c.

    "Currency and Labor" is in the Advertiser,
    27 November 1893, page 6d.

    "Company Legislation" is in the Observer,
    16 March 1895, page 7c.

    An obituary of W.A. Cawthorne is in the Observer,
    2 October 1897, page 35d,
    of John Henderson on
    26 September 1903, page 34c.

    "Audits and Auditors" is in the Observer,
    12 February 1898, page 41a.

    An obituary of Joseph Herring (AMP Society) is in the Observer,
    18 February 1899, page 15b.

    Information on the Adelaide Cooperative Society is in the Weekly Herald,
    3 and 17 June 1899, pages 3b and 3a.
    Biographical details of one of its founders, George Thompson, are in the Observer,
    22 November 1913, page 34d.

    "Some Cases of Usury" is in the Register,
    9 November 1899, page 6c.

    An obituary of W. Liston, accountant, is in the Observer,
    17 August 1901, page 32b.

    An editorial headed "Company Directors on the Rack" is in the Register,
    10 May 1894, page 4g:

    The arbitration of commercial disputes is discussed in the Advertiser,
    4 September 1894, page 4c.

    "The Credit Foncier Bill" is in the Advertiser,
    14 and 29 November 1894, pages 4e-5h and 4f; also see
    5 and 8 March 1895, pages 4d and 6e,
    17 July 1895, page 4e,
    19 and 21 August 1895, pages 6e and 4e.

    An obituary of Charles Edlin is in the Observer,
    12 January 1895, page 16a,
    biographical details of H.D. Gouge, Public Actuary, on
    28 March 1896, page 16d,
    of W.L. Ware on
    18 April 1896, page 16a,
    of George W. Cooper on
    19 May 1906, page 38a.

    An Inscribed Stock Bill is discussed in the Advertiser,
    16 October 1895, page 4f.

    "Protection for Borrowers" is the subject of an editorial in the Advertiser,
    3 April 1900, page 4d,
    4 December 1900, page 4e,
    "False Description" of goods for sale on
    29 July 1901, pages 4c-9a; also see
    8 August 1901, page 4d.

    "A Lovely Wildcat - How Syndicates are Started" is in the Register,
    20 November 1903, page 5e.

    "Failure in Business - How to Avoid" is in the Register,
    21 January 1907, page 4b.

    "The Purchasing Power of the Penny - A Study in Prices" is in the Observer,
    13 June 1908, page 50c.

    A photograph of a combined banks tennis team is in The Critic,
    31 March 1909, page 11,
    of a football team on
    3 September 1913, page 13.

    "Children, Money and Character" is in the Register,
    15 December 1909, page 6d.

    "Problems of Prosperity - Prices and Population" is in the Register,
    19 March 1910, page 6h.

    The reminiscences of Mr L.A. Jessop are in The Mail,
    20 September 1913, page 8d.

    A photograph of members of the Stock Exchange Rifle Club is in the Register,
    2 March 1915, page 8,
    2 March 1915, page 1.

    Information on Bennett & Fisher Ltd is in the Observer,
    3 May 1919, page 31e.

    An obituary of Mr W.L.Ware is in the Observer,
    8 October 1921, page 20b,
    of Mr E. Allnutt on
    16 December 1922, page 35b,
    of A.L. Chapman on
    2 August 1924, page 38b,
    of W.S. Esau, accountant, on
    7 January 1928, page 50b.

    "Victims of Bogus Agents - Partnership Frauds" is in The Mail,
    14 January 1922, page 2d,
    22 April 1922, page 2d.

    An obituary of E.A.D. Opie is in the Observer,
    21 July 1923, page 35a.

    "Evolution of Trade Settlements" is in the Observer,
    16 February 1924, page 19d.

    "Money Lenders' Legislation - Alleged Victimisation by Usurers" is in the Observer,
    27 September 1924, page 18a.

    "Money Lending" is in the Register,
    19 September 1924, page 8d,
    "Money Lenders - To Protect the Ignorant and Innocent" in the Advertiser,
    19 and 22 September 1924, pages 15d and 8e.
    See South Australia - Miscellany - Pawnbrokers.

    "The Gold Standard" is in the Advertiser,
    8 April 1925, page 17c,
    "Loans and the Gold Standard" on
    16 May 1925, page 12i,
    "Labor and the Gold Standard" on
    20 May 1925, page 8i; also see
    4 September 1925, page 12h.

    An obituary of J.R. Corpe is in the Observer,
    12 September 1925, page 27d,
    of Sir George Brookman on
    25 June 1927, page 48c.

    "Can Business Men be Christians" is in the Register,
    23 April 1926, page 14d.

    Biographical details of W.W. Carter of the Executor Trustee Co. are in the Observer,
    1 January 1927, pages 19c-37a
    an obituary of Howard Davenport on
    29 October 1927, page 48a.

    "Lay By and Cash Order Schemes" is in The Mail,
    14 May 1927, page 1a,
    10 September 1927, page 11d,
    "Cash Orders" in the Advertiser,
    7 September 1927, page 16e,
    9 September 1927, page 8b,
    The News,
    22 October 1927, page 4c,
    9 September 1927, pages 8b-13c,
    2 November 1927, page 7d,
    14 January 1928, page 9f,
    20 June 1928, page 12d.

    "Overspending by People - Hire-Purchase System" is in The News,
    2 August 1927, page 9a,
    "Hire Purchase - Its Uses and Drawbacks" in the Advertiser,
    21 June 1928, page 8f.

    A photograph of the Public Accountants' State Council is in the Observer,
    14 July 1928, page 10.

    "New Premises for Cash Orders Ltd" is in The News,
    1 and 9 October 1928, pages 9g and 5f.

    "Making Office Work Easy - Ingenious Machines Lighten Tasks" is in The News,
    15 January 1930, page 10c.

    "Empire Currency - Gold or Sterling" is in The News,
    13 April 1932, page 6d.

    "When SA Issued Her Own Currency" is in The News,
    23 September 1936, page 6f.

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